Baudhayana Dharmasutra

by Georg Bühler | 1882 | 56,962 words

The prashnas of the Dharmasutra of Baudhayana consist of the Srautasutra and other ritual treatises, the Sulvasutra which deals with vedic geometry, and the Grihyasutra which deals with domestic rituals. The Dharmasutra of Baudhayana like that of Apastamba also forms a part of the larger Kalpasutra. Likewise, it is composed of prashnas which liter...

Praśna II, Adhyāya 4, Kaṇḍikā 7

1. Now, therefore, we will declare the rule for (performing) the twilight devotions.

2. Going to a (sacred) bathing-place, he shall bathe, in case he is impure; in case he is pure, he may, optionally, omit the bath. (But in either case) he shall wash his feet and hands. Sipping water and sprinkling himself, while he recites the (Rik-verses) containing the word Surabhi, the Abliṅgas, those addressed to Varuṇa, the Hiraṇyavarṇas, the Pāvamānīs, the (sacred syllables called) Vyāhṛtis, and other purificatory (texts), he becomes pure (and fit to perform the twilight devotions).[1]

3. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'Submersion in water (and) bathing are prescribed for all the (four) castes. But sprinkling (water over the body), while Mantras (are being recited), is the particular (duty) of the twice-born.'

4. He who sprinkles himself (with water) at the beginning of any sacred rite,--before the time of the twilight devotions,--while reciting that same collection of purificatory (texts), becomes pure.

5. Now they quote also (the following rules): Seated, with his face to the west, on Darbha grass and holding Darbha blades in his (right) hand, which[2] is filled with water, he shall repeat the Sāvitrī one thousand times;

6. Or (he may recite the verse) one hundred times, suppressing his breath;[3]

7. Or mentally ten times, adding the syllable Om at the beginning and at the end and the seven Vyāhṛtis.[4]

8. And if he is tired by three suppressions of his breath (performed) with (the recitation of) the (Anuvāka called) Brahmahṛdaya (the heart of Brahman, then let him repeat the Sāvitrī).[5]

9. In the evening he worships (the sun) with the two (verses) addressed to Varuṇa, 'Hear this my call, O Varuṇa,' and 'Therefore I go to thee.'[6]

10. The same (rules apply to the twilight devotion) in the morning, (but the worshipper) shall face the east and stand upright.[7]

11. In the day-time he worships (the sun) with the two (verses) addressed to Mitra, 'The glory of Mitra, who supports men,' and 'Mitra causes men to join.'[8]

12. Let him begin (the twilight devotion) in the[9] morning very early, and finish it when the sun has risen.

13. Let him begin (the twilight devotion) in the evening, when (the sun) has set, (and finish it) very soon after (the appearance of the stars);

14. And the complete observance of the twilight devotions (produces as its reward) an uninterrupted succession of days and nights.[10]

15. Now they quote with reference to this (subject) also the following two verses, which have been proclaimed by the Lord of created beings (Prajāpati) 'How can those twice-born men be called Brāhmaṇas who do not perform their twilight devotions, in the morning and in the evening at the proper time? At his pleasure a righteous king may appoint those Brāhmaṇas who neglect to daily perform the twilight devotions, both at morn and at eve, to do the work of Śūdras.'

16. If the time for the (twilight devotion) is allowed to pass in the evening, (the offender shall) fast during the night; and if it is neglected in the morning, he shall fast during the (next) day.[11]

17. He obtains (thereby) the (same) reward as if he had remained standing and sitting (in the twilight).

18. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'Whatever sin (a man) may have committed with his organ, with his feet, with his arms, by thoughts or by speech, from (all) that he is freed by performing the twilight devotion in the evening.'[12]

19. (The worshipper) becomes also connected (thereby) with the (next) night, and Varuṇa will not seize him.

20. In like manner he becomes free from the sin committed during the night by worshipping in the morning.[13]

21. He is also connected with the (next) day, Mitra protects him and Āditya leads him up to heaven.

22. It is declared in the Veda, 'A Brāhmaṇa who in this same manner daily worships in the twilight, both at morn and at eve and, being sanctified by the Brahman, becoming one with the Brahman, and resplendent through the Brahman, follows the rules of the Śāstra, gains the heaven of Brahman.'[14]

Footnotes and references:


7. 'A sacred bathing-place, i.e. a river or pond outside the village.'--Govinda. The same author adds that the hands must be washed as far as the wrist, that while sipping water the worshipper is to repeat in the evening, Taittirīya Āraṇyaka X, 31, and in the morning X, 32, and that if he bathes, Taittirīya Āraṇyaka X, 1, 12, and other texts must be recited. The Rik containing the word Surabhi is found Taittirīya Saṃhitā I, 5, 11, 4, 7; the three Abliṅgas, Taittirīya Āraṇyaka X, 1, 11; the four verses addressed to Varuṇa, Taittirīya Saṃhitā III, 4, 11, 4, and Taittirīya Āraṇyaka II, 4, 4. By the term Pāvamānīs the Pavamānānuvāka, Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa I, 4, 8, is meant.


The injunction to turn the face to the west refers to the evening prayer; see also below, Sūtra 10.


Govinda states that prāṇāyāmaśaḥ, 'suppressing his breath,' has in this Sūtra no technical meaning.


Govinda says that the order to be observed in this case is as follows: First the syllable Om is to be recited, next the seven Vyāhṛtis, beginning with Bhūḥ and ending with Satyam, then the Sāvitrī, and finally again the syllable Om.


The Brahmahṛdaya is Taittirīya Āraṇyaka X, 28. This Anuvāka may be repeated three times for each Prāṇāyāma (see Vasiṣṭha XXV, 13), or altogether nine times, and, if the worshipper is then tired, he may go on repeating the Sāvitrī without suppressing his breath.


Taittirīya Saṃhitā II, 1, 11, 6.


Gautama II. 11.


Taittirīya Saṃhitā III, 4, II, 5.


Very early, i.e. when the stars are still visible; see also Gautama II, 11, and note.


The day and night will not be cut off from his existence.


Vasiṣṭha XX, 4-5.


Vasiṣṭha XXVI, 2.


Vasiṣṭha XXVI, 3.


Brahman means here the Veda, the Sāvitrī, and the universal soul.

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