A Manual of Khshnoom

The Zoroastrian Occult Knowledge

by Phiroz Nasarvanji Tavaria | 1971 | 160,667 words

An introduction to the mysteries of Khshnoom, an ancient occult movement. Khshnoom stands for 'Divine' or 'Spiritual' knowledge and originated from Zarathushtra. This book contains knowledge not to be found in Zoroastrian religious works. The second part contains documentaion of the life of Prophet Zarathushtra....


Life of Zarathushtra Prologue

For tracing the advent of Zarathushtra on this earth, it is necessary to gain some idea of the conditions on the known material world prior to the Prophet's descent. It is necessary to know that from the standpoint of Zoroastrian religion, our earthy globe is made up of two main sections, one, what is called in Farvardin Yt. 3 the Thrishva, the unknown holy one-third also called 'Khanirath Bimi', the Golden Shore (Yt. 10, 15), situated in the Arctic region near the North Pole, and the other, the remaining two-thirds which is the wicked known material world called Drujo Deman (Yasna 46.11) or Daozangha, the hell (Vd. 19.47).

We learn from Yd. 19,4,11 that holy Zarathushtra was born in Airyana Vaeja located in the above Thrishva, which is buried under mountain-deep snow since over 10,000 years. Hence scholars do not know of its existence and geography. According to Vd. 2,22 the intense cold resulting in falling of snow-flakes which caused the Iceage was foretold to king Jamshid by Ahura. Mazda. Owing to this 'ice-age', the population in Airyana Vaeja known as the Aryans, (lit., meaning 'of noble birth') gradually moved down in batches, with Gayomard as the first king, to their ancient original fatherlands in the known material world.

These original fatherlands were according to Nature's curriculum, unpopulated since the time of the World Deluge that had occurred some 27,000 years before (on an average). Some idea of the glorious life in Airyana Vaeja and the Prophet-kings that ruled there during these 27,000 years is to be found in "Dabistan" reproduced in this book further on under the head "History of Berosus" in section dealing with the Date of Zarathushtra. The known material world resumed its run of the current Zarvane Daregho Khadat (lit., self-created long Time), which according to Khshnoom is of 81,000 years' duration. It is now over some 14,500 years since that resumption commenced, and Zarathushtra descended some 4,000-5,000 years since this commencement.

However, before the Aryans arrived on the plains of the known material world, inferior souls had begun to appear on the earth as demons and had assumed possession of the lands. Here started great feuds. The Aryan leaders possessed great spiritual powers of the White side, while the aborigines, that is, the demons, were masters of evil arts of sorcery and other great powers of the Dark side. The demons led their lives as robbers, dacoits, etc. Thus till the advent of Zarathushtra there were only two sections - one, of the White side and the other, of Dark. There was no religion as such till Zarathushtra revealed his Faith, and hence the belief in "conversion of King Vishtaspa" is erroneous. ("Dawn & Twilight", p. 33 by Prof. Zahner).

For over 4000 years prior to the advent of Zarathushtra on the earth, the sky was overcast to immense heights above with the Satan's monstrously inflated body of Darkness possessing consciousness, from which there were most dreadful visitations on the earth of plagues, cholera, and influx of other diseases, spread of all kinds of lusts, locusts, famines, great fires, earthquakes, etc., etc.

When such was the dire condition on the earth, Geush Urva the sub-angelic potentiality, appointed for the protection of souls on earth, raises his plaint to the Creator (Ysn. 29,1) whereupon Ahura Mazda showed Geush Urva the Kehrp, invisible body, of Zarathushtra and assured him that He would create him who would show to mankind the path of purity. This appeased GeushUrva who said "I will protect the Creation..." (Bd.4,3). Geush Drva does not mean “soul of the ox” as rendered by Prof. Zaehner ("Dawn…p. 76). As stated above Geush Urva is the subangelic potentiality being actually the animated phantom of the collective -blissful side of the totality of Urvans (souls) on earth. It is allegorically called Geush, because it possesses the blissful characteristics in common with the cowkind. Thus the word 'Geush' in Geush-Urva, Geush-Tashan and Geush-aevo-datayao' does not mean the quardruped ox or kine, but the blissful potentiality.

In the warfares between the two parties, Gayomard lost his son, Shyamak, but subsequently kings Hoshang, Tehmurasp, Kershasp and other kings and warrior-saints in their respective ages fought against those demons and kept them under some control. In the golden age, warrior-saint Kershasp, kings Tehmurasp, Hoshang, Faridun, and certain other kings turned the material world into Khanirath Bami (lit. Golden Shore), that is, rendered the world Satan-free and felicitous. Thus there were alternations of success of the White and the Dark powers. The Peshdadian and Kayanian kings though they often succeeded in warfares, could not suppress the demons. They knew about the oncoming of Zarathushtra and eagerly awaited his advent. Dinkard (VIl; 1;59-60) informs us that during the golden age King Jamshid forewarned the demons of their destined defeat and overthrow at the birth of Prophet Zarathushtra.

At last when proper time arrived, preparations were made in the heavens for the descent of Zarathushtra, with the description of which begins the life of the Prophet in Dinkard. This description, which is in the form of 'Afdi', marvels, is in several places depicted in highly enigmatical language though often seemingly simple. Many of these instances are elucidated in the delineation of the Prophet's 'biography that follows.. (Condensed from Dr. F. S. Chiniwalla's "'Khshnoom Nikize Vehdin" Vol. I.).

Airyana Vaeja, the Birth-place of Zarathushtra.

We know from Vandidad (19,4 & 11) Bd. (20 & 24,3) that . Zarathushtra was born in Airyana Vaeja. Total ignorance exists in philology with regard to Airyana Vaeja, for which Prof. Henning states:

"The Avesta places them (Zoroaster and Kae Vishtispa) in a country vaguely named Airyana Vaeja".**

He calls it 'vaguely named' because the name of Airyana Vaeja is not to be found in the geography of the known material world, which is Satan-infested. Airyana Vaeja is situated in Thrishva (Yt. 13_3) the unknown holy one-third of the earthy globe situated in the Arctic region and buried under mountain-deep snow. Airyana Vaeja means the land bearing (invisible) noble seeds of blissfulness. In Vandidad (2,22) we find the falling of this snow foretold to King Jamshid by Ahura Mazda as follows:

"O fair Yima, son of Vivanghat, upon the material world, the evil winters are about to fall, that shall bring the fierce deadly frost... shall make snow-flakes fall thick even as aredvi deep on the highest tops of mountains."

(S.B.E. Vol. IV). '

In Thrishva is the holy land Airyana Vaeja, where Zarathushtra was born, and which was the cradle of the Aryan race. This Thrishva is the seventh and the only terrestrial Keshvar. Karshvare or Keshvar technically means country or residing place of saintly souls who are referred to in Yt. 10,15 as 'Gava Shayana, Gava Shitimcha', where 'gava' lit., kine, does not mean quadruped kine, but holy souls who have also the philanthropic characteristics as of the kine. Thrishva, otherwise called 'Khanirath Bami' is buried under snow since some 10,000 years and opens up when the known material world is submerged by the waters of the Deluge. Prof. Zaehner being unaware of this assumes Khanirath Bami to be 'Central mythical clime' ("Zurvan." p. 9 footnote) taking the hint from Bd. 11,1.

In the Airyana Vaeja is the holy mountain called 'Haraiti Barez' (Yt. 19,1) or Mt. Alborz. On the top plateau at the highest altitude (bila) of the Mountain (Zbarangh) (Yd. 19,4 and 11) in Airyana Vaeja was the 'Vara' on which was situated the prophet's father Pourushaspa's mansion where Zarathushtra was born. Here on this plateau flowed from the far heights of the planetary world Asha-Chithra and Vohu-Chithra, the vibrationary currents bearing 'seeds' of holiness and goodness. This flowing of such sublime vibrationary currents is allegorically depicted as the river 'Drejya'.

On the slopes of the sides of the above Haraiti Barez, there are said to be several plateaus, on each of which, in those distant ages, there were sublime Markaz, residential places called Vara, such as Demavand, Pairi-Daz, Bahman-daz, Pamar, Siraz, Firdaus, etc., built by different illustrious kings of the Paoiryo-tkaesha class. On its first plateau called Pamar was king Jamshid's Vara which was subterranean (Bd. 32,,2). Vara is a talismanically protected area either subterranean or on the surface of the earth so sanctified that Satan cannot find entry there and desecrate it.

It will thus be understood that Airyana Vaeja is definitely a geographical name on the unknown one-third of the earthy globe, buried under deep snow since over 10,000 years and hence its name and its very existence are unknown to philological scholars.


Genealogy Of Zarathushtra

The genealogy of Zarathushtra commences from King Gayomard. To enumerate briefly, the lineage goes down from Gayomard to king Yima (Jamshed), then to Fraedun, then to Manushchihr and then to Spitama. From Spitama the lineage runs successively as under:


The above line, which came down from Manush-Chihr to Spitama, especially the seed of the forbears of the Prophet from Spitama, was rendered highly purified. In order to cause the soul of the Prophet to descend on the earth, the fire-energies of his ancestors which (fire-energies) bore influence of Jupiter were rendered finer and finer, on account of which the line of Spitama became more and more sublime in priesthood. From this exalted line was descended the soul Farrokhtum, most auspicious, known as Holy Spitama Zarathushtra.

(Abridged from Pahlavi Dinkard Vol. VII; 1,70 - Sanjana Edition).


Source of Biography

The original Avestan source of the biography of the holy Prophet was the 13th Nask (Volume} 'Angheush' which is lost. But the summary of 21 Nasks is preserved in Pahlavi of which that of Spend Nask treats of “. . . the earthly composition of the material body with the Fravahar and the soul of the Prophet; of the nature of his spiritual birth in Heaven, and his material birth on earth; of his conference with the Deity, at thirty years of age, and the occurrences of seven such conferences in ten years. It described the many miracles and marvels attributed to the Prophet, which are collected in the Seventh Book of the Dinkkard”, etc. (From "Zoroastrianism Ancient &Modern" p 6, by, Ervad P. S. Masani).

