Nibbāna, (nt.).—I. Etymology. Although nir+vā “to blow”. (cp. BSk. nirvāṇa) is already in use in the Vedic period (see nibbāpeti), we do not find its distinctive application till later and more commonly in popular use, where vā is fused with vṛ in this sense, viz. in application to the extinguishing of fire, which is the prevailing Buddhist conception of the term. Only in the older texts do we find references to a simile of the wind and the flame; but by far the most common metaphor and that which governs the whole idea of nibbāna finds expression in the putting out of fire by other means of extinction than by blowing, which latter process rather tends to incite the fire than to extinguish it. The going out of the fire may be due to covering it up, or to depriving it of further fuel, by not feeding it, or by withdrawing the cause of its production. Thus to the Pali etymologist the main reference is to the root vṛ (to cover), and not to vā (to blow). This is still more clearly evident in the case of nibbuta (q. v. for further discussion). In verbal compn. nis+vā (see vāyati) refers only to the (non-) emittance of an odour, which could never be used for a meaning of “being exhausted”; moreover, one has to bear in mind that native commentators themselves never thought of explaining nibbāna by anything like blowing (vāta), but always by nis+vana (see nibbana). For Bdhgh’s defn of nibbāna see e.g. Vism. 293.—The meanings of n. are: 1. the going out of a lamp or fire (popular meaning).—2. health, the sense of bodily well-being (probably, at first, the passing away of feverishness, restlessness).—3. The dying out in the heart of the threefold fire of rāga, dosa & moha: lust, ill-will & stupidity (Buddhistic meaning). ‹-› 4. the sense of spiritual well-being, of security, emancipation, victory and peace, salvation, bliss.
II. Import and Range of the Term. A. Nibbāna is purely and solely an ethical state, to be reached in this birth by ethical practices, contemplation and insight. It is therefore not transcendental. The first and most important way to reach N. is by means of the eightfold Path, and all expressions which deal with the realisation of emancipation from lust, hatred and illusion apply to practical habits and not to speculative thought. N. is realised in one’s heart; to measure it with a speculative measure is to apply a wrong standard.—A very apt and comprehensive discussion of nibbāna is found in F. Heiler, “Die buddhistische Versenkung” (München2 1922), pp. 36—42, where also the main literature on the subject is given.—N. is the untranslatable expression of the Unspeakable, of that for which in the Buddha’s own saying there is no word, which cannot be grasped in terms of reasoning and cool logic, the Nameless, Undefinable (cp. the simile of extinction of the flame which may be said to pass from a visible state into a state which cannot be defined. Thus the Saint (Arahant) passes into that same state, for which there is “no measure” (i.e. no dimension): “atthaṅgatassa na pamāṇam atthi ... yena naṃ vajju: taṃ tassa n’atthi” Sn. 1076. The simile in v. 1074: “accī yathā vāta-vegena khitto atthaṃ paleti, na upeti saṅkhaṃ: evaṃ munī nāmakāyā vimutto atthaṃ paleti, na upeti saṅkhaṃ”). Yet, it is a reality, and its characteristic features may be described, may be grasped in terms of earthly language, in terms of space (as this is the only means at our disposal to describe abstract notions of time and mentality); e.g. accutaṃ ṭhānaṃ, pāraṃ, amataṃ padaṃ, amata (& nibbāna-) dhātu.—It is the speculative, scholastic view and the dogmatising trend of later times, beginning with the Abhidhamma period, which has more and more developed the simple, spontaneous idea into an exaggerated form either to the positive (i.e. seeing in N. a definite state or sphere of existence) or the negative side (i.e. seeing in it a condition of utter annihilation). Yet its sentimental value to the (exuberant optimism of the) early Buddhists (Rh. Davids, Early Buddhism, p. 73) is one of peace and rest, perfect passionlessness, and thus supreme happiness. As Heiler in the words of R. Otto (Das Heilige etc. 1917; quoted l. c. p. 41) describes it, “only by its concept