Baudhayana Dharmasutra

by Georg Bühler | 1882 | 56,962 words

The prashnas of the Dharmasutra of Baudhayana consist of the Srautasutra and other ritual treatises, the Sulvasutra which deals with vedic geometry, and the Grihyasutra which deals with domestic rituals. The Dharmasutra of Baudhayana like that of Apastamba also forms a part of the larger Kalpasutra. Likewise, it is composed of prashnas which liter...

Praśna I, Adhyāya 6, Kaṇḍikā 13

1. The gods enjoy a pure sacrifice (only);[1]

2. For the gods are desirous of purity and (themselves) pure.

3. The following (Ṛc) declares that, 'To you, O Maruts, the pure ones, pure viands; to you, the pure ones, I offer a pure sacrifice. They who love the pious rites, who are of pure origin, (themselves) pure and purifiers (of others), came duly to the truthful (worshipper).'[2]

4. (He will be) pure (if there is) no blemish on his clothes, therefore let him perform all (acts) that are connected with sacrificing, (dressed) in unblemished clothes.[3]

5. The sacrificer and his wife as well as the officiating priests shall put on dresses which have been washed, and dried by the wind, and which are not in a bad condition.[4]

6. (It shall be) thus from the (beginning of the) Prakrama,[5]

7. And thus at the long Soma-sacrifices and the Sattras;

8. And (on other occasions other dresses must be used) in accordance with the injunction (of the Veda),

9. Thus at (all) Iṣṭis, animal sacrifices, and Soma-sacrifices which may be used as spells (against enemies), the priests shall perform (the sacred rites), wearing red turbans and red dresses; (when reciting the hymn seen by) Vṛṣākapi (he shall) wear a dress and a mantle of many colours and so forth.[6]

10. At the Agnyādhāna (sacrifice) the clothes (shall be made) of flax; on failure of such, (dresses) made of cotton or of wool are used.

11. Clothes defiled by urine, ordure, blood, semen and the like (shall be) cleaned with earth, water and the like.[7]

12. (Dresses) made of Tṛpa-bark and vṛkala (shall be treated) like cotton-cloth,[8]

13. Deer-skins like (dresses) made of bark.[9]

14. (Let him) not (use) a mantle which has been wrapped (round the loins, or) on which he has been lying (in his bed), without washing it.

15: Let him not employ for the gods anything used by men without beating it on a stone.[10]

16. If solid earth is defiled, (it must be) smeared with cowdung.[11]

17. Loose (earth must be cleansed by) ploughing,

18. Moist (earth) by bringing pure (earth) and covering (it with that).

19. Land is purified in four (ways), by being trod on by cows, by digging, by lighting a fire on it, by rain falling on it,

20. Fifthly by smearing it with cowdung, and sixthly through (the lapse of) time.

21. Grass placed on unconsecrated ground (must be) washed.[12]

22. (Grass) defiled out of one's sight, (shall be) sprinkled (with water).[13]

23. Small pieces of sacred fuel (shall be purified) in the same manner.

24. Large pieces of wood (must be) washed and dried.

25. But a great quantity (of wood shall be) sprinkled (with water).

26. Wooden vessels which have been touched by impure men (shall be) scraped;

27. (And) those which are defiled by stains of remnants (shall be) planed.[14]

28. (Wooden vessels) defiled by urine, ordure, blood, semen, and the like (very impure substances shall be) thrown away.[15]

29. These (rules must be followed) except in case a (special) injunction (is given);

30. Thus, for instance, (purification by) washing with Kuśa grass and water (is prescribed) on all the following (occasions, viz.) at the Agnihotra, the Gharmocchiṣṭa, the Dadhigharma, the Kuṇḍapāyinām Ayana, the Utsargiṇām Ayana, the Dākṣāyaṇa sacrifice, the Ardhodaya, the Catuścakra, and the Brahmandanas,[16]

31. (Again) at all Soma-sacrifices (the cups must be) cleaned with water only on (the heap of earth called) the Mārjāliya;

32. If these same (cups are defiled) by urine, ordure,[17] blood, semen, and the like (they must be) thrown away.

Footnotes and references:


-2. 13. See also above, I, 5, 10, 4. This Adhyāya and the next ought to have been given in the Śrauta Sūtra.


Rig-veda VII, 56, 12; Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa II, 8, 5, 5. The meaning of the last portion of the verse is somewhat doubtful. Sāyaṇa gives two different explanations and Govinda a third.


Govinda points out that the dresses of the sacrificer and of his priests must be white, because farther on (Sūtras 9-10) other colours are specially prescribed.


Govinda thinks that the word ca, 'as well as,' is intended to include the lookers-on.


Regarding the ceremony called Prakrama, literally 'stepping forward from the Gārhapatya fire,' see Sāyaṇa on Taitt. Br. I, 1, 4, 1. It opens the Agnyādhāna rite.


Govinda states that the words iti ka, and so forth,' are intended to include other incantations. The Vṛṣākapi hymn is found Rig-veda X, 86.


Govinda states that the word iti, 'and the like,' is intended to include cowdung, cow's urine, and other substances used for purification.


Govinda states that there is a tree called Tṛpa, the bark of which is used for dresses. Vṛkala, which has been left untranslated, is explained by śakama, a word which is not found in our dictionaries.


Govinda says that, as the treatment of valkala, bark-dresses,' has not been prescribed, the meaning of the Sūtra can only be, that bark-dresses and black-buck skins are to be treated alike, i.e. that they are to be cleaned with Bel-nut and rice; see above.


Govinda explains apalpūlitam by 'without beating it with the hand on a stone.' He mentions as an instance the skin which is used in preparing the Soma.


According to Govinda, solid earth is such on which the fire-altars are built.


E.g. grass intended for the barhis, if it has been placed on a spot which has not been sprinkled with water.


'Defiled out of one's sight,' i.e. brought by Śūdras.


Govinda says that this rule is optional.


Govinda adds that fuel, Kuśa grass, and the like, which have been defiled in this manner, must also be thrown away.


Regarding the Dadhigharma, a homa, see Vaitāna Sūtra 21,18; regarding the Kuṇḍapāyinām Ayana, Āśvalāyana Śrauta Sūtra XII, 4; and regarding the Dākṣāyaṇa sacrifice, a variety of the new and full-moon offering, Āśvalāyana II, 14. The Ardhodaya is possibly the vrata of that name mentioned in the Purāṇas, According to Govinda, the Catuścakra, which is otherwise known as a Tāntric rite, is a sacrifice, iṣṭakākoṣṭa (?) madhyavasanto yajante tathetaradayaḥ (?). Regarding the Brahmaudana, see Āśvalāyana Śrauta Sūtra I, 4.


Govinda says that the injunction to throw away defiled p. 191 vessels has been repeated, in order to prevent a misconception. For as Soma is said to be a great means of purification, it might be supposed that it was powerful enough to prevent the defilement of vessels into which it is poured at a sacrifice. But compare the next Sūtras.

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