Dinkard, begins the delineation of the life of, the Prophet from the descent of glory on Zarathushtra about which it is stated that the glory which was with, Ohmnazd descended from ruler to ruler and from saint to saint till it came to King Kae Khushrow, who through the power of that glory vanquished the Turanian Afrasiyab and his associates and other worst destroyers of the world. Besides this, he joined in the destruction and demolition of the idol-temples of the frightful demonolatry located on the shore of the Lake Chaechasta. Owing to his worthy achievements in the cause of Renovation (of the Universe) he is now on a throne which is, adorned by the halo of that glory, at a secret place wherein there is an immortal preserver of his body until the Renovation, by the desire of the Creator. (Drawn from Dastur Sanjana's. translation of Pahlavi Dinkard Vol. VII, Intro. 39- 40);


Coming of Glory to Zarathushtra

Afterwards it (glory) came to Zarathushtra, the descendant of Spitama, during his conference with Creator Ohrmazd and he accepted from the beloved Omniscient Creator Ohrmazd, from His very throne the comprehensive and also detailed intelligence of the learning and functions of the priesthood and warriorship and husbandry and artisanship, and he accepted the entire responsibility by bringing by command of the Creator the Mazdayasnian Revelation to king Kae Vishtasp, of enlightening the sages of the region through that great light in that Supreme King of the sacred beings, of propagating that light in the seven keshwars (regions) through the good eloquence of the successive generations of (human) creatures until the Renovation (of the universe). (ibid. 41-42).


Sanjana Dinkard-Chapter I

When Ohrmazd had produced the material environment of Zarathushtra, the glory which was at the time near Ohrmazd, fled first on to the Aries, thence to the, Endless tights (zodiac), thence to the Sun, thence to the Moon, thence to the Stars, and thence to .the fire which was in the house of Zoish; from that fire it fled on, on to the wife of Frahim-rvana-Zoish,(father of Prophet's mother), when that maiden was born who became the mother of Zarathushtra (Sanjana's translation Vol XIII of Dinkard 1,1-3).

(It may be noted that the above description refers to the Nature's process of purification through the above light, of the womb of the Prophet's mother of Druji-e-Buji, menstrual flow, to ensure immunition from material desires.)

From that glory that light escaped simultaneously into, the earth and into the sky; then its flight became apparent at a distance, so that it was said by the people in the suburb of Frakht-ravanan Zoish that the light burns through self-combustion, that is, it needed no fuel. (ibid 4,5).

The demons on account of their discomfiture by that glory in causing harm to that maiden, brought on that country dire winter, all kinds of pestilence and other tyrannical enemies; and they impressed on the minds of the people of the country that such a calamity had come to the country owing to the witchcraft of this girl, so that the people of the land awfully quarreled with the parents about the sorcery of the girl which was causing conflict, and about removing her out of that country. (ibid. 6).

The father of the girl remonstrated with the people with manifold reason about the unjust allegation of witchcraft against the girl, that

"when that girl was born in my house, her entire halo emanated from behind (her person) as the apparent light of a fire, that is, from the whole of her person superior light set forth in the dark night when this girl was seated in the innermost part of the house where there was no fire (or light); in the house where a large fire was burning and if the girl was seated there, the burning became more dazzling owing to the light (emanating) from her body; a wizard was never known who was so glorious."

(ibid 7.8).

But owing to the instigation of the demons and the disbelievers who belonged to the country, the inhabitants were not satisfied, so the father ordered the girl to go to Patiritaraspo, the father of the family that lived in the country of the Spitamas, in the town situated on the- fiver Arag; and the girl assented to her father's order_ That mischief of the demons was caused with an evil design for removing the girl from her house, but God glouriously made it the cause for the father's sending of the girl to the house of Patiritaraspo the father of Pourushaspo for her marriage with Pourushaspo, the father of Zarathushtra. Here she occupied the highest place in the country of the Spitamas and she was inspired that her duty was to act according to her father's order. Then she performed religious ablution_ and proceeded to Patiritaraspo's village. At that stage the glory came to Pourushaspo, the son of Patiritaraspo. (ibid 9-13). .

"The Creator Ohrmazd passed on the Fravahar of Zarathushtra to the parents of Zarathushtra through a Hom (Haoma) plant, through miracle-producing tillage.

(ibid 14).

With regard to the necessity of the advent of Zarathushtra on this earth, we are told that when this material world and mankind first came into existence, human beings for countless ages led holy life. Hence there was no need of Zarathushtra to descend on the earth to teach mankind the anti-demoniacal laws i.e., the laws of purity. But this necessity arose subsequently when inferior souls descended on the earth and Satan succeeded in his guiles. All the above period of countless ages is designated by '3000 years'. The technical exposition of these 3000 years is given under Supplement No.9 and hence it is not necessary to repeat the same here. So it was at this stage that the Ameshaspends formed together the material of Zarathushtra and they seated his Fravahar (Spiritual essence) within. At that time Zatathushtra appeared to the archangels as having a, body like their own (Ham Karpih). This means that the Prophet was not like worldly human beings subject to family life, but his body was lustrous like that of Ameshaspends (ibid 15-16).

Then Ohrmazd discussed with Ameshaspends about the achievement of perfect purity and spiritual wisdom and of good aura by the Prophet's mother. He further discussed that since Zarathushtra has a like body as of Ameshaspends, he would be invisible on the earth and hence it is necessary to invest him with Asna Vira powers, i.e. powers to enable him to assume material body at will. For this purpose steps were taken to render both father and mother of Zarathushtra purity-perfect. (ibid. 17-21).


Hom (Haoma)

The Fravahar' of Zarathushtra is stated to have been conveyed into the stem of Hom (Haoma) by the Ameshaspends because Hom possesses the characteristic of being constantly attracted to the worship of Ahu, the Unnamable Absolute One in oneness. Hom is of three categories: (a) Hom angel who proceeds from Ahu and is reattracted to Ahu; (b) Hom, who (in Yasna 9,1) approaches Zarathushtra and whom Zarathushtra addresses as 'Nara', is the lustrous body (Kehrp) of the angel Hom; and (c) Hom in visible form is the plant, mentioned, which can grow only in the soil free from infestation of Ahriman (Satan).

Besides, Hom represents the knowledge of Ahu. Hom is the medium of imparting immortality. Hence it is referred to in Ysn. 9,2 as "Haomo duraosho" lit., repeller of death (by burning up the soul's- evil - 'Akhti; (Vd. 6.43). Such being the characteristics of Hom_ the Ameshaspends modeled together a stem of Horn of the height of a man, beautiful, of a superior colour and juicy where fresh and into that stem was conveyed by them the Fravahar of Zarathushtra from the endless light (heaven of zodiac) to the village of Pourushaspo, and it was produced there with Asna Vira, lit.,_meaning innate intelligence. Asna Vira indicates possession of the characteristics of an angel and capability of appearing at will in material form, as stated above. (ibid. 22-23).

In paragraphs 24-28, the language is highly enigmatical, as also stated in the beginning, about which (language) Prof. Jackson rightly observes in footnote:

"Much of all this, it is true, has a mythical ring or an allegorical note."

With a view to elucidate these passages we reproduce Dastur Darab Sanjana's translation followed first by footnotes and then, by elucidations.

(24) "And when 30 years of the 3000 years of the worldly existence of that Blemish-giver (Aharman) remained, then they, Vohumano and Ashavahishto, together arrayed themselves in their pre-eminence, transformed themselves into embodied existences, and came forth there[2] where two birds[3] were seated longing for progeny[4], (since their) off-spring[4] in the nest[5] had been devoured[6] by setpents[6] seven[7] years before[8]."

(25) "(While they were) in that meditation of theirs, Vohumano and Ashavahishto came up (to them) and those birds consulted them thus: "Our salutations (to you) we wish to have that Haoma[9]."

(26) "Their (the archangels') array with their pre-eminence in such a manner, and their (the birds') longing for the HAOMA (are) a twofold wonder; from them he who was the male (bird)[3] seized (or snatched off) the Haoma[9] with both his legs (and) that one who was next[3] carried away[10] the Haoma, and it was set by them there an that tree[11] above in (their) nest[12] and they deposited it above (the place) the serpents[13], so that the latter might pass of[14]".

(27) "Up to that nest which (was) of the progeny of the birds the FRA VASHI of Zarathushtra proceeded, and hence also, the serpents[13] in that tree directly rushed on at the demons (as if) that FRAVAHAR of Zarathushtra had smitten them on the jaws and the serpents fell down[15] and died[15] and hence also they are even now full of blood[16] as to (their) seed, and that is necessary for such a species."

(28) "That (Haoma)[9] was engrafted with that tree, and on the top of the tree, (or the en grafting of the Haoma with that tree (was) on its summit), there where were (located) the nests of the birds, it grew evergreen[17] and golden coloured[17]."


(24) When 30 years of the above mentioned '3000' years of the worldly existence of Ahriman remained, (the Ameshaspends descended to the mortal worlds of the Space and the material world. Here Geush Tashan and Geush Urva were seated longing for souls to turn from vice to virtue, since mankind in the material world had been engrossed in wickedness to an abnormal degree. Hence they were subject to repetitions of death and birth during the preceding evil period of rank materialism under the influence of Mars during the sway of the inter cycle of that planet in the heavens.

(25) While they (Geush Tashan and Geush Urva) were in that meditation,. Behman and Ardibehesht came up to them, and the two Geush welcomed them and wished to have that Hom which could terminate the sway of the demons and spread prosperity.

(26) Geush Tashan grabbed the Hom, i.e., the subtle elements or 64 grades located on Upairi Dakhyu and from which are formed Kehrps, the invisible body-forms from which material bodies are developed, and Geush Urva carried that (Hom), i.e., those blissful effects to the material world so that the evil effects (serpents) may be undone.

(27) With the inception of the Fravashi of Zarathushtra i.e. with the spread of the Mazdayasni Law of Infoldment of spirit into matter, the force of the evil propensities of the demons was broken and reduced to its embryonic state though only bidding its time to develop.

(28) With the engrafting of Hom on the earth, which (Hom) bore the Farohar of Zarathushtra, i.e., with the advent of the JarthoshtiMazdayasni religion and the effects of Reformation (which were concomitant with the Farohar of Zarathushtra) the evil effects began to disappear.