Nirvāna is something negative, by its sentiment, however, a positive item in most pronounced form. ” — We may also quote Rh. Davids’words: “One might fill columns with the praises, many of them among the most beautiful passages in Pāli poetry and prose, lavished on this condition of mind, the state of the man made perfect according to the B. faith. Many are the pet names, the poetic epithets, bestowed upon it, each of them-for they are not synonyms-emphasising one or other phase of this many-sided conception-the harbour of refuge, the cool cave, the island amidst the floods, the place of bliss, emancipation, liberation, safety, the supreme, the transcendental, the uncreated, the tranquil, the home of ease, the calm, the end of suffering, the medicine for all evil, the unshaken, the ambrosia, the immaterial, the imperishable, the abiding, the further shore, the unending, the bliss of effort, the supreme joy, the ineffable, the detachment, the holy city, and many others. Perhaps the most frequent in the B. texts is Arahantship, “the state of him who is worthy” ; and the one exclusively used in Europe is Nirvana, the “dying out, ” that is, the dying out in the heart of the fell fire of the three cardinal sins-sensuality, ill-will, and stupidity (Saṃyutta IV. 251, 261), ” (Early Buddhism pp. 72, 73.) And Heiler says (p. 42 l. c.): “Nirvāna is, although it might sound a paradox, in spite of all conceptional negativity nothing but “eternal salvation, ” after which the heart of the religious yearns on the whole earth. ”
The current simile is that of fire, the consuming fire of passion (rāg-aggi), of craving for rebirth, which has to be extinguished, if a man is to attain a condition of indifference towards everything worldly, and which in the end, in its own good time, may lead to freedom from rebirth altogether, to certain and final extinction (parinibbāna).—Fire may be put out by water, or may go out of itself from lack of fuel. The ethical state called Nibbāna can only rise from within. It is therefore in the older texts compared to the fire going out, rather than to the fire being put out. The latter point of view, though the word nibbāna is not used, occurs in one or two passages in later books. See J. I, 212; Miln. 346, 410; SnA 28; Sdhp. 584. For the older view see M. I, 487 (aggi anāhāro nibbuto, a fire gone out through lack of fuel); Sn. 1094 (akiñcanaṃ anādānaṃ etaṃ dīpaṃ anāparaṃ Nibbānaṃ iti); S. I, 236 (attadaṇḍesu nibbuto sādānesu anādāno); S. II, 85 (aggikkhandho purimassa upādānassa pariyādānā aññassa ca anupāhārā anāhāro nibbāyeyya, as a fire would go out, bereft of food, because the former supply being finished no additional supply is forthcoming); sa-upādāno devānaṃ indo na parinibbāyati, the king of the gods does not escape rebirth so long as he has within him any grasping S. IV, 102; pāragū sabbadhammānaṃ anupādāya nibbuto A. I, 162; pāragato jhāyī anup° nibbuto, a philosopher, freed, without any cause, source, of rebirth A. IV, 290 (etc., see nibbuta). dāvaggi-nibbānaṃ the going out of the jungle fire J. I, 212; aggi nibbāyeyya, should the fire go out M. I, 487; aggikkhandho nibbuto hoti the great fire has died out Miln. 304; nibbuto ginī my fire is out Sn. 19. The result of quenching the fire (going out) is coolness (sīta); and one who has attained the state of coolness is sītibhūta. sītibhūto ‘smi nibbuto Vin. I, 8; Pv. I, 87; sītibhūto nirūpadhi, cooled, with no more fuel (to produce heat) Vin. II, 156; A. I, 138; nicchāto nibbuto sītibhūto (cp. nicchāta) A. II, 208; V, 65. anupādānā dīpacci viya nibbutā gone out like the flame of a lamp without supply of fuel ThA. 154 (Ap. 153).—nibbanti dhīrā yath’âyaṃ padīpo the Wise go out like the flame of this lamp Sn. 235. This refers to the pulling out of the wick or to lack of oil, not to a blowing out; cp. vaṭṭiṃ paṭicca telapadīpo jāleyya S. II, 86; Th. 2, 116 (padīpass’eva nibbānaṃ vimokkho ahu cetaso). The pulling out of the wick is expressed by vaṭṭiṃ okassayāmi (=dīpavaṭṭiṃ ākaḍḍhemi ThA. 117) cp. on this passage Pischel, Leben & Lehre des Buddha 71; Mrs. Rh. Davids, Buddhism 176; Neumann, Lieder 298). Pajjotass’eva nibbānaṃ like the going out of a lamp S. I, 159≈.
