Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi

by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550

This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:

अध्यापयामास पितॄन् शिशुराङ्गिरसः कविः ।
पुत्रका इति हौवाच ज्ञानेन परिगृह्य तान् ॥ १५१ ॥

adhyāpayāmāsa pitṝn śiśurāṅgirasaḥ kaviḥ |
putrakā iti hauvāca jñānena parigṛhya tān || 151 ||

The child Kavi, the son of Aṅgiras, taught his fathers; and having received and trained them by knowledge, he called them “little sons.”—(151)


Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):

The preceding verse has laid down the ‘fatherly treatment’ (of a youthful teacher); the present verse supplies, in its support, a descriptive eulogy of the kind called ‘Parakṛti.’ The ‘son of Añgiras,’—‘Kavi’ by name,—‘the child,’ youthful ‘His fathers’—i.e., his paternal and maternal uncles; the sons of these, and other elderly persons, equal (in dignity) to the father.


Whenever occasion arose for calling them, he called them with the words ‘little sons, come here.’

Having received and trained them’—i.e., having accepted them and made them his pupils.—(151)


Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha

Parigṛhya’—‘Having excelled’ (Nandana);—‘having received and trained’ (Medhātithi, Govindarāja, Kullūka, Nārāyaṇa and Rāghavānanda).

Pitṛn’—‘The Agniṣvāttas and the rest’ (Nārāyaṇa).

Burnell remarks that the sentiment here expressed, though supported by Baudhāyana, 1. 3. 47, is opposed to Āpastamba 1.13. 15.

This verse is quoted in Vīramitrodaya (Saṃskāra p. 480);—and in Parāśaramādhava (Ācāra, p. 305).

Medhātithi (p. 144, 1. 13)—‘Arthavādoyam parakṛtināmā’—There are several classifications of Arthavāda passages. The one referred to here is that into the four kinds—(1) ‘Stuti’ (2) ‘Nindā’, (3) ‘Parakṛti’ and ‘Purākalpa’—mentioned in the Nyāyasūtra of Gautama (2. 1. 65), under which Vātsyā-yana gives examples of each kind:—(1) ‘Stuti’, Valedictory—is the name given to that text which eulogises a certain injunction by describing the desirable results following from the enjoined act;—(2) the text that describes the undesirable results following from the act is willed ‘nindā’, ‘Deprecatory—(3) the text that describes a contrary method of action adopted by a certain person is called ‘parakṛti’, ‘illustrative—and (4) that which describes a method as adopted traditionally is called Purākalpa, ‘Narrative’.

Another classification of the Arthavāda is into three kinds—(1) Descriptive by indirect implication, (2) Descriptive by direct intimation and (3) Descriptive of an accomplished fact

The Mīmāṃsā-bāla-prakāśa (pp. 48-58) describes no less than 38 kinds of Arthavāda (see Prābhākara Mīmāṃsā, pp. 115-116)

This verse is quoted in Smṛticandrikā (Saṃskāra, p.93).


Comparative notes by various authors

(verse 150-154)

See Comparative notes for Verse 2.150.

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