by Georg Bühler | 1882 | 56,962 words
The prashnas of the Dharmasutra of Baudhayana consist of the Srautasutra and other ritual treatises, the Sulvasutra which deals with vedic geometry, and the Grihyasutra which deals with domestic rituals. The Dharmasutra of Baudhayana like that of Apastamba also forms a part of the larger Kalpasutra. Likewise, it is composed of prashnas which liter...
1. (There are) eight marriage-rites.
2. If (the father) gives (his daughter) to a student (who has not broken his vow of chastity and) who asks for her, after fully enquiring into his learning and character, that (is) the rite .of Brahman (brāhma).
3. If (the father gives his daughter away) after clothing her and decking her with ornaments, (saying) 'That (is thy wife), fulfil the law (with her),' that (is) the rite of Prajāpati (prājāpatya).
4. If (the bridegroom) after offering the first burnt oblation of parched grain (receives the maiden) for a bull and a cow, that is the rite of the Ṛṣis (ārsha).
5. If (a maiden is given) to an officiating priest within the sacrificial enclosure, while the presents are being taken away, that (is) the rite of the gods (daiva).
7. (If the bridegroom receives the maiden) after gladdening (the parents) by money, (that is) the rite of the Asuras (āsura).
8. (If the maiden is wedded) after being forcibly abducted, (that is) the rite of the Rākṣasas (rākṣasa).
9. If one has intercourse with (a maiden) who is sleeping, intoxicated, or out of her senses (with fear or passion and weds her afterwards, that is) the rite of the Piśācas (paiśāca).
10. Among these (eight rites) the four first (named) are (lawful) for a Brāhmaṇa. Among these also each earlier named is preferable.
11. Among the (four) later (named rites) each succeeding one is more sinful (than the preceding ones).
12. Among these the sixth and the seventh agree with the law of the Kṣatriyas. For power is their attribute.
6. Vasiṣṭha I, 33,
7. Vasiṣṭha I, 35.
8. Vasiṣṭha I, 34.
9. Viṣṇu XXIV, 26.
10. Viṣṇu XXIV, 27.
12. Viṣṇu XXIV, 28; Vasiṣṭha I, 29, 34. The meaning of the last clause is that as, according to I, 10, 18, 3, Brahman placed power in the Kṣatriyas, they may adopt marriage rites by which a disregard of conventionalities or strength is displayed.
13. The fifth and the eighth (are lawful) for Vaiśyas and Śūdras.
14. For Vaiśyas and Śūdras are not particular about their wives,
15. Because they are allowed (to subsist by such low occupations as) husbandry and service.
16. Some recommend the Gāndharva rite for all (castes), because it is based on (mutual) affection.
Footnotes and references:
20. Viṣṇu XXIV, 17.
Vasiṣṭha I, 30. The word brahmacārin has, no doubt, as Govinda too contends, been used in the double sense of 'a student of the Veda' and 'chaste.'
Viṣṇu XXIV, 22.
Vasiṣṭha I, 32. 'After the first of the burnt oblations of parched grain, which are prescribed for weddings, has been offered, the bridegroom shall give to him who has power over, the maiden a bull and a cow, and receive them back together with the (bride).'--Govinda.
Vasiṣṭha I, 31. According to this rule the damsel is given p. 206 as part of the sacrificial fee (dakṣiṇā) to one of the priests after a sacrifice has been completed. Govinda adds that the recipient has to accept the gift with the six mantras, 'prajāpati striyāṃ yaśaḥ,' Taitt. Brāhmaṇa II, 4, 6, 5. In his commentary on the passage Sāyaṇa makes the same statement. Govinda adds that in this case as well as in those mentioned in the following Sūtras the regular marriage ceremony must be performed later.
'I.e. the fifth for Vaiśyas and the eighth for Śūdras.'--Govinda.
'Those whose spouse, i.e. wife, is not restrained, i.e. not fixed by rule, are called not particular about their wives. The meaning is that there is oneness (dāreshvaikyam) with respect to wives, that fixed rules regarding them there are none (niyamas teṣāṃ na bhavati).'--Govinda.
'"Husbandry" includes also trade and the like. Because those two (castes) are permitted to pursue low occupations, therefore their marriage rites are of the same description. That is what the author intends to say.'--Govinda.