When Pourushaspo was wedded to Dogdo Bahman and Ardibehesht together came up to the grazing ground for the cattle of the Spitamas, and they drew their attention to the Hom brought by them. Here the, word 'cattle refers to the individuals possessing goodness, and 'grazing ground', to' Mt. Albarz which engenders goodness, to which the blissful currents of Asha Chithra, Vaha Chithra flowed and turned the then Iran into a veritable paradise. Here there was a spot where stood Pourushaspo's house. That spot is said to be in 'Dareji. Zabar' and 'Dareji-Zabar' is said to be in Iran-vej (Airyana Vaeja) (Vd. 191.4,11). Iran-vej was motherland of all people of righteous thought.

This Iran-vej was in Thrishva in the Arctic region at the top of which was Har-Barez, the Mount Albarz. Here flowed from the immortal worlds the currents (depicted as flowing of river Dareji) bearing the blissful seeds of Asha Chithra and Vaha Chithra. Iran-vej had two extremities - one to the East, and the other to the West.

Towards theWest was a city called 'Rae'. In this city was 'Dareji-Zabar' where there was a talismanic place which was consecrated where lived Pourushaspo. Here flowed holy currents from immortal worlds. It was in the fortune of Pourushaspo to bring down those currents to the town of 'Rae'.


Exposition of Crossing the Waters of the River Daitya

A holy Athravan (priest) is supposed to possess 16 different spiritual powers. Pburushaspo possessed all these 16 powers in entirety and so he could listen to the Divine Music. By virtue of the possession of those 16 powers, he knew how to perform the holy ceremony. Thus to take which particular type of posture, how to meditate, what pitch to adopt in incantation, how to begin the voice, so that the breath may also be softened whereby it may be possible to listen to the divine music of Ahunavar - all these holy practices are expressed as crossing the waters of the river Daitya. (ibid. 29-30). When a person passes six or seven breaths per minute, his life-energy, etc., become softened. In such a condition the two nostrils through which a person inhales and exhales assume certain motion – these two are expressed as the...rivers 'Ranghu' and 'Danghu' in Avesta. Ranghu (Yt. 5,63) was on the West of Iran-vej and 'Danghu' or 'Daiti' (ibid. 112) on the East. The names of these rivers are taken from the names of the plexuses of Iran-vej soil.


Ceremony for Attracting Spiritual Essences on Earth

When the spiritual essences Farohar, Baodangh, i.e., Divine Wisdom, soul and subtle body of Zarathushtra were to descend on the earth, Pourushaspo donned his Sudreh and tied the Kusti and performed the holy ceremony for attracting down the current of Haoma_ which contained the above essences. Thus by performance of the ceremony those essences were attracted to it on the earth. At that time the breaths of Pourushaspo and Dugdaub were attuned with the Divine Music of Ahunavar. (ibid. 32-33).

When Ahura Mazda had produced the material of Zarathushtra, his physical essence fled from the neighbourhood of Ahura Mazda to that material, thence to Khordad and Amerdad, by the power of which Zarathushtra could assume physical body on the earth or rarefy it at will. From thence, it fled to holy clouds (Hu-avra) and thence to the earth as rain-water and caused the plants to flourish. The essence of Zarathushtra's body came from that water to those plants. (ibid. 36-38).

In par. 39 six white cows of yellow ears are mentioned.

Yellow indicates possessing the development of Rae, divine self intelligence. They belonged to Pourushaspo whose sublime cerebral plexuses were enlightened (in the case of ordinary human beings they are in darkness). These cows possessed particles of the same soul as of Pourushaspo and their Rae (self-intelligence) being elevated they were able to recognize the parent soul in Pourushaspo. Dugdaub milked those two cows which were not impregnated and gave that milk bearing Zarathushtra's essence of body, to Pourushaspo for mixing it with Haoma. When the Haoma and the milk were mingled together Pourushaspo and Dugdaub immediately drank it. Thus were the glory, fravahar and the material essence of Zarathushtra in the two parents (ibid. 47).

After Zarathushtra was conceived, the demons made dire attempts to cause Zarathushtra's death in his mother's womb, and caused her to suffer from acutest and acutely painful diseases, so that she wished to consult the wizard physicians for a remedy of the ailment. And here was manifested a great miracle in which she heard a Divine voice conveyed to her by the sacred beings which warned her to desist from consulting the wizard, for that would cause destruction, and advised her to perform the sacred ablution and bring dry fuel with her hands and for the sake of that infant to roast meat with cow's butter and make broth on the fire, and for his sake (i.e., for the sake of the infant) quaff it in time and she would be cured. Dugdaub obeyed the divine instructions and was cured. Here the meat is not the ordinary mutton or meat of any other animal, but that of holy Pasu[1] referred to in Pahlavi as 'Basariya'. (ibid. 53-55).


For Three Days Before Zarathushtra was Actually Born, the Village Became Alllighted. at First People Fled in Confusion Fearing that the Whole Village Would Be Destroyed, Because There Were Flames in Every Nook and Corner, but Afterwards they returned Saying the Village of Pourushaspo will not at all be Destroyed for in His House is Born the Glorious Man-child. (Ibid. 56-58).

When the tidings of the birth of glorious Zarathushtra spread in the world through the prophecy of Yima (King Jamshed) and other illustrious souls, Yima spoke to the demons that pure and holy Zarathushtra would be born in the world and their destructive activities would be defeated. (ibid 59-60). "In the golden age of the world King Yim (Jamshed) forewarns the demons of their destined defeat and overthrow at the birth of the glorious manchild." (Prof. Jackson).

In par. 62 there is reference to an ox in the reign of Kae Usa (king Kae Kaus). Here the quadruped ox is not meant, but the animated Kehrp, invisible body, of the collective White side of the advanced souls of Paoriyo-tkaesha class and other emancipated souls, who have entered Garo-deman, the Satan-free part of the earthy globe, is designated allegorically as 'ox'" because ox represents the blissful "Live and let live" principle in Nature. The above advanced souls knew that the vehemence of the Satanic force would be curbed after the advent of Zarathushtra.

In par. 67 there is Pahlavi reference to 'Tora-i-aevag-dat' 'or 'Gavyodat', Avesta 'Geush aeva datayao' which is rendered in philology as "the primeval ax" is also not the quadruped ox, but represents the collective White side of the souls transferred to the Space and the material world from the planetary world. This Gavyodat tells Ahriman that he will not be successful in his destructive activities when Zarathushtra takes birth on the material world.

(68-69) Before the birth of Zarathushtra, Frasiyav, the sorcerer, thrice sought the glory of Zarathushtra (Yt. 19,82) for which he supplicated to Ardvi Sura (Yt. 5,41) for wresting the glory of Zarathushtra and the fame, prosperity and good qualitites of the people of Iran, with a view to crush them all. So he rushed to the six super-ethereal Keshvars (Yt. 10,15) and Zareh Vourukasha (Ysn. 42,4) and also to the holy terrestrial Keshvar Khanirath Bami (Yt. 10.15) situated in the Arctic Region and buried under mountain-deep snow since over 10,000 years. But since that glory was attainable only by the righteous and the great holy souls, Avan Ardvisura did not grant him the boon.

Here it may be noted that Zareh Vourukasha and Caspian Sea have both identical meaning of "wide-shored". But it must be remembered that the two have nothing in common except for their meaning 'wide shored'. Zareh Vourukasha is the inconceivable huge and wide super-ethereal expanse, allegorically called sea getting super-ethereal waves, on the top of the Space, while Caspian Sea on the North of Iran is only a wide material lake which can be easily measured.

The next par. 70 contains the whole genealogy of Zarathushtra which we have already given, partially abridged, in the beginning of this same Chapter I.

We shall now go to Chapter II of the Dinkard.


(Sanjana - Dinkard) Chapter II Zarathushtra Laughed. at Birth.

The marvel is recorded that Zarathushtra laughed outright on being born.

"The tradition is recorded by Pliny, who observes in his 'Natural History' Zoroaster was the only human being who ever laughed on, the same day on which he was born. We hear too, that his brain pulsated so strongly that it repelled the hand when laid upon it, as presage of his wisdom."

(Prof. Jackson).

It is stated allegorically that seven nurses were frightened by his laughter at birth.' Here the seven planetary heavens are depicted as seven nurses (Dk. VII, Ch. II, 1-2). In the case of ordinary worldly souls_ these planetary heavens act as the veritable “Mills of God” about which the poet sings:

"The Mills of God grind slowly, But they grind exceeding small, Though with patience he stands waiting With exactness grinds he all".

In this way, Nature metes out condign punishments during life on earth according to the rule of 'Akem akai' (Ysn. 43,5}, evil to evil, compatible with the soul's degree of sinfulness. In ordinary cases, a child at birth being in communion with Nature, foresees the retributive punishments awaiting it in life through the planetary heavens, and hence it always cries.

But the holy Prophet's soul was Farrokhtum, most auspicious being sin-free, and was not subject to vicissitudes of life, for he took birth as a Saviour, and hence he LAUGHED at his birth. Thus, so to say, the seven nurses, i.e., the planetary heavens were disapppointed at his birth, because they would not be able to perform their office of visiting woe to Zarathushtra. (1-3) Paorushaspo called for "soft woolen clothings" for the child. In ordinary case woolen clothing is intended to be for protection from cold. Here wool indicates two things - 1) that it is taken from sheep, which possesses Gava, i.e., blissful characteristic, and 2) it affords protection. Here protection refers to the protection by Drvasp, the protecting angel who is indicated by "soft woolen c1othings". Every child is under protection of Drvasp. Due to this the pollution from the mother at the time of giving birth does not affect the child. Zarathushtra was in direct connection with that angel (Drvasp). Both he i.e., Zarathushtra, and the angel were contemporaneous. This is referred to as "soft woolen. clothings" which stand for Drvasp. The mother Dughdaub was exalted by her bearing within her the glorious child possessing divine connection with Drvasp.


'Biter Bitten' - Demon's Hands Turned Backwards.

When the demons did not succeed in causing the child Zarathushtra's death in his mother's womb, and found that he laughed at his birth, they became very spiteful owing to the glory in Zarathushtra. One arch-demon named Durasrubo who was much skilled in witchcraft went to Paorushaspo's house to see the child with a murderous intent. He wished to crush with his hands the delicate head of that perfectly glorious child; and to cause his death. But immediately when Zarathushtra's eye fell on the demon, his (demon's) hands were miraculously turned backwards towards the ends, that is, quite folded on the back with the result that never afterwards could that demon devour meat by means of those hands. (4-6).