B. Since rebirth is the result of wrong desire (kāma, kilesa, āsava, rāga etc.), the dying out of that desire leads to freedom & salvation from rebirth and its cause or substratum. Here references should be given to: (1) the fuel in ethical sense (cp. A 1: aggi); (2) the aims to be accomplished (for instance, coolness=peace); (3) the seat of its realisation (the heart); (4) the means of achievement (the Path); (5) the obstacles to be removed.—1. Fuel=cause of rebirth & suffering: āsāva (intoxications). khīṇāsavā jutimanto to loke parinibbutā the wise who are rid of all intoxications are in this world the thoroughly free S. V, 29; sāvakā āsavānaṃ khayā viharanti A. IV, 83; kodhaṃ pahatvāna parinibbiṃsu anāsavā (are completely cooled) A. IV, 98; āsavakhīṇo danto parinibbuto Sn. 370; saggaṃ sugatino yanti parinibbanti anāsavā those of happy fate go to heaven, but those not intoxicated die out Dh. 126; nibbānaṃ adhimuttānaṃ atthaṅgacchanti āsavā Dh. 226; āsavānaṃ khayā bhikkhu nicchāto parinibbuto It. 49; vimutti-kusuma-sañchanno parinibbissati anāsavo Th. 1, 100.—kāmā (cravings) nikkāmo nibbano Nāgo Sn. 1131.—kilesa-(nibbāna) vice (only in certain commentaries). kilesa-nibbānass’âpi anupādā parinibbānass’âpi santike DhA. I, 286; upādānaṃ abhāvena anupādiyitvā kilesa-nibbānena nibbutā DhA. IV, 194.—nibbidā (disenchantment). Nibbānaṃ ekanta-nibbidāya virāgāya etc. saṃvattati S. II, 223; nibbijjha sabbaso kāme sikkhe nibbānaṃ attano Sn. 940.—rāga virāgo nirodho nibbānaṃ S. I, 136≈; desento virajaṃ dhammaṃ nibbānaṃ akutobhayan S. I, 192; yo rāgakkhayo (dosa° . . . moha° . . . ): idaṃ vuccati nibbānaṃ S. IV, 251, & same of Amata S. V, 8; chandarāga-vinodanaṃ nibbānapadaṃ accutaṃ Sn. 1086; kusalo ca jahati pāpakaṃ rāgadosamoha-kkhayā parinibbuto Ud. 85; ye ‘dha pajahanti kāmarāgaṃ bhavarāgânusayañ ca pahāya parinibbānagatā Vv 5324.—vana sabba-saṃyojan’atītaṃ vanā nibbānaṃ āgataṃ A. III, 346; nikkhantaṃ vānato ti nibbānaṃ KhA 151; taṇhā-saṅkhāta-vānâbhāvato nibbānaṃ SnA 253.
2. Aims: khema (tranquillity). ātāpī bhikkhu nibbānāya bhabbo anuttarassa yogakkhemassa adhigamāya It. 27; ajaraṃ amaraṃ khemaṃ pariyessāmi nibbutiṃ J. I, 3; acala (immovable, not to be disturbed). patto acalaṭṭhānaṃ Vv 514; accuta (stable) patthayaṃ accutaṃ padaṃ S. III, 143; chandarāga-vinodanaṃ nibbānapadaṃ accutaṃ Sn. 1086. nekkhamma (renunciation, dispassionateness). vanā nibbānaṃ āgataṃ kāmehi nekkhammarataṃ A. III, 346.—pāragū (victor). pāragū sabbadhammānaṃ anupādāya nibbuto A. I, 162 (cp. A. IV, 290 with tiṇṇo pāragato).—santipada (calm, composure). santī ti nibbutiṃ ñatvā Sn. 933; santimaggaṃ eva brūhaya nibbānaṃ sugatena desitaṃ Dh. 285; s. =acala VvA. 219.—samatha (allayment, quietude). sabbasaṅkhārasamatho nibbānaṃ S. I, 136≈.—sotthi (welfare). saccena suvatthi hotu nibbānaṃ Sn. 235.
3. The Heart: (a) attā (heart, self). abhinibbut-atto Sn. 456; thiṭatto frequent, e.g. parinibbuto ṭh° Sn. 359; danto parinib° ṭh° Sn. 370.—(b) citta (heart). apariḍayhamāna-citto SnA 347 (for abhinibbutatto Sn. 343).—(c) hadaya (heart) nibbānaṃ hadayasmiṃ opiya S. I, 199; mātuhadayaṃ nibbāyate J. I, 61; nibbāpehi me hadaya-pariḷāhaṃ (quench the fever of my heart) Miln. 318.—(d) mano (mind). mano nibbāyi tāvade J. I, 27; disvā mano me pasīdi Vv 5014.
