Nirvana, aka: Nirvāṇa, Nibbāna, Nibbana; 34 Definition(s)
nirvāṇa [nibbāna] emancipation. Nirvāṇa, the summum bonum of Buddhism is an unconditioned dharma (asaṃskṛta dharma). 'Nir' is a negative particle. 'Vā' means to blow. The word nirvāṇa means extinction, the condition of being blown out; the state in which the fire (of defilements) has been extinguished. The primitive Buddhist Sūtra-s define nirvāṇa as the extinction of greed, anger and ignorance. One of the etymologies of nirvāṇa is given as 'no forest' (nir-vana), that is, absence of the jungle of defilements.
The four aspects of nirvāṇa are
- nirvāṇa with residue (sopādhiśeṣa nirvāṇa),
- nirvāṇa without residue (anupādhiśeṣa nirvāṇa or nirupādhiśeṣa nirvāṇa or parinirvāṇa),
- the primeval nirvāṇa (svabhāva nirvāṇa),
- non-abiding nirvāṇa (apratiṣṭhita nirvāṇa).
Nirvāṇa with residue means freedom from defilements and from future births. After attaining this nirvāṇa the physical body in the present birth still exists as a result of past karma. It is called sopādhiśeṣa nirvāṇa because the groups of existence -- mind and body (upādhi) -- still remain. This aspect is attained by an Arhat during his life.
nibbana : (adj.) free from craving. || nibbāna (nt.), cooling; extinction (of a fire); emancipation; the final bliss.
Nirvāṇa is a term used in Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and Sikhism. It leads to mokṣa, liberation from samsara, or release from a state of suffering, after an often lengthy period of bhāvanā or sādhanā.
In Jainism, mokṣa (liberation) follows nirvāṇa. Nirvana means final release from the karmic bondage. An arhat becomes a siddha ("one who is accomplished") after nirvāṇa. When an enlightened human, such as an arihant or a Tirthankara, extinguishes his remaining aghatiya karmas and thus ends his worldly existence, it is called nirvāṇa. Jains celebrate Diwali as the day of nirvāṇa of Mahavira.
In the Buddhist tradition, nirvana is described as the extinguishing of the fires that cause suffering. These fires are typically identified as the fires of attachment (raga), aversion (dveṣa) and ignorance (moha or avidya). When the fires are extinguished, suffering (dukkha) comes to an end. The cessation of suffering is described as complete peace.
Hinduism: According to Zaehner and "many commentators", nirvana is a Buddhist term rather than a Hindu term. The term nirvana was not used in Hinduism prior to its use in the Bhagavad Gita, though according to van Buitenen the use of the term was not confined to Buddhism at the time the Bhagavad Gita was written. According to Johnson the use of the term nirvana is borrowed from the Buddhists to link the Buddhist state of liberation with Brahman, the supreme or absolute principle of the Upaniṣads and the Vedic tradition.
Nirvāṇa (निर्वाण): Literally "extinction" and/or "extinguishing", is the culmination of the yogi's pursuit of liberation. Hinduism uses the word nirvana to describe the state of moksha, roughly equivalent to heaven.
Nirvāna Skt., lit., “extinction” (Pali, nibbāna; Jap., nehan); the goal of spiritual practice in all branches of Buddhism. In the understanding of early Buddhism, it is departure from the cycle of rebirths (samsāra) and entry into an entirely different mode of existence. It requires complete overcoming of the three unwholesome roots—desire, hatred, and delusion, and the coming to rest of active volition. It means freedom from the determining effect of karma. Nirvāna is unconditioned (asamskrita); its characteristic mark is the absence of arising, subsisting, changing, and passing away.
In Hīnayāna two types of nirvāna are distinguished: nirvāna with a remainder of conditionality, which can be attained before death; and nirvāna without conditionality, which is attained at death.
In Mahāyāna, the notion of nirvāna undergoes a change that may be attributed to the introduction of the bodhisattva ideal and an emphasis on the unified nature of the world. Nirvāna is conceived as oneness with the absolute, the unity of samsāra and transcendence. It is also described as dwelling in the experience of the absolute, bliss in cognizing one’s identity with the absolute, and as freedom from attachment to illusions, affects, and desires.
In the West nirvāna has often been misunderstood as mere annihilation; even in early Buddhism it was not so conceived. In many texts, to explain what is described as nirvāna, the simile of extinguishing a flame is used. The fire that goes out does not pass away, but merely becomes invisible by passing into space; thus the term nirvāna does not indicate annihilation but rather entry into another mode of existence. The fire comes forth from space and returns back into it; thus nirvāna is a spiritual event that takes place in time but is also, in an unmanifest and imperishable sphere, always already there. This is the “abode of immortality,” which is not spatially localizable, but is rather transcendent, supramundane, and only accessible to mystical experience. Thus in early Buddhism, nirvāna is not seen in a positive relation to the world but is only a place of salvation.