(7-19) The demon saw the marks on Zarathushtra's body, which he misrepresented to be evil (marks), which made Paorushaspo frightfully afraid of the decay of his son's lustre and so he hastened to hide him in some place beyond the sight of the sorcerers. The demon Durasrubo through witchcraft so cast into the mind of Paorushaspo the fear of Zarathushtra, and so poisoned it that he even from the fear of himself solicited the demon for the death of Zarathushtra and the demon advised him to hide Zarathushtra amid firewood and kindle it. But the miracle was that wood did not catch fire and the fond mother carried her son away.

This fire does not refer to fire in the hearth, but within the body when a person is lamenting or pining through some vicissititudes or defeat or injustice or from jealousy; for it must be remembered that Paorushaspo was fully conscious of the invulnerability of Zarathushtra's life and body by any power of sorcery. His seeming fear for himself and his solicitation to Durasrubo were only meant to befool that demon. The passage signifies that Zarathushtra was not subject to such lamentations and burning in the heart.

When the above witchcraft failed next suggestion was to hide Zarathushtra in a narrow path and to cause many oxen to pass on the path so that he might be trampled at night under the feet of the oxen. Then Zarathushtra is said to have been placed near the opening of water-pool and many horses caused to be run towards that water-pool, so that he might be trampled under their hoofs. But a large horse with yellow ears walked before others did, and stood before Zarathushtra whereby he was saved. Here yellow ears indicate the development of Rae, divine self-intelligence in the horse. The fond mother rushed to her son and carried him away.

Next he was placed in a wolf's den, in which the cubs were slaughtered, so that the wolf seeing her cubs slaughtered might devour Zarathushtra in revenge. But the miracle was that when that wolf came to the den, it was much excited but by the miracle of God, it knelt down so that its mouth was down on the cubs. Thus he was saved. In other words, the ferocity of the wolf was turned into docility due to the glory of the child Zarathushtra.

Then Sraosha the Holy and Bahman Ameshaspend came to Zarathushtra and brought to him a woolly sheep, to warm and feed him. The mother came up there, lifted her child, saying that she would not hereafter leave him under any circumstances.

These animals were not the quadrupeds but they indicate the degrees of exaltation of the potentialities of Paorushaspo, where they were either in excess or deficiency. Here the learned Dr. Chiniwalla informs that these writings in the form of parables are not to be taken literally, but they designate the exaltation of those potentialities in Paorushaspo which were either in excess or in deficiency, in which, degrees of exaltation are expressed in terms of bull, horse, wolf and sheep.

(22) Then Durasrubo foretold to the demons of the coming of Bahman Ameshaspend to Zarathushtra, of the_ Prophet's conference with Ahura Mazda and of the propagation of the Religion in the world.

(23-30) Paorushaspo is stated to be driving in a chariot and four (horses). Here 'horse' indicates power, and 'four horses' means the power of the numeral four, which indicates the power of drawing or developing Evil as well as Good, so that the erstwhile Evil can be transmuted into Good.

Paorushaspo was bringing home to Durasrubo i.e., Tur-bara- Tur, the Satan, the superiority of Good over Evil, and the futility of his sorcery. He asked Durasrubo, "When you were brought before my son, why were you looking from him to the deepest depth and to the sublime height?" To this Durasrubo replied "I was looking for a long time from him up on high to something sublime, then from him to the radiance and glory that he (Zarathushtra) possessed together extending up to the Sun, the radiance and glory that had no end." But Durasrubo did not understand why Zarathushtra should have been endowed with such lustre which connected him Zarathushtra with the 6th heaven of Garo.deman (Jupiter). The confusion of Durasrubo indicates the final success of Good over Evil. Durasrubo stated further that awing to the activity of this child, humanity will gain Tatne-Pasin, the final body which is fiery type and subtle. This gaining of the final body (Tane Pasin) will mark the success of Asha, Holiness over Druj, Wickedness. It may be noted that when totality of souls will get Tane-Pasin in the distant future (5th Boundless Time), it will mean extinction of Satan.

(32-33) The demons Durasruba and Bratrugrish were cognizant of the exalted position of Zarathushtra and knew that the world will be enlivened and their activities would be curbed. However, they did not desist from continuing their evil activities. They wanted great catastrophes to visit Zarathushtra and put their intent into practice, but they met with defeat at every attempt. So when Zarathushtra became seven years old, the two joined at the village of Paorushaspo. They saw Zarathushtra in that neighbourhood when he was studying with other children, and they strove with evil intention to injure the mind of Zarathushtra through witchcraft and for that reason, fear and terror were cast by them upon the children, who, were highly terrified, but Zarathushtra did not care for it. Here the demons represent the Dark side and materialism in Nature and growth of Zarathushtra indicates the gradual progress of the White side.

(34-35) Paorushaspo offered Mare's milk to Durasruba to worship. Mare or horse indicates power. Here reference is to the development of power of advancing to higher path (milk) through repetitions of rebirths and condign sufferings during material lives. But those that are pure or holy have no need of such mare's milk i.e., of going through rebirths and retributive punishments. The voice of the heart which makes a person conscious of his transgression at each stage is referred to allegorically as the food of mare's milk.

On hearing the words of Paorushaspo which were addressed to Durasrubo, Zarathushtra promptly declined to follow his father's advice and said "You should worship (Ahuramazda) who is worthy of (human) worship".

This has created much misunderstanding against Paorushaspo and he has been erroneously charged with the worship of idolatry. The name of Paorushaspo is referred to in 'Afrine-Paighamber Zartusht' (Yt. 23,4) framed by the Raenidar (resuscitator of the faith) as: "Pouru-aspem bavahi yatha Pourushaspem", i.e., May you be blessed with plenty of horses like Paarushaspo, which means plenty of spiritual power like Paorushaspo.

This shows that Paorushaspo was not idolatrous as has been wrongly alleged. The name of Paorushaspo has been taken in benediction in the above Avesta, still it is alleged that Paorushaspo was idolatrous, and that he advised Zarathushtra to do the same and that Zarathushtra did not acquiesce. Such is the false allegation. This is inconsistent because in the end Zarathushtra says: "When anyone whatever shall join Paorushaspo where he shall be performing (or celebrating) worship, the worship shall then be suitable to the worshipper, i.e., he shall worship Him (Ahura Mazda) Whom it is necessary to worship". In this worship when through misdeeds a person has to undergo condign punishments, such suffering is called idolatry, because in such cases the misfortune of the sinner is brought on by the propensity of selfishness etc., whereby that person (sinner) becomes oblivious to equitableness, and inclined to the worship of the arch-fiend.

(39-43) Durasrubo threatened Zarathushtra that he would take his life, but the miracle was that Durasrubo instead of succeeding in his threat became disabled for "as long a time as it takes to the milking of ten mares whose milker is only one person". From this he (demon) emerged again and tried to oppose Zarathushtra but got stupefied for double the period. But still he again rose and opposed Zarathushtra for the third time, but was again defeated and stupefied for thrice the first period. Thus he gradually became disabled more and more and fled. This means that Zarathushtra smote the demons, made them conscious of their Evil Propensity, turned their destructive (Khrafastric) propensity into Divine knowledge and wisdom and thereby opened their spiritual eye. Here 'mare' indicates spiritual power, 'milk' shows blissful propensity and numeral '10' stands for perfection, here of blissfulness.

(44) When the sorcerer emerged from the dismay, he utilised his horse, i.e., the evil power and exclaimed that if he did not call his evil power to his aid, Zarathushtra would kill him by his Minthras (holy spells) and by dint of his authority. But in the end both he and his evil power became vanquished and liable to destruction.

(45) In this paragraph, there is allegorical reference to the bursting of the semen from the demon's skin and breaking of the loins from his thighs etc. Semen has reference to the demon's evil and selfish thought-forces. But before the powers of holiness of Zarathushtra, they were rendered futile. We know the function of the skin is to beautify the body and at, the same time, it is the medium for excretion of waste matter from it. Any impairment of the skin is the warning of coming trouble to the body. So if the skin is healthy, there is life and strength and in the healthiness of the waist lies the sustenance of life. But when both the skin and the waist are broken, the human being collapses. Such dire consequences lead a soul to turn from vice to virtue. In this way the passage under reference shows the transmutation of evil plexuses into good.

(46-50) Zarathushtra besides possessing great Wisdom and other spiritual powers from his birth, also possessed 'Aojahush'. Aoj is the special divine power or potentiality possessed by Ameshaspends and also by Zarathushtra. ('Aoj' occurs in the group Aoj_ Zor, Niru, Tagi in Pazand Afrin-e-Ardafravash; 13. Though ordinarily all these four terms convey the same meaning viz., power, in Khshnoom, they have distinctive technical interpretations expounded under Supplement NO. 2).

Owing to his possessing the glory called Kyan (Av. Kavaem Kharena, Yt. 19.9) which holy kings and warrior-saints possessed, he had the characteristics of the four professions, viz_, priesthood, warriorship, husbandry and fine artisanship. He displayed "best friendliness towards the sacred beings and the good ones and an awful hostility towards the demons and the evil ones".

Zarathusnhtra was an angelic being (Yazati) among men. His friendship with God is embellished by his excellence of the sacred beings and by perfection through worthiness towards Ahura Mazda so that "the sacred beings on account of his higher exaltedness than that of any one of those that exist, of those that have existed and of those that will exist spread the good report of his advent throughout the world and of his Salvation of the Creations untroubled by the Blemish Giver (Aharman) through the manifold powers of the tongue of the sage, the perfectly virtuous of the age, doing no harm in the world". Here 'tongue of the sage' refers to the holy formulae of Fshusho Manthra and Manthra Spenta employed by the Prophet in spreading the Faith. The demons even made friendship with the good people with the view that they would join them in confounding and defeating Zarathushtra. They had made feverish attempts to thwart Zarathushtra from his very emergence from the 8th Heaven of the Zodiac down to his advent on the earth, but they were foiled in, their attempts at all stages.

