by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550
This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...
Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:
त एव हि त्रयो लोकास्त एव त्रय आश्रमाः ।
त एव हि त्रयो वेदास्त एवौक्तास्त्रयोऽग्नयः ॥ २३० ॥
ta eva hi trayo lokāsta eva traya āśramāḥ |
ta eva hi trayo vedāsta evauktāstrayo'gnayaḥ || 230 ||
These have been declared to be the three regions, these the three life-stages, these the three Vedas and these the three fires.—(230)
Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):
What is stated here is on the understanding that there is no difference between the cause and its effects.
‘These have been declared to be the three regions,’—because they are the means by which one is enabled to reach the three regions.
‘These the three life-stages’—i.e., with the exception of the first, that of the Religious Student. The meaning is that the reward obtained by means of the three life-stages beginning with that of the Householder is obtained if these three persons are satisfied.
‘These the three Vedas’;—because service of them brings the same reward that is obtained by reciting the three Vedas.
‘These the three Fires’;—because the serving these brings the rewards that are obtained by the performance of acts done with the help of the three sacrificial fires.
This also is purely eulogistic.—(230)
Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha
‘Traya āśramāḥ’;—‘The last three, life-stages’; (Medhātithi and Govindarāja);—‘the first three life-stages’ (Kullūka, Nārāyaṇa and Nandana).
This verse is quoted in Smṛticandrikā (Saṃskāra, P. 95).
Comparative notes by various authors
Viṣṇu (31.7).—[Reproduces Manu.]
Mahābhārata (12.108.6).—(Same as Manu.)