In some places in the sūtras an expression is used for nirvāna that means “bliss,” but far more often nirvāna is characterized merely as a process or state of cessation of suffering (duhkha). This should not, however, be regarded as proof of a nihilistic attitude; it is rather an indication of the inadequacy of words to represent the nature of nirvāna, which is beyond speech and thought, in a positive manner. As a positive statement concerning nirvāna, only an indication concerning its not being nothing is possible. For Buddhism, which sees all of existence as ridden with suffering, nirvāna interpreted as the cessation of suffering suffices as a goal for the spiritual effort; for spiritual practice it is irrelevant whether nirvāna is a positive state or mere annihilation. For this reason the Buddha declined to make any statement concerning the nature of nirvāna.
Nirvana is an ideal state, in which mans soul, after being cleansed from all selfishness, hatred and lust, has become a habitation of the truth, teaching him to distrust the allurements of pleasure and to confine all his energies to attending to the duties of life.
Buddha explained to Kisa Gotami how Nirvana is attained:
"When the fire of lust is gone out, then Nirvana is gained; when the fires of hatred and delusion are gone out, then Nirvana is gained; when the troubles of mind, arising from blind credulity, and all other evils have ceased, then Nirvana is gained!"
Peace; Nibbana is the unconditioned dhamma, visankhara dhamma or asankhata dhamma; it does not arise and fall away. Nibbana is the object of the supramundane citta, lokuttara citta, arising at the moment of enlightenment.
the state of enlightenment; an end to the cycle of rebirth in samsara.
(Sanskrit nirvāna): lit. 'extinction' (nir + Ö va, to cease blowing, to become extinguished); according to the commentaries, 'freedom from desire' (nir+ vana). Nibbāna constitutes the highest and ultimate goal of all Buddhist aspirations, i.e. absolute extinction of that life-affirming will manifested as greed, hate and delusion, and convulsively clinging to existence; and therewith also the ultimate and absolute deliverance from all future rebirth, old age, disease and death, from all suffering and misery. Cf. Parinibbāna.
"Extinction of greed, extinction of hate, extinction of delusion: this is called Nibbāna" (S. XXXVIII. 1).
The 2 aspects of Nibbāna are:
(1) The full extinction of defilements (kilesa-parinibbāna), also called sa-upādi-sesa-nibbāna (s. It. 41), i.e. 'Nibbāna with the groups of existence still remaining' (s. upādi). This takes place at the attainment of Arahatship, or perfect holiness (s. ariya-puggala).
(2) The full extinction of the groups of existence (khandha-parinibbāna), also called an-upādi-sesa-nibbāna (s. It. 41, A.IV.118), i.e. 'Nibbāna without the groups remaining', in other words, the coming to rest, or rather the 'no-more-continuing' of this physico-mental process of existence. This takes place at the death of the Arahat. - (App.: Nibbāna).
Sometimes both aspects take place at one and the same moment, i.e. at the death of the Arahat; s. sama-sīsī.
"This, o monks, truly is the peace, this is the highest, namely the end of all formations, the forsaking of every substratum of rebirth, the fading away of craving, detachment, extinction, Nibbāna" (A. III, 32).
"Enraptured with lust (rāga), enraged with anger (dosa), blinded by delusion (moha), overwhelmed, with mind ensnared, man aims at his own ruin, at the ruin of others, at the ruin of both, and he experiences mental pain and grief. But if lust, anger and delusion are given up, man aims neither at his own ruin, nor at the ruin of others, nor at the ruin of both, and he experiences no mental pain and grief. Thus is Nibbāna visible in this life, immediate, inviting, attractive, and comprehensible to the wise" (A.III.55).
"Just as a rock of one solid mass remains unshaken by the wind, even so neither visible forms, nor sounds, nor odours, nor tastes, nor bodily impressions, neither the desired nor the undesired, can cause such a one to waver. Steadfast is his mind, gained is deliverance" (A.VI.55).
"Verily, there is an Unborn, Unoriginated, Uncreated, Unformed. If there were not this Unborn, Unoriginated, Uncreated, Unformed, escape from the world of the born, the originated, the created, the formed, would not be possible" (Ud.VIII.3).
One cannot too often and too emphatically stress the fact that not only for the actual realization of the goal of Nibbāna, but also for a theoretical understanding of it, it is an indispensable preliminary condition to grasp fully the truth of anattā (q.v.), the egolessness and insubstantiality of all forms of existence. Without such an understanding, one will necessarily misconceive Nibbāna - according to one's either materialistic or metaphysical leanings - either as annihilation of an ego, or as an eternal state of existence into which an ego or self enters or with which it merges. Hence it is said:"Mere suffering exists, no sufferer is found; The deed is, but no doer of the deed is there; Nibbāna is, but not the man that enters it; The path is, but no traveler on it is seen."