(51-53) Zarathushtra spent 30 years in enlightened practices during which he drew vital energies from the 8th heaven of the Zodjac. With the aid of these, he carried out great Missions of establishing certain holy institutions in the ultra-physical regions above, for enabling fructification of great events during epochmaking ages such as the revealing of other great religions of the world each at its propitious time, and for facilitating the success of the White blissful side in Nature, he carried out great Missions.

When a person is on the righteous Path and practices meditation with concentration with set postures of the body, and repeats or chants special holy incantations and formulae, his breath and Ushtan, i.e., (spiritually) vital energy do not remain commonplace. They become attuned with higher regions of the sky. Such holy breath is allegorically referred to as 'water' from the river. Such breath then comes in contact with the plexuses between the brain and the heart in the proximity of the lungs, and affects every atom of the body through and through, so that it attracts angelic light, and his elements draw currents of blissfulness whereby thoughts become ennobled. Such practices which are of spiritually enlightened nature have been allegorically referred to as going to the river Ranghu or Danghu, and fetching water to the shore, in which 'water' refers to the holy breath, as stated above. Bringing water to the shore also signifies founding great 'institutions' in the skies and bringing them to their consummation.

The above enlightened spiritual practice is of nine types varying according as the person practicing be leading a pious life, or ordinarily worldly, besides other conditions. Thus one may be an ordinary person, whose mind is engaged in worldly thoughts; another also ordinary being but a priest who engages himself in religious ceremonies; a third, over and above these engagements, renders social service, a fourth besides rendering social service undergoes privations for other's sake on altruistic principles and so on. From this it will be understood that the above mentioned spiritual practices are of varied types. In other words, the allegorical rivers Ranghu and Danghu have many effluents, the crossing of which entails severe or mild hardships; and the water fetched signifying the breath inhaled may be said to be muddy or pure i.e., not so holy or sublime, according as the practitioner be an ordinary worldly person or a pious one. In these holy practices when the thoughts are most pure and the breath and vital energy are highly exalted, they became attuned with the Divine Music of Ahunavar. All such practices belong, to the last third group of Nasks called Hada-Manthric, which deal with holy practices for the development of high spiritual powers. In later ages these practices came to be known as 'Sarv-i-Keshmar'. (The entire treasure of Nasks comprises three groups - (i) Gathic, (ii) Datic, and (iii) Hada-Manthric; the first dealing with Gathic hymns, the second with laws and the third with practices, exercises and ceremonies relating to attainment of high spiritual powers).

Zarathushtra spent 30 years in such exalted practices, during which he drew currents of holy vital energies from the 8th heaven of the Zodiac. With the aid of the spiritual power developed by other practices, he fulfilled great Missions for facilitating the success of the White side in Nature and laying foundations for other Faiths to appear in their respective epoch making ages, during the current long cycle of Time (Zarvane Daregha,) comprising 81,000 years. Passing over four effluents of the river Daitya and bringing water to the shore refers to the founding of the Zoroastrian Faith, under the influence of the central planet Jupiter; while crossing three effluents relates to founding non-Zoroastrian Faiths which are under the influence of planets away from the central (Jupiter). In this 'carrying water to the shore' signifies the initiation and consummation of great PropheticMissions.

So when Zarathushtra was performing the ceremony of drawing currents from the 8th heaven of the Zodiac (allegorically referred to as "Zarathushtra coming up third effluent and walking upward") he saw Bahman Ameshaspend, as a model of angelic embodiment i.e., he had a body without a parallel, an ideal of virtue and having a great height of three spears. He carried with him a shoot of the cypress tree which represented 'Mazdayasni Religion'. "The idea here represented is that as Vohumana was uninjured by carrying in the hand the symbol of the Revelation so everybody who would carry it, that is, would adhere to the Religion, would be without injury in this world." Anyone who carried such a branch i.e., practiced holy ceremonies, became immune from worldly sufferings or became exalted. It showed that it is the duty of every person to live peacefully without harming anyone in thought, word or action.

(54-62) When Zarathushtra was performing the ceremony of Haoma, Behman Ameshaspend called Zarathushtra. He asked Zarathushtra for what he was undergoing the sublime trouble which, means the practice of drawing holy currents from the 8th heaven of the Zodiac. To this Zarathushtra replied that it was for gaining sanctity i.e., far establishing truth. Thereupon Behman Ameshaspend told Zarathushtra to put off his garment i.e., change the material body or elemental body into one of light because he (Zarathushtra) possessed Asha, holiness. This is nicely expressed by Prof. Jackson as under:

“(Archangel) Vohuman opens his lips and begins to question the enrapt seer…... and after bidding him to lay aside his 'garment' (or the vesture of his material body), the seraphic messenger leads away his soul in ecstatic trance into the glorious and dazzling presence of Auharmazd and the Amshaspands.

No sooner does Zartusht enter this radiant assembly than he ceases to behold his own shadow upon the ground on account of the great brilliancy of the archangels”.

("Zoroaster the Prophet of Ancient Iran" by Prof. Jackson pp. 21-22).

Here ends chapter II of Sanjana-Dinkard Vol. XIII.


Santana - Dinkard Vol. XIV Chapter III

(1-4) When Zarathushtra returned from the conference with Ahura Mazda, He proclaimed Prophetship and chanted the Mazdayasni Jarthoshti Daena (religion) to which people were attracted. Of these, those that were settled in dwellings, reared the cattle, tied the Kusti, were attracted first because they possessed the propensity of Good in a greater degree than other people. These people, i.e., the former, who were tired of the atrocities of the demons, welcomed the Prophet's utterances whereupon Zarathushtra taught them what righteousness was, and exhorted them to praise righteousness and condemn the demons. In order to gain righteousness and purity (Asha) there must be development of morals whereby the mind gets exalted and the soul is uplifted. For this, living in a settled life is essential, in which self-sacrifice of the family members towards, each other is developed. The propensity of self-sacrifice is increased by mutual sympathy towards each other such as of parents towards children, brothers towards sisters etc.

(5-9) Then Zarathushtra preached the doctrine of Khvaetukdasa (Khaetvadatha), which implies first and foremost every male and every female to practice the Zoroastrian laws of purity. When both correlative counterpart souls get sanctified and blend, together such blending is called Khaetvadatha and the perfected whole soul so formed is called Magavan. This doctrine taught by Zarathushtra was diametrically opposed to that of the demons. These demons are called Kigs and Karapans because they having eyes see not, and having ears heed not, in other words, they do not follow the holy teachings for the exaltation of the sou1. These demons who were next-of-kin relations of Tur, resented the sermon and fled away from him.

This Tur was named Aurvaita-deng who was a descendant of Usikhshes, who was a great King and had a large army and much power. To him the demons said that Zarathushtra by his sermon would make them doubtful of their own (demoniacal) doctrine and so they instigated him to kill Zarathushtra.

But on hearing them Aurvaita-deng became wrathful and excited for their demanding death of Zarathushtra for he said if we kill Him,

'wisdom will cease to exist on this earth for a long time. '

Thereupon Aurvaita-deng went to Zarathushtra and spoke to him

"In my opinion thou art pure, who art sincerely reasonable".

(10-13) Zarathushtra exhorted him to worship Ohrmazd who is blissful. Here a great miracle was manifested viz., the true spiritual lordship and the glorious moral courage of Zarathushtra became conducive to the peace of the Supreme Lord and Creator Ahura Mazda and here was observed the sublime exaltation in the shape of guiding those who were disgracefully gluttons, or of clandestine movements and manifold cheats to good temperament and moderation.


Ahura Mazda inspired Zarathushtra how to Induce The Recalcitrant Chief to Join his Party

(14-l5) Aurvaita-deng in the midst of his wrath and excitement against the demons for their demanding Zarathushtra's death, invited them to listen to the Revelation of Ahura Mazda about which he preached to them

"Righteousness in this world and Ahura Mazda worshipping religion of Zarathushtra will bring all demonism to an end".

Thereupon, Aurvaita-deng said

"O Zarathushtra of the Spitama thou shalt not attract me to such a danger as thou too art in".

(21-26) Zarathushtra informed Vaedvoishta- a demon, that Ahura Mazda demands a hundred most vigorous males and females and a team of four horses". If he gives these, he would get splendor and glory and his soul would be exalted and thereby the object of Ahura Mazda of transmuting evil powers into good would be fructified; if not, he would get evil-notoriety i.e., damnation. But Vaedvoishta was puffed up by his successes through evil and declined the offer of Zarathushtra saying that he possessed greater opulence in the shape of a thousand droves of swine which he had not received either from Zarathushtra or from Ahura Mazda. Here the numeral 1000 stands for the innumerable wiles of the Satan. He moreover became vindictive and planned Zarathushtra's death. But Zarathushtra was not vulnerable to any material body or forces of Dark side, so Vaedvoishta was caught in the Veil of Darkness and fell in damnation. (It may be noted that Vaedvoishta was one of the four demons who flourished in the court of king Vishtaspa before the latter accepted the Zoroastrian Faith).

(27-28) Ahura Mazda told Zarathushtra that he (demon) had become arrogant by possessing cattle which are created by us, but when on the third night after death, his soul comes up, the justice dealt out to him would be of an evil life which will bring for him retributive punishments. These punishments are depicted as the evil food. Through these he will see the utter failure of opposing Ahura Mazda's will and then improve in life i.e. follow the path of transmuting evil into good. In other words, when persuasion fails to effect transmutation of evil into good, Nature exercises its power of reforming the soul by condign punishments.

(29-30) In these paragraphs there is enigmatical reference to the curing of the 4 year old bull and its illness. Here bull refers to the Good side of the soul, and the disease, the Dark. So Ahura Mazda told Zarathushtra that the Haoma water would cure only those who are anxious to be purified and not those who are demonworshippers.

(31-35) When Zarathushtra proceeded first into the embodied world there dwelt at the end of Sajastan an illustrious person named Parshid-tora. The latter asked Zarathushtra for giving him the consecrated Haoma water, which he held in his hand. Zarathushtra told him to praise piety and condemn the demons and declare among the evil people his acceptance of the Ahuramazda-worship of Zarathushtra. Parshid-tora carried out all instructions except declaring among the evil people his acceptance of the Ahuramazda worship of Zarathushtra.