4. The Path: dhīra. lokapariyāyaṃ aññāya nibbutā dhīrā tiṇṇā etc. S. I, 24; nibbanti dhīrā ... Sn. 235 sabbâbhibhū dhīro sabbagantha-ppamocano It. 122 ‹-› Recognition of anicca (transitoriness, see nicca). aniccasaññī . . . bhikkhu pāpuṇāti diṭṭh’eva dhamme nibbānaṃ A. IV, 353.—paññā. nibbānaṃ ev’ajjhagamuṃ sapaññā S. I, 22; n’abhirato paññā S. I, 38. ‹-› paṇḍita & nipaka. anupubbena n°ṃ adhigacchanti paṇḍitā A. I, 162; nipakā asesaṃ parinibbanti It. 93. ‹-› vijjā. bhikkhu paṇihitena cittena avijjaṃ bhecchati vijjaṃ uppādessati n°ṃ sacchikarissati the bhikkhu with devout heart will destroy ignorance, gain right cognition & realise Nibbāna A. I, 8; idh’aññāya parinibbāti anāsavo A. III, 41; sabb’āsave pariññāya parinibbanti anāsavā Vbh. 426.
5. The Obstacles: gantha (fetter). nibbānaṃ adhigantabbaṃ sabba-g°-pamocanaṃ S. I, 210; It. 104; similarly It. 122 (see above). gabbhaseyyā (rebirth). na te punam upenti gabbhaseyyaṃ, parinibbānagatā hi sītibhūtā Vv 5324 — nīvaraṇa (obstacles). pañca n°. anibbāna-saṃvattanikā S. V, 97.—punabbhava (rebirth). nibbāpehi mahārāgaṃ mā ḍayhittho punappunaṃ S. I, 188; vibhavañ ca bhavañ ca vippahāya vusitavā khīṇapunabbhavo sa bhikkhu Sn. 514; bhava-nirodha nibbānaṃ S. II, 117.—saṅkhārā (elements of life). sabbasaṅkhāra-samatho nibbānaṃ S. I, 136; N. =sabbasaṅkhārā khayissanti A. III, 443.—saṃyojanāni (fetters). sabbas-âtītaṃ vanā Nibbānaṃ āgataṃ A. III, 346; s. pahāya n°ṃ sacchikarissati A. III, 423; saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā antarā-parinibbāyī hoti S. V, 69.
III, Nibbāna: its ethical importance and general characterisation. 1. Assurance of N. (nibbānass’eva santike, near N. , sure of N.): S. I, 33 (yassa etādisaṃ yānaṃ ... sa etena yānena n. e. s. : with the chariot of the Dhamma sure of reaching N.); IV, 75; A. II, 39 (abhabbo parihānāya n. e. s. impossible to fail in the assurance of final release, of one “catuhi dhammehi samannāgato, viz. sīla, indriyaguttadvāratā, bhojanamattaññutā. jāgariyā”); III, 331 (id. with appamādagaru: ever active & keen); II, 40=It. 40 (id. with appamāda-rato); Sn. 822.—2. Steps and Means to N. : nibbāna-sacchikiriyā, attainment of N. , is maṅgalaṃ uttamaṃ & to be achieved by means of tapo, brahmacariyā and ariyasaccāna-dassanaṃ Sn. 267.—brahmacariya (a saintly life) is n. -parāyanā (leading to N.) S. III, 189, cp. V, 218; also called n. -ogadhā (with similar states of mind, as nibbidā, virāgo, vimutti) ibid.; A. II, 26=It. 28, cp. It. 29 (nibbān’—ogadha-gāminaṃ b°ṃ). The stages of sanctification are also discussed under the formula “nibbidā virāgo vimutti . . . vimuttasmiṃ vimuttaṃ iti ñāṇaṃ hoti: khīṇā jāti etc. ” (i.e. no more possibility of birth) S. II, 124=IV. 86. ‹-› dhamma: Buddha’s teaching as the way to N. : “dhammavaraṃ adesayi n. -gāmiṃ paramaṃ hitāya” Sn. 233; ahaṃ sāvakānaṃ dhammaṃ desemi sattānaṃ visuddhiyā ... n°assa sacchikiriyāya A. V, 194, cp. 141; pubbe dh. -ṭhiti-ñāṇaṃ pacchā nibbāne ñāṇan ti S. II, 124.