- For texts on Nibbāna, see Path, 36ff. -
- See Vis.M. XVI. 64ff. -
- Anattā and Nibbāna, by Nyanaponika Thera (WHEEL 11);
- The Buddhist Doctrine of Nibbāna, by Ven. P. Vajiranana & F. Story (WHEEL 165/166).
-- or --
(Sanskrit= ) Nibbāna.
Nibbana is the one kind of unconditioned reality. It is not matter, it is not a place where one goes, it has no form or shape or solidity, it is not something that one unites with. It is a mental phenomena, but it is different from consciousness and mental factors. It is unconditioned. That means that there are no causes which make it arise. It does not begin and it does not end. It does not experience anything, but it can be the object of experience. It is experienced by supra mundane consciousness, i.e., the consciousness that contains fully developed wisdom.
It is also important to note that it cannot be understood intellectually. It can only by directly experienced when wisdom has been sufficiently developed.
Sanskrit; literally, "extinction, blowing out"; the goal of spiritual practice in Buddhism; liberation from the cycle of rebirth and suffering.
Nibbana is the Dhamma which is the end of defilements and the ceasing of dukkha. Nibbana does not have conditions which could cause its arising, it does not arise and fall away.
Nibbana is where we intend to destinate and nibbana is our definite goal. No other dhamma excels nibbana and after crossing samsara oceans with panna ocean liner there is nibbana welcoming us with full effect.
Nibbana the term derives from ivana or irvana. Ni means ikkhanta or liberated from vana or binding. Vana is the dhamma that bind various different lives in the samsara. So nibbana means liberated from binding in the samsara. This binding is tanha.
Nibbana is the Fourth Ultimate Reality.
While nibbana is wide, deep, and large, the simile ocean is used for nibbana.
Nibbaana: the extinction of the fires of greed, of hatred and of ignorance; the extinction of all defilements; Deliverance from all suffering.
(nib bah na) freedom from attachments. The basis for the enlightened vision of things as they are. (Sanskrit: Nirvana.)
N (Disappearance of mental impurities (and of the dangers that they do carry out)). Reality bearing neither object, nor consciousness. Innibbana, physical and mental phenomena do no longer appear.
When a being does experience nibbana, he/she becomes an ariya. Being no longer enclined to commit strongly negative actions, such as killing or stealing, he/she will never take birth within lower worlds. nibbana can be experienced a large number of times and last from the fraction of a second up to several hours according to the intensity of concentration being developed. The one who has eradicated the whole of kilesas (the arahanta) will experience nibbana at the end of his/her life and will never more depart from it. This is called parinibbana.
Among all these terms, nibbana is probably the subtlest and most difficult to understand. It is inconceivable by definition.
See also: nibbana
Nirvana means extinguishing. Attaining nirvana - reaching enlightenment - means extinguishing the three fires of greed, delusion and hatred.
Someone who reaches nirvana does not immediately disappear to a heavenly realm. Nirvana is better understood as a state of mind that humans can reach. It is a state of profound spiritual joy, without negative emotions and fears.
Someone who has attained enlightenment is filled with compassion for all living things.
After death an enlightened person is liberated from the cycle of rebirth, but Buddhism gives no definite answers as to what happens next.
‘Nirvāṇa without remainder’, an alternative designation for the n...
Nibbānadhātu:—“the state of Nibbāna”. S.V, 8; A.II, 120; ...
|· Nibbana Sutta||
Nibbāna, (nt.).—I. Etymology. Although nir+vā “to blow”. (cp. BSk. nirvāṇa) is a...
|· Anupadisesa Nibbana||
see Nibbāna, upādi.
|· Nirvana Sutra||
The last of the sutras in the Mahayana canon. It emphasizes the importance of B...
|· Great nirvana||
See Great liberation.
|· Sa Upadisesa Nibbana||
s. nibbāna, upādi.
|· Nirvana With Residue||
The cause, but not all the effect (Karma) of reincarnation is cut off and remova...
|· Nirvana Without Residue||
Both the cause and effect of reincarnation are extinguished, both afflictions an...
|· Nirvana of No Dwelling||
With the aid of interactive wisdom and compassion, those who do not dwell in bir...
|· Nirvana of Pure Clear Self Nature||
It is commonly possessed by all individual sentient beings. It is not subject to...
1) Parinirvāṇa; That which is beyond (para) Nirvāṇa. The Buddha was said to h...
1) Amata, 2 (adj.) (see amata1) belonging to Amṛta = ambrosial Sn.452 = S.I, 189...
Bodhisattva-bhūmi (बोधिसत्त्व):—One of the ten grounds shared by adepts...
Arahant, (adj. -n.) (Vedic arhant, ppr. of arhati (see arahati), meaning deservi...
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