Zarathushtra went to him and told him that the Haoma water would cure only those who are anxious to be purified and not those who are demon-worshippers. Parshid-tora who was not a demon-worshipper was completely cured by the Haoma water. (36-46) Then Ahriman ordered demons to rush upon Zarathushtra and kill him. But Zarathushtra foresaw their secret intentions for his destruction and chanted the Ahunavar aloud, through the holy vibrations of which the demons were made to flee away.

They protested to Ahriman against his ordering them without reason to kill Zarathushtra and said that they did not expect to be able to kill him. Owing to the perfect gloriousness of holy Zarathushtra, he foresaw in his superior mind that the evil demons were conspiring to cause his death and contemplating thus he walked forward and chanted aloud the 'Word' Yatha Ahu Vairyo.

This is expressed allegorically that "he held aloft the stone in his hand". The chanting of the Yatha Ahu Vairyo broke the bodies of the demons. The breaking of the bodies of the demons and the chanting of Yatha Ahu Vairyo by Zarathushtra became manifest not only to the people of Iran, but even to those of the whole world. On observing his splendor the demons had before that fallen down and their devilish propensities passed away and the licentious proclivities were withdrawn from mankind, on account of which the demons deplored most violently to Ahriman. Zarathushtra chanted to them Ahunavar with the result that the demons got buried and concealed in the earth, that is, their bodies were entirely shattered. It is declared that after the shattering of their bodies they have been unable to come forward and cause destruction in the world as embodied demons; their concealed nature having been betrayed to mankind, men thoroughly recognized them and knew that they were not angels but demons.

In the above few paragraphs, it is shown that Zarathushtra delivered the world from the sway and atrocities of the demons who till then walked on the earth as ordinary bipeds i.e. human beings.

(47-53) Ahura Mazda asked Zarathushtra why or how it was that mankind regarded demons as exalted as Dasturs (high_ priests); to which Zarathushtra replied that whatever the people ask of the demons, they are promised to be given. It is on account of those allurements that mankind run to the desert-plan infested with devilish powers and regard demons as Dasturs. They further said that whatever they possessed was through the demons and if anybody received gifts from the good spirits, the demons push him away from receiving the help.

(54-55) Then Ahura Mazda spoke to Zarathushtra,,"We are not as to thee, as the demons are to mankind. We give away everything in invisibility but the demons through close connection when they rush out tempt only with pleasantness." (S.B.E. Vol. XLVII-Ch. IV).

(56) When Zarathushtra was about to return to the earth from his conference with Ahura Mazda, the latter forewarned him that when he goes to the earth, Druj (fiend) will rush to him, and request companionship and cooperation from him, and admonished him not to grant the same to him, and commanded him to recite aloud that triumphant (sacred) formula the 'Yatha Ahu Vairyo'.

(57) When Zarathushtra arrived on this world he met the Druj who was seated near a garment – the garment which was deposited there by him when Vohumana was leading, him to the conference with Ahura-Mazda – female, a person ornamented with gold, and full-bosomed; and she solicited from him companionship; and said "I am Spendarmad"[18]

(58) Zarathushtra said to her, "I have, seen Spendarmad on a bright day that was cloudless and that Spendarmad seemed to me fine behind, and fine in the front, and fine all around – now turn your back , so that I may know if thou art Spendarmad. (59) She replied, "O Zarathushtra, we are those females that are handsome in the front; and badly ugly from behind, so do not order me to turn my back.

(60) After she had squabbled a third time with him, the Druj turned towards her back, whereupon Zarathushtra observed from behind, when (there) stood hard 'Nasa' matter under, the interior opening, which was full of biting reptiles, and leeches and lizards and centipedes and frogs.

(61) Thereupon the triumphant formula, namely, the 'Yatha Ahu Vairyo' was loudly recited by Zarathushtra, then that Druj was confounded.

In the above paragraphs this material world, which is Druj or Evil-infested is personified as female Druj. Her enchanting feminine form stands for the worldly transient enjoyments, which human beings mistake for true happiness. Her back full of 'biting reptiles' etc., indicate the suffering that the immoderate transient enjoyments bring in their train.

As shown in Dr. West's footnote above, the earth is under the special charge of the female archangel Spenta Armaiti, literally meaning Bountiful Devotion or Humility. Owing to this blissful influence, the earth, as an element, displays the characteristic of returning Good for Evil, while fire gives like for like, if sandalwood or incense is put on it, it gives fragrance, and the reverse, if something dirty is put on it; whereas earth or soil turns the dirt or refuse into manure, and gives in return nice flowers, fruits and vegetables.

On account of this at the end of the 'Kemna Mazda' prayer in the Kusti-rite where the word 'Armaitish' refers to the earth and hence 'Nemascha... Armaitish' means 'obeisance to the earth' because she is blissful. On account of this blissfulness in her, we know, she is styled 'mother earth' in English.

(Dk. Vol. XIV; Ch.III; 62) Here, the demon Cheshmak's reference is to the vicious circle of death and birth again and again by falling into the traps of allurements by the Ahriman.

(63) Zarathushtra declared unto mankind the danger of vicious temptations in this world, and the test of the good people in the midst of such temptations; and their protection from such temptations by the necessary warning and commandments of the Mazdayasnian Religion. The survival, of this Religion upto the present time seems certainly due to its purity, piety and truth. (Sanjana Dinkard Vol. XIV-Ch.III - Footnote 4).

Here reference is to the fact that before the present Zarvane Daregho Khadat (comprising 81,000 years) commenced, over 14,000 years ago, before the Aryans descended from the heights of Airyana Vaeja to the plains of the known material world, the demons had descended to it, from the regions above and walked on the earth in the guise of bipeds. They were leading a life of marauders and of destructors of crops and causing much havoc by fires, murders etc. When Zarathushtra descended on the earth, he shattered their bodies by the loud chanting of the Revelation declared by the Avesta, which King Vishtaspa and the people of his age accepted as truth. If this had not been so, i.e., if the king and his people had not accepted the truths of the Avesta, it would not have come down to us to-day.

(64) When Zarathushtra presented himself in the court of King Vishtaspa, there existed the perverted religion of demon Zag, who was full of damnation and many other Kigs and Karapans, oppositionists of the Good Religion. They schemed his death by spreading all kinds of scandals against him and incited Vishtaspa for causing his death.

(67) In this paragraph Zarathushtra is depicted to have stated:

"I have thoroughly replied to their 33 enquiries".

Here '33' represents numerological mysticism. 33 = 3 plus 3 = 6 which refers to the talismanic power of the numeral 6 denoting the six stages of a soul born on the earth as male or female, in which eventually the Evil of the soul is transmuted into Good.

The first four refer to

  1. birth,
  2. growing,
  3. shaping and
  4. entering the adult stage at which the soul i.e. the person concerned shoulders the responsibility of its thought, word and action in life.

By the time (or whenever) that person in one or more lives on earth, is about to complete the fourth stage and enters the fifth if it has succeeded in spiritual bargaining i.e. balancing of obligations with human, animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms as well as Nature's forces, it is then freed from re-birth and physical body by having succeeded in the transmutation of its Evil, into Good. When all these obligations are balanced, the soul is said to have entered the stage of Maidyarem Gahambar, which is transitional to the soul's advancement in paradisiacal regions. In the sixth, the soul enters the final stage of ascending to the heaven of the Moon, which is the lowest of the seven revolving planets and in the distant end, the soul enters the 8th heaven of the.

Zodiac, the sidereal home from which it (soul) was erstwhile exiled for its purification to the mortal worlds, both subtle and material. Such is the power of the numeral 6 relating to the sixth gahambar, which exalts the soul from its sinful condition to the state of holiness, which is referred to in the text as '33' enquiries.

(68) However, great as was this success of Zarathushtra over the demons, greatest still was the reaction on Zarathushtra's body itself which temporarily brought loss of consciousness in him which was restored by Bahman Ameshaspend.

(69) It is stated that King Vishtaspa sentenced Zarathushtra to imprisonment. This has reference to occasions when Zarathushtra had to change his subtle body into corporeal, in order to make himself visible to the people of the world. The Prophet's body was composed of second grade light of the potentiality of Gatha in which light, there is always a mixture of Druj (Evil) in latent form. As soon as the subtle body was turned visible there was onrush of the liberated Druj, which on some occasions rendered the Prophet temporarily unconscious. On such occasions the Prophet ejaculated in a helpless way "Kam nemoi zam, Kuthra nemoi ayeni" (Ysn. 46,1) i.e., where may I go, whither may I take a turn? On such occasions archangel Bahman used to hurry to his succour, and restore him to consciousness by removing the Veil of Darkness from him. Such occasions were instances of 'Azeh' type of sin, in which there is vicarious suffering by one mixing with sinful person, though pure personally.

The above statement of the Prophet's imprisonment sounds quite ordinary, but yet it has a hidden meaning. The temporary unconsciousness which deprived the Prophet of his Prophetship is allegorically depicted as 'imprisonment'. It was not possible in the case of Zarathushtra to be shut up in a worldly prison, for nobody could touch his person which gave a shock if touched, and besides he was capable of rarefying his body and making himself invisible and free, whenever he desired.

During this temporary loss of consciousness_ he was deprived of the sublime wisdom of Bahman Ameshaspend and hence he is allegorically stated to have been 'starved'. This starvation is not of the physical body but of Wisdom which he was otherwise constantly receiving from Bahman Ameshaspend.

(70) Then there is reference to "enlivening the Bull" by Zarathushtra. This bull is not the quadruped. Gava, lit., among other meanings signifies Life. Death of the bull signifies the preponderance of Evil over Good. Inversely speaking when the bull is said to be enlivened, it means subjugation of Evil by Good or preponderance of Good over Evil. So when the prophet became temporarily unconscious in the act of transforming himself from invisible to visible state, he is stated to have been imprisoned and starved and when his body was rendered to its normal shadowless state, it is stated that Zarathushtra brought the bull back to life.