—magga: Those practices of a moral & good life embraced in the 8 fold Noble Path (ariyamagga). Sace atthi akammena koci kvaci na jīyati nibbānassa hi so maggo S. I, 217; ekāyano ayaṃ maggo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā ... N°assa sacchikiriyāya D. II, 290; S. V, 167, 185; bhāvayitvā sucimaggaṃ n° —ogadha-gāminaṃ ... Vbh. 426; ādimhi sīlaṃ dasseyya, majjhe maggaṃ vibhāvaye, pariyosānamhi nibbānaṃ ... DA. I, 176.—N. —gamanaṃ maggaṃ: tattha me nirato mano “my heart rejoices in the path to Nibbāna” S. I, 186; N. —gāminī paṭipadā A. IV, 83 (the path to salvation). Cp. §§ 4 & 7.—3. The Search for N. or the goal of earnest endeavour. ārogya-paramā lābhā nibbānaṃ paramaṃ sukhaṃ, aṭṭhaṅgiko ca maggānaṃ khemaṃ amata-gāminaṃ “N. is a higher bliss than acquisition of perfect health, the eightfold Path (alone) of all leads to perfect peace, to ambrosia” M. I, 508, cp. Dh. 204 (“the fullest gain is for health etc.; N. is the highest happiness” DhA. III, 267). Similarly: khantī paramaṃ tapo titikkhā, n°ṃ paramaṃ vadanti buddhā D. II, 49=Dh. 184; n°ṃ paramaṃ sukhaṃ: Dh. 204=Sn. 257=J. III, 195; id. : Dh. 203; jhānaṃ upasampajja ... okkamanāya n. °assa A. IV, 111 sq.; cp. 230 sq.; kaṭuviyakato bhikkhu ... ārakā hoti N°ā A. I, 281; n°ṃ ajjhagamuṃ sapaññā S. I, 22; devalokañ ca te yanti ... anupubbena n°ṃ adhigacchanti paṇḍitā A. I, 162; n°ṃ abhikaṅkhati S. I, 198; abhipassati A. I, 147; tiṇṇakathaṅkatho visallo n. —âbhirato Sn. 86; bhikkhu bhabbo anuttaraṃ sītibhāvaṃ sacchikātuṃ ... paṇītâdhimutto hoti ṇ-âbhirato ca A. III, 435; n. —âbhirato ... sabbadukkhā pamuccati S. I, 38; n. —ogadhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ vussati n. —parāyaṇaṃ n. —pariyosānaṃ S. III, 189=V. 218; n°ṃ gavesanto carāmi (Bodhisat, J. I, 61). All means of conduct & all ideals of reason & intellect lead to one end only: Nibbāna. This is frequently expressed by var. similes in the phrase n. —ninna, °poṇa, °pabbhāra, e.g. S. V, 75=134=137=190; V, 244; A. V, 75, 134, 190, 244= 291; Vv 8442. Saddahāno arahataṃ dhammaṃ n. ‹-› pattiyā sussūsā labhate paññaṃ appamatto S. I, 214= Sn. 186, cp. S. I, 48; Gotamo n. —paṭisaṃyuttāya dhammiyā kathāya bhikkhū sandasseti S. I, 214=192=210; Ud. 80; n°ṃ pariyesati A. II, 247; n. —pariyosānā sabbe dhammā A. V, 107; n. -poṇaṃ me mānasaṃ bhavissati, saṃyojanā pahāṇaṃ gacchanti A. III, 443; odhunitvā malaṃ sabbaṃ patvā n. —sampadaṃ muccati sabba-dukkhehi: sā hoti sabbasampadā A. IV, 239; nibbijjha sabbaso kāme sikkhe n°ṃ attano Sn. 940, cp. 1061.—4. Some Epithets of Nibbāna: akutobhayaṃ A. II, 24=It. 122; accutaṃ padaṃ (careyya āditta-sīso va patthayaṃ a. p.) S. III, 143; Sn. 1086; pattā te acalaṭṭhānaṃ yattha gantvā na socare Vv 514; amataṃ A. II, 247; M. III, 224 (Bhagavā atthassa ninnetā a °assa dātā); Miln. 319; Vv 6427 (apāpuranto a °assa dvāraṃ); VvA. 85 (a-rasa); Vv 5020 (amatogadha magga=nibb°-gāminī paṭipadā); amosadhammaṃ Sn. 758; khemaṃ appaṭibhayaṃ S. IV, 175; S. I, 189=Sn. 454; Th. 2, 350 (°ṭṭhāne vimuttā te patta te acalaṃ sukhaṃ); M. I, 508 (+amatagāminaṃ); A. II, 247 (yogakkhemaṃ anuttaraṃ); same at A. III, 294; It. 27; Dh. 23.