The Bundahishn

Knowledge from the Zand

1897 | 25,140 words

A collection of texts related to Zoroastrian cosmogony and cosmology. The contents focuses on the Zoroastrianism's creation myth, and the first battles of 'Ahura Mazda' and 'Angra Mainyu'. Most of the chapters of the compendium date to the 8th and 9th centuries. The Bundahishn ("Creation"), or Knowledge from the Zand. Translated by E. W...

Chapter XII - The Nature Of Mountains

On the nature of mountains it says in revelation, that, at first, the mountains have grown forth in eighteen years; and Alburz ever grew till the completion of eight hundred years; two hundred years up to the star station (payak), two hundred years to the moon station, two hundred years to the sun station, and two hundred years to the endless light. While the other mountains have grown out of Alburz, in number 22 {44?} mountains, and are

  1. Hugar the lofty,
  2. Terak of Alburz,
  3. Chakad-i Daitik, and the Arezur ridge,
  4. the Ausindom mountain,
  5. Mount Aparsen which they say is the mountain of Pars,
  6. Mount Zarid also which is Mount Manush,
  7. Mount Airach,
  8. Mount Kaf,
  9. Mount Vadges,
  10. Mount Aushdashtar,
  11. Mount Arezur-bum,
  12. Mount Royishn-homand,
  13. Mount Padashkhvargar which is the greatest in Khvarih,
  14. the mountain which they call Chino,
  15. Mount Revand,
  16. Mount Darspet the Bakyir mountain,
  17. Mount Kabed-shikaft,
  18. Mount Siyak-muimand,
  19. Mount Vafar-homand,
  20. Mount Spendyad and Kondrasp,
  21. Mount Asnavand and Kondras,
  22. Mount Sichidav, a mountain among those which are in Kangdez, of which they say that they are a comfort and delight of the good creator, the smaller hills.

I will mention them also a second time;

2. Alburz is around this earth and is connected with the sky. The Terak of Alburz is that through which the stars, moon, and sun pass in, and through it they come back. Hugar the lofty is that from which the water of Aredvivsur leaps down the height of a thousand men. The Ausindom mountain is that which, being of ruby (khun-ahino), of the substance of the sky, is in the midst of the wide-formed oceanj so that its water, which is from Hugar, pours down into it (the ocean). Chakad-i-Daitik ('the judicial peak') is that of the middle of the world, the height of a hundred men, on which the Cinwad bridge stands; and they take account of the soul at that place. The Arezur ridge [of the Alburz mountain] is a summit at the gate of hell, where they always hold the concourse of the demons. This also is said, that, excepting Alburz, the Aparsen mountain is the greatest; the Aparsen mountain they call the mountain of Pars, and its beginning is in Sagastan and its end in Khujistan. Mount Manush is great; the mountain on which Manushchihar was born.

The remaining mountains have chiefly grown from those; as it is said that the elevation (afsarih) of the districts had arisen most around those three mountains.
Mount Airach is in the middle from Hamadan to Khvarizem, and has grown from Mount Aparsen.
Mount [Chino], which is on its east, on the frontier of Turkistan, is connected also with Aparsen.
Mount Kaf has grown from the same Mount Aparsen.
Mount Aushdashtar is in Sagastan.
Mount Arezhur is that which is in the direction of Arum.
The Padash-khvargar mountain is that which is in Taparistan and the side of Gilan.
The Revand mountain is in Khurasan, on which the Burzin fire was established; and its name Revand means this, that it is glorious.
The Vadges mountain is that which is on the frontier of the Vadgesians; that quarter is full of timber and full of trees.
The Bakyir mountain is that which Frasiyav of Tur used as a stronghold, and he made his residence within it; and in the days of Yim a myriad towns and cities were erected on its pleasant and prosperous territory.
Mount Kabed-shikaft ('very rugged') is that in Pars, out of the same Mount Aparsen.
Mount Siyak-homand ('being black') and Mount Vafar-homand ('having snow'), as far as their Kavul borders, have grown out of it (Aparsen) towards the direction of Chino.
The Spendyad mountain is in the circuit (var) of Revand.
The Kondrasp mountain, on the summit of which is Lake Sovbar, is in the district (or by the town) of Tus.
The Kondras mountain is in Airan-vej.
The Asnavand 7 mountain is in Ataro-patakan.
The Royishn-homand ('having growth') mountain is that on which vegetation has grown.

Whatever mountains are those which are in every place of the various districts and various countries, and cause the tillage and prosperity therein, are many in name and many in number, and have grown from these same mountains. As Mount Ganavad, Mount Asparog, Mount Pahargar, Mount Dimavand, Mount Ravak, Mount Zarin, Mount Gesbakht, Mount Davad, Mount Mijin, and Mount Marak, which have all grown from Mount Aparsen, of which the other mountains are enumerated. For the Davad mountain has grown into Khujistan likewise from the Aparsen mountain. The Dimavand mountain is that in which Bevarasp is bound. From the same Padashkh-vargar mountain unto Mount Kumish, which they call Mount Madofryad ('Come-to-help') -- that in which Vistasp routed Arjasp -- is Mount Miyan-i-dast ('mid-plain'), and was broken off from that mountain there. They say, in the war of the religion, when there was confusion among the Iranians it broke off from that mountain, and slid down into the middle of the plain; the Iranians were saved by it, and it was called 'Come-to-help' by them. The Ganavad mountain is likewise there, on the Ridge of Vishtasp (pusht-i Vishtaspan) at the abode of the Burzin-Mitro fire, nine leagues (parasang) to the west. Ravak Bishan is in Zravakad; this place, some say, is Zravad, some call it Bishan, some Kalak; from this the road of two sides of the mountain is down the middle of a fortress; for this reason, that is, because it is there formed, they call Kalak a fortress; this place they also call within the land of Sarak. Mount Asparog is established from the country of Lake Chechast unto Pars. Pahargar ('the Pahar range') is in Khurasan. Mount Marak is in Laran.  Mount Zarin is in Turkistan.  Mount Bakht-tan is in Spahan.

The rest, apart from this enumeration, which they reckon as fostering hills of the country in the religion of the Mazdayasnians, are the small hills, those which have grown piecemeal in places.

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