Here there is also the mention of 'the miracle about the shining horse of Vishtispa'. In the footnote, the learned Dasturji informs us that the passage here alludes to the marvelous curing of Vishtispa's horse by Zarathushtra. This miracle is described in detail in the Persian Zarathusht-Namah. This Zarathusht-Namah was written in verse by Dastur Zarathusht Behram in A.C. 1278 (Sanjana Dinkard; Vol XIII: Intro. P. xiii). With due deference to the learned author of the above versical work, it may be stated that the narration of the 'black steed' parable is said to have been given in full romantic style taking the parable in its literal sense because the un-riddling of the allegories relating to the Prophet's life was unknown till Khshnoom came to light and our spiritually enlightened Master Behramshah Naoroji Shroff revealed the true interpretations of those allegories for the first time in India. The elucidation of these allegories has been given by Dr. Chiniwalla in his 'Nikiz' Vol. I, besides in other Khshnoomic literature.

The following is translated from "Amar Jyoti Zarathushtra" written by leamed Ervad S. M. Bhada (pp. 21- 22)

"A parable is connected with the life of Zarathushtra in which it is stated that the demons poisoned King Vishtaspa's ears by misrepresenting him as a sorcerer by throwing hair, nails and other impure things in his bed caused him to be imprisoned. And, when war arose between Gushtasp (Vashtasp) and his enemy Arjasp, it is stated that the legs of King Vishtaspa's black steed got retracted in its body which Zarathushtra restored to their natural condition, whereupon King Vishtaspa accepted the Revelation of Zarathushtra and spread the same in the whole world. So says the parable. We are aware by now that Zarathushtra had a luminous body, he was not approachable closely, his body was of a fiery nature and gave a shock if touched, which body was transparent* and shadowless and besides he possessed the music of the Divine songs of the Gathas and implements of talismanic power, and moreover, could render his body invisible at will - being all these how can it ever be possible for any Human being to catch him or strike him or imprison him.

King Vishtaspa was misled by the instigations of the demons, and by their holding him under their control through spells of black magic. In the, above allegory, four of the King's mental powers were deficient or latent, while others were shining, i.e., active. The bright powers are represented as a horse, but since there were defects also, that horse is stated to be black.

It is further stated that the King was so misguided that he ordered Zarathushtra to be imprisoned. By this is meant that Vishtaspa so managed that Zarathushtra may not come out from his residence in the holy talismanic mountain (Harbarez) so that the demons may have their awn way. This is referred to as imprisonment. Then it is stated that the demons spread putrid things like loose hair, nails, skulls and corpses in his bed. Here Zarathushtra's bed is the earth on which the task of Zarathushtra was to spread blissfulness. So the demons are stated to have deposited the above mentioned putrid things in the earth so as to defeat Zarathushtra's activities. '" Even today there exist a species of small fish the flesh of which is quite transparent. It is called glass fish. So there is nothing unbelievable if the holy Prophet's body was transparent.

Now just as the demons were practicing their witchcraft, there were in the royal court of Vishtaspa holy leaders also who on their part were endeavoring to defeat the demon's power. Thus there was great rivalry between parties of the Dark and the White sides. This is given the form of a warfare, which it certainly was. Owing to this tug-of-war, the King's intervention was absolutely necessary, but he could not decide which party to support. He consulted the wise for restoring the horse to its natural state, but no one could effect it. Thus chaos reigned supreme In the Court of Vishtaspa, which Zarathushtra could perceive from his residence in Harbarez by his spiritual powers. He declared that he would be able to clear the haze of uncertainties. Upon this Zarathushtra was invited to the royal court. This is expressed as Zarathushtra 'liberated from imprisonment'. Thereupon Holy Zarathushtra presented himself in the Court by moderating his highly lustrous fiery body. Owing to this lustre the whole mankind and animals rejoiced. This is aptly stated in Farvardin Yasht 93-94 as under:

"In whose birth and growth the waters and the plants rejoiced; In whose birth and growth the waters and the plants grew; In whose birth and growth all the creatures of the good creations cried out, 'Hail; Hail, to us! for he is born, the Athravan Spitama Zarathushtra'….."

The King himself forgot his own condition by the Prophet's mere presence, and thus peace and joy spread everywhere by his advent as if the divine message of Ahura Mazda was received_ Everyone became anxious to follow his commands, whereby the power of the demons was nullified for they were convinced that Zarathushtra had 'extracted the four legs', that is, cleared the ambiguity in the King's mind, and they realized that Vishtaspa. would order the annihilation of the demons and level them to the dust. When such a situation arose, most of the demons surrendered to Zarathushtra and accepted his message.

(71) Reverting to Dinkard par. 71 we find that Zarathushtra foretold and disclosed through his spiritual insight what was in the minds of King Vishtaspa and of the people of his country, and likewise, several other valuable private matters.

(72) "One miracle was that several objects of vicious delusions which had been practiced by means of sorcery by Dahaka in Babylon - through the greediness whereof mankind had come to the worship of idols and consequently there was destruction of the world - were entirely dispelled and rendered inactive through the proclamation of the triumphant words of the Religion by Zarathushtra, namely, those words that were opposed to that sorcery".

(73) One of the miracles attributed to Zarathushtra was that

"in the controversy on the Religion with the famous sages of the region (of Khaniras)_who were-well-known in the world for their learning and contributions to the sacred texts, and who were among those that were the most awful opponents of the most deceitful doctrine, and whose desire was for freeing themselves from that most deceitful religion of theirs; to them there was then the intelligible manifestation of the truth by Zarathushtra, and the making of King Vishtaspa and of all those sages certain as to the truth of the Religion".

We have seen above the allegorical narration of Zarathushtra's advent in the royal court, and the difficulties he had on occasions of changing over from the invisible body to the physical garb. We have also seen un-riddled the allegories regarding enlivening of the bull and extraction of the black steed's legs. These marvels subjugated the King, and the Kigs (demons) were annihilated. In other words, the defects in the King's mind were removed. He (Zarathushtra) then disclosed to them the knowledge contained in the 21 Nasks (volumes). He taught them the philosophy, the talismanic spells and the sacred ceremonies, which are technically called practices of a tree "Sarv-e-Keshmar". King Vishtaspa by the exaltation of his mental condition imbibed the holy Teaching. Not only that, he also began to attune himself with Ohrmazd and Ameshaspends. Thus the Jarthoshi Din spread on the earth and the demon worship was extirpated, both from the material world and the ethereal regions above. The accomplishment of all those great feats commenced with the 'extraction of the black steed's legs'.

(74) After this, Ohrmazd sent Vohumana and Asha Vahishta (Bahman and Ardibehesht Ameshaspend) and the propitious Fire energy (of two grades) called Adar-Burzin-Meher, the higher operating on the heaven of the Sun and the lower on that of Moon for producing a stronger conviction in Vishtaspa and for helping him and his council of sages to believe in the truth of Zarathushtra's prophecy, and spreading the same throughout the world.

(75-76) Then the Ameshaspends came down from the sky to the earth, and Ohrmazd instructed them to proceed on to the residence of Vishtaspa who was a great possessor of blissfulness and cause acceptance by them of Zarathushtra's words, which the Ameshaspends did (proceed). Owing to the awe-striking radiance of the Ameshaspends, Vishtaspa and all his courtiers were highly wonder-struck and they began to tremble with awful fear.

(77-79) Then the Fire Energy of Adar Burzin Meher addressed the king in a manly speech:

"O exalted Kae Vishtaspa! There is nothing to fear about for these Ameshaspends have not come to frighten you in your residence nor have they come to frighten you as the envoys of Arjaspa who demand tribute from you nor have they come as a robber. We three have come to thee from our heavenly residence. If you use your spiritual wisdom, you will find that this world requires the good Mazdayasnian Religion, which proceeds in its purity through the recitation of him who is Zarathushtra of Spitamas."

(80) Adar Burzin Meher further exhorted the king to chant the Ahunavairya, praise piety which is best, that is, chant Ashem-vohu prayer, and utter no worship for the demons because the will of Ahura Mazda, Ameshaspends and Yazads (sacred beings) regarding thee is the exaltation by thee of this Religion.

(81-82) If you praise the good and pure Religion of the holy Zarathushtra, then as the blessing and recompense thereof, we will give to you a kingship and sovereignty of a long duration and a long life of 150 years; we will give you the righteous speaking and a glorious existence and we shall constantly help you in your sublime progress. Moreover, we will bless you with a son, named Peshotanu, who will be immortal, who will be so without old age, without hunger and without thirst and who will be alive and powerful in both the lives of the embodied and spiritual existences. If you do not praise the good and pure Religion of the holy Zarathushtra, we will not carry you to heaven, but we will order for you at your death, the vultures who are always awaiting to devour a dead body when your blood will reach the earth, i.e., you will die like unbelievers, without leaving any male progeny behind you and no waters will then reach your body, i.e., no water at death will be available for the purpose of purification.

(83) Arjaspa and his envoys, the enemies of Vishtaspa were ready to attack Iran, but on the one hand, Arjaspa was awestricken by the talismanic powers of Zarathushtra, and on the other, was afraid of Asfandiar Ruintan (son of Vishtaspa). Ruintan ordinarily means 'body of metal'. It also means protection through holy formula. Body of metal is absolutely impossible in nature. The fact is the elements of Asfandiyar's body were rendered so invulnerable by the holy formulae that no attacks of any implements could harm him permanently.

"One miracle was that which was connected continuously with the intelligent vision exhibiting spiritually unto Vishtaspa his future victory over Arejataspa and the Khyaonians".