—taṇhakkhaya Vv 735; ṭhānaṃ dud- dasaṃ S. I, 136 (=sabba-saṅkhāra-samatho); dhuvaṃ (q. v.); niccaṃ Kvu 121; nekkhammaṃ A. I, 147 (°ṃ daṭṭhu khemato ... nibbānaṃ abhipassanto); Vv 8442. sabba-gantha-pamocanaṃ (deliverance from all ties) S. I, 210; II, 278 (sabbadukkha°); It. 222=A. II, 24; yathābhūtaṃ vacanaṃ S. IV, 195; yathāsukhaṃ (the Auspicious) A. IV, 415 sq.; (chanda-) rāga vinodanaṃ Sn. 1086; rāgakkhayo (dosa°, moha°) S. V, 8; rāgavinayo (dosa°, moha°) ibid. , santi (calm, peace) Vv 5021=Sn. 204 (chandarāga-viratto bhikkhu paññāṇavā ajjhagā amataṃ santiṃ nibbānapadaṃ accutaṃ); VvA. 219 (=acala); santimaggaṃ eva brūhaya n°ṃ Sugatena desitaṃ Dh. 285=Nett 36; sandiṭṭhikaṃ akālikaṃ etc.; A. I, 158; samo bhūmibhāgo ramaṇīyo S. III, 109; sassataṃ Kvu 34; suvatthi Sn. 235.—5. N. is realisable in this world, i.e. in this life if it is mature (diṭṭhe va dhamme): S. II, 18=115=III, 163=IV. 141 (diṭṭha-dh-npatta); M. II, 228; A. IV, 353=358, cp. 454.—6. Definitions with regard to the destruction of the causes or substrata of life (cp. above I.): taṇhāya vippahānena n°ṃ iti vuccati S. I, 39=Sn. 1109; as sabba-saṅkhārasamatho (calming down of all vital elements) Vin. I, 5; S. I, 136; A. II, 118=III, 164; IV, 423; V, 8, 110, 320, 354; akiñcanaṃ anādānaṃ etaṃ dīpaṃ anāparaṃ n°ṃ iti nam brūmi jarāmaccu-parikkhayaṃ Sn. 1094; bhavanirodho n°ṃ ti S. II, 117; A. V, 9; rāga-kkhayo (dosa°, moha°) S. IV, 251=261; virāgo nirodho n°ṃ in typical & very freq. exposition at Nd2=S. I, 136≈. See also vana & cp. the foll. : taṇhā-saṅkhāta-vānâbhāvato n°ṃ SnA 253; nikkhantaṃ vānato ti n°ṃ KhA 151; kilesa-n° ass’âpi anupādā parinibbānass’âpi santike yeva DhA. I, 286 (on Dh. 32).—7. N. as perfect wisdom and what is conducive to such a state (saṃvattati). The foll. phrase is one of the oldest stereotype phrases in the Canon & very freq.; it is used of all the highest means & attainments of conduct & meditation & may be said to mark the goal of perfect understanding & a perfect philosophy of life. It is given in 2 variations, viz. in a simple form as “upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṃvattati, ” with ref. to majjhimā paṭipadā at Vin. I, 10=S. IV, 331=V. 421; of satta bojjhaṅgā at S. V, 80; and in a fuller form as “ekanta-nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamāya etc. as above” at D. I, 189 (negative); II, 251 (of brahmacariyaṃ), 285; III, 130 (sukhallikânuyogā, neg.) 136 (avyākataṃ, neg.); S. II, 223 (brahmacariya); V, 82 (satta bojjhaṅgā), 179 (satipaṭṭhānā), 255 (iddhipādā), 361 (ariyamagga), 438 A. III, 83, 326 sq.; etc.