The Tattvasangraha [with commentary]

by Ganganatha Jha | 1937 | ISBN-10: 8120800583 | ISBN-13: 9788120800588

This page describes verse 509-510 of the Tattvasangraha (English translation) by Shantarakshita (8th century), including the commentary (Panjika) by Kamalashila: both dealing with philosophy from a Buddhist and non-Buddhist perspective. The Tattva-sangraha (aka Tattvasamgraha) consists of 3646 verses.

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:

अत्रोच्यते द्वितीये हि क्षणे कार्यं प्रजायते ।
प्रथमे कारणं जातमविनष्टं तदा च तत् ॥ ५०९ ॥
क्षणिकत्वात्तु तत्कार्यक्षणकाले न वर्त्तते ।
वृत्तौ वा विफलं कार्यं निर्वृत्तं तद्यतस्तदा ॥ ५१० ॥

atrocyate dvitīye hi kṣaṇe kāryaṃ prajāyate |
prathame kāraṇaṃ jātamavinaṣṭaṃ tadā ca tat || 509 ||
kṣaṇikatvāttu tatkāryakṣaṇakāle na varttate |
vṛttau vā viphalaṃ kāryaṃ nirvṛttaṃ tadyatastadā || 510 ||

Our explanation is as follows:—The effect gomes into existence at the second moment;—the cause had come into existence at the first moment; and during that moment it is not destroyed. but being momentary, it does not exist at the moment at which the effect is there; even if it were there, it would be useless, as the effect will have already come into existence.—(509-510)


Kamalaśīla’s commentary (tattvasaṃgrahapañjikā):

As for the two alternatives—‘destroyed or not destroyed’—set forth by the Opponent (under Texts 488-489),—the author proceeds to dispel them,—thereby establishing the Causal Relation as the very root of all laws:—[see verses 509-510 above]

Our view is that the effect comes out of the Cause while this latter is still undestroyed; and there is no possibility of the two being simultaneous; because what happens is that the Effect comes into existence at the second moment, through its dependence upon the Cause which has come into existence at the first moment and has not yet become destroyed; so that when the Effect comes into existence it does so from the Cause while it is still undestroyed; as it has not been destroyed at the first moment. And yet the Cause does not continue to exist at the moment that the Effect is in existence, as, being momentary, it cannot so continue to exist. Even if it were to continue, it would not have the nature of the Cause; because when the Effect has already come about, it would be absolutely useless.—(509-510)

The following Text shows this same uselessness:—[see verse 511 next]