—Cp. n-saṃvattanika S. V, 97 (upekhāsambojjhaṅga); Nd2 281 (neg. of tamo). ‹-› 8. N. as the opposite of rāga (passion, lust). Freq. is the combn of virāga nirodha nibbāna, almost used as three synonyms, thus at S. II, 18; Vin. III, 20=111; A. II, 118=III, 164=IV. 423=V. 8=Nd2 under Nibbāna; A. II, 34=It. 88 (dhammānaṃ aggaṃ akkhāyati, madanimmadano pipāsa-vinayo ālaya-samugghāto vaṭṭûpacchedo taṇhakkhayo virāgo nirodha nibbānaṃ), cp. Vin. III, 20≈. Similarly S. I, 192 (Sugataṃ payirupāsati desentaṃ virajaṃ dhammaṃ nibbānaṃ akutobhayaṃ). ‹-› 9. Various Characterisations & Similes (cp. above II. A 4 & 5). sukkâbhijātiko samāno akaṇhaṃ asukkaṃ n°ṃ abhijayati D. III, 251; A. III, 384 sq.; aniccā sabbe saṅkhārā dukkhā ‘nattā ca saṅkhātā: nibbānañ c’eva paññatti anattā iti nicchayā Vin. V, 86. On anicca & anattā in rel. to N. see also S. IV, 133 sq.; A. IV, 353; dukkhato & sukhato n°ṃ samanupassati A. III, 442. On comparison with a lamp see e.g. S. I, 159=D. II, 157= Th. 1, 906 (pajjotass’eva nibbānaṃ vimokkho cetaso ahū), A. IV, 3 (pajjotass’eva n. vimokkho hoti cetaso); Sn. 235 (... te khīṇabījā avirūḷhichandā nibbanti dhīrā yathâyaṃ padīpo).
—abhirata fond of N. (cp. III, 3) S. I, 38; A. III, 435; Sn. 86 (visalla+); —ogadha merging into N. (of brahmacariya) S. III, 189; V, 218; A. II, 26=It. 28; Vbh. 426, cp. amatogadha A. V, 107; —gamana (magga; cp. III, 2) leading to N. D. II, 223; S. I, 186, 217; A. IV, 83; (dhamma: ) S. V, 11; Sn. 233; —dhātu the sphere or realm of N. always in phrase anupādisesāsaya n. -dhātuyā parinibbāyate Vin. II, 239; D. III, 135; It. 38, 121; Ps. I, 101; cp. rāgavinayo n. -dhātuyā adhivacanaṃ S. V, 8. See parinibbāyin; —ninna (+°poṇa, °pabbhāra; cp. III, 3) converging into N. A. III, 443; Vv 8442 & passim; —paṭisaññuta (dhammikathā; cp. III, 2) relating or referring to N. S. I, 114=192=210; Ud. 80; —patta having attained N. (diṭṭha-dhamma°, see above III, 5) S. II, 18=114= III, 163; —patti attainment of N. S. I, 48, 214=Sn. 186; —pada=Nibbāna (see pada 3) Sn. 204. —pariyosāna ending in N. having its final goal in N. S. III, 189; V, 218; A. V, 107; —saṃvattanika conducive to N.; contributing toward the attainment of N. S. V, 97; Nd2 281 (a°); cp. above III, 7; —sacchikiriyā realisation of N. (identical with ñāṇa and constituting the highest ideal; cp. above III, 2) Sn. 267. Cp. also D. II, 290; S. V, 167; A. III, 423; V, 141; —saññā perception of N. A. III, 443; —sampatti successful attainment of N. Kh VIII, 13; —sampadā the blessing of the attainment of N. A. IV, 239. (Page 362)
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Nibbana, (adj.) 1. (Sk. nirvana) without forest, woodless J. II, 358.—2. (an abstr. fr. nibbāna, see nibbāna I.; cp. vana2. Freq. nibbāna as v. l. instead of nibbana) without cravings Sn. 1131 (nikkāmo nibbano); Dh. 283 (nibbanā pl.) Vv 5014 (better reading nibbāna, in phrase “vanā nibbānaṃ āgataṃ, ” as found at A. III, 346= Th. 1, 691, although the latter has nibbanaṃ in text), expld by “nittaṇhabhāvaṃ nibbānam eva upagataṃ” VvA. 213. (Page 362)