(84) On account of the most pre-eminent position and harmless sovereignty and splendor and glory owned by Vishtaspa, Ahura Mazda sent Yazata (angel) Nairyosangha to the residence of Vishtaspa as a companion to Ardibehesht Ameshaspend to make Vishtaspa drink the spring of life in order that his spirit may become exalted and he may be able to look into the sublime abodes of the spirits in heaven. (Nairyosangha is the name of the divine messenger of Ahura Mazda. It is also the name of a fire that dwells in the hearts of kings, and helps them in their royal functions). On account of that ambrosial drink, Vishtaspa beheld the great glory and splendor of heaven. (85-87) Then Ahura Mazda bade Nairyosangha to hurry to the residence of Vishtaspa and tell Asha Vahishta, archangel Ardibehesht, to take the finest of the goblets and carry in it our excellent Haoma and sacred narcotic and make king Vishtaspa drink it up to the brim, which the King did. King Vishtaspa retired to his private chamber and spoke to his Queen Hutaosa that she would receive, besides this Religion, a skill of prompt acquiring of that Religion through perseverance so that she would expound the Religion of Ahura Mazda and Zarathushtra. (88-90) When Vishtaspa accepted the Religion and praised piety, the demons were rendered inactive in hell, i.e., in the deceitful material world, and the demon Aeshma rushed, towards the territories of Arjaspa, the cruel ruler of Khyaona and he instigated them all to battle by the most terrible clamour "as the rise of Zarathushtra and his religion would practically mean the downfall of idol and demon-worship. The hand of God directed the operations against Arjaspa, and his Khyaonians, and Vishtaspa's army marched successfully through their territory, spreading a knowledge of the tenets of the faith". The prompt skill was at one time a gift of the Khyaonian Arjaspa when he was predominant. But that skill was of evil type; but now it has become the gift of the Iranian Zarathushtra.

Here ends Chapter III of Sanjana Dinkard Vol. XIV.


Story of the Brahman 'Cangranghacah' (Changraghach)

[Reproduced from Prof. Jackson's work "Zoroaster the Prophet of Ancient Iran" (pp. 85-86).]

"The most interesting episode, perhaps, of the foreign conversions is the later Persian ,story which is told of Cangranghacah, a Brahman sage who comes from India to Vishtasp's court in order to refute Zoroaster's doctrines; but the Hindu teacher himself is taught by the greater master and becomes a devoted convert of the Priest of Iran. This picturesque narrative is recounted with other matters, in the Cangranghacah Namah, a modern Persian political work of the thirteenth century. The author of this treatise is stated to be Zartusht Bahram Pazhdu of the ancient city of Rai, who also composed Zartusht Namah; and like the latter work it is claimed to be drawn from Pahlavi sources, if we may agree with Anquetil du Perron, who is our chief source of information on the subject.

This story of Brahman's conversion is briefly repeated in the Dabistan and it is alluded to incidentally in the text of the Dasatir and described in its commentary. All this implies some currency of the tale. A brief abstract of the narrative, so far as it relates to the main event, is worth giving and it is here presented, being based, on the fuller account of the Cangranghacah Namah found in Anquetil. .

Sketch of the Incident: Theaged Brahman sage Cangranghacah is a philosopher whose learning and wisdom were far-famed throughout India and known in Iran. He is reported even to have been the teacher of 'Jamasp, minister to King Vishtasp whose devotion to Zoroaster is regarded as a fall from grace, Accordingly the Brahman writes to Vishtasp a letter remonstrating with the monarch for believing in the upstart Prophet. At the proposal of Vishtasp; he finally comes himself to 'Balkh' with a great following of devoted disciples, in order to debate with Zoroaster, and to put the imposter to confusion. But he who came to scoff remains to pray.

Zoroaster is prepared by premonition to answer all the seer's questions before he asks them; and amid a great assemblage of learned men who have gathered from many parts of the country to listen for days to the religious debate; the chosen Priest of Ormazd disarms his antagonist before the latter has time to lift his weapons in discussion and conflict.

By reading a Nask or Book of the Avesta, in which every difficult question prepared by the Hindu controversialist is already answered, he astonishes and utterly confounds the Brahman; So completely is the Hindu philosopher vanquished and convinced that with remarkable candour he forthwith acknowledges his defeat,_is converted, adopts the Faith, receives a copy of the Avesta from Zoroaster's own hands, becomes a zealous adherent, and joins in spreading the Prophet's teachings in Hindustan and the adjacent countries, so that eighty thousand souls in this way receive the enlightenment of the true Faith. A festival is instituted to commemorate this important event."


Marvels Performed on Day Marespand of Month Spendarmad

In the Master's book entitled “Ancient Zoroastrian Educational System" (pp. 87-88) there is mention of other marvels noted below.

"The day (Roj) Mino Marespand of the month (Mah) Spendarmad being very auspicious in Nature the Holy Prophet crossed on that day the river Zahun of Iran by causing its waters to shift."

This is also mentioned in "Zoroaster, the Prophet of Ancient Iran". (p. 39) by Prof. Jackson, as under:

"On the way the party passes through a sea whose waters are lowered by a miracle so as to allow a free crossing".

On the same day the Holy Prophet also performed the following miracles:

(1) 'pulled out' the allegorical four legs of the black steed of king Kae Vishtasp, said to have been retracted in its body_i.e., illumined the four latent cerebral powers of the king by giving him to drink the consecrated Sherbet saturated with his (Prophet's) blessings, whereby the king was able to see the demons in their true colours.

(2) showered his blessings and developed the spiritual powers of

(a) Peshotan,
(b) Jamasp and
(c) Asfandiar through consecrated milk, flower and pomegranate respectively, on account of which they became famous in history as under:

(a) appointed Peshotan (king Vishtasp's son) as the chief of Kangdez, Peshotan was a Saoshyant, i.e., a Saviour, a spiritual guide risen from this world. Saoshyants are of two categories; among the first grade are those who, like the angels belong to the class of Saoshyants from their very origin; among these are the holy Zarathushtra; Shah Varjavand, entitled Behram; Hoshedar-mah; Hoshedarbami and others. In the second grade of Saoshyants come those holy souls who have progressed from this world, and take part in helping other souls in spiritual advancement. For this reason Peshotan has been designated as the Saoshyant advanced from this world. Since he is instrumental in transmuting the effects of Darkness into Light on Kangdez (the middle sub-region of the Chinvat i.e., Requiter Bridge), he has been known as Peshotan of Kangdez;

(b) Made Jamasp, the wise premier of king Kae Vishtasp 'Phi' which is a term of the ancient Kyan dialect. 'Jamasp-phi' means' said or predicted by Jamasp'. Hence is derived the term 'Jamaspi'. 'Jamasp-phi' is explained under the topic of "Nav Gereh." Thus 'Jamasp was not the worldly son-in-law of the Holy Prophet as erroneously believed in philology;

(c) Made Asfandiar (the warrior son of King Kae Vishtasp) 'Ruin-tan', by which is meant that his body-elements (except the eyes) were rendered quite invulnerable to the attacks of poisonous arms. Thus it will be understood 'Ruin-tan' or 'Royin tan', literally meaning 'body of brass' allegorically so called was not of metal which is absolutely impossible in Nature:"


Din And Marespand, Two Auspicious Days for Commencing Child's Education

(The following is condensed from P. 82 seq. ibid.)

Din Yazad (Av. Daena) is the superintendent over the two deified laws, viz., Mazdayasni Daena and Zarthoshti Daena. The first (Mazdayasni Daena) is the law of Infoldment of Spirit into Matter_ according to which a soul possessing deficiency of divine knowledge trails down from the immortal worlds to this earth, infolded in material body for its Reformation; the second (Zarthoshti Daena) is the law of Unfoldment of Spirit from Matter, according to which the erstwhile wicked soul, by observing the Zoroastrian laws of purity, becomes sanctified, and gets repatriated to the immortal worlds over which two laws (Infoldment and Unfoldment) Din Yazad is the superintendent.

Mino Marespand (Av. Manthra Spenta) is the superintendent over 'Staota Yasna' – the basis of the Universe, which has come into being by the inter-attunement of the invisible original colours produced from the divine Musical Note of Ahunavar, the WILL of Lord God Ahu, the light of lights.

From the above it will be understood that Mino Marespand is concerned with the creation of the Universe, and Din Yazad with the path of purity which a Zoroastrian has to take during life on earth, so as to gain deliverance from the repetitions of birth and death on this earth by the observance of Truth coupled with the Zoroastrian laws of purity and of the Zoroastrian anti-microbe Baaj rites. Consequently, it is enjoined in the Teachings of our Faith to commence the school education of a child on either of the two days of Din Yazad and of Mino Marespand of any Zoroastrian month, so that the child may remain in tune with Nature and may receive the combined blissful currents of these two angels. However, the day (Roj) Mino Marespand of the month (Mah) Spendarmad Ameshaspend is the most auspicious in the whole year. It may here be emphasized that the training of a Zoroastrian boy or girl must not be confined to economic learning only, but must be conducted side by side with the practice of the religious observances mentioned above.


Gradations of Divine Intelligences

Regarding Din and Marespand mentioned above, it would be well to show below the gradations of the divine Intelligences:

Ahura Mazda: the Holy Creator of the Universe (on 9th and 8th heavens of empyrean and Zodiac).
7 Ameshaspends: Hormazd, Bahman, Ardibehesht, Shehrever, Spendarmd, Khordad and Amardad (the name of first Ameshaspend is also Hormazd with its seat on the 6th heaven of Jupiter);
8 Mino: Ram, Ashishvangh, Asman, Marespand, Aneran, Spentamino, Spento temo-Mino and the untrue Angra Mino;
3 Dae: Dae-pa-Adar; Dae-pa-Meher; Dae-pa-Din;
1 Farrokh: Farrokh Farvardin;
13 Yazads: Adar, Khorshed, Mohar, Tir-Gosh, Meher, Sarosh, Rashne-Rast, Beheram-Govad, Din, Ashtad, Jamyad;
1: Avan Ardvi Sura Banu.


Seven Ameshaspands (Blissful Archangels) and Two Data (Deified Laws)

The seven Ameshaspands, blissful archangels and two Data which are deified Laws, i.e., potentialities, are 'Baga', meaning parts of Ahura: They emanated or manifested themselves from Mazda Ahura, and help the Creator (Dadvao; Yt.13,83) Ahura Mazda in the administration of the Universe. They all have their respective functions. These functions are called their Humata, Hukhta, Hvarshta (ibid. 84). The functions in the immortal worlds (comprising the empyrean, zodiac and the seven revolving planetary heavens) are called their Humata, those performed in the, Space, their Hukhta, and those performed in this material world, their Hvarshta.

In the Pazand Patet-Pashemani prayer (Kardeh; 8) are given the-respective Hvarshta' (deeds i.e. creations) of the seven Ameshaspends.

Thus –

  1. Hormazd : man and mankind;
  2. Bahman : cow-kind and other blissful species;
  3. Ardibehesht : fire and other kinds of fire energies;
  4. Shehrevar : metals and their different kinds;
  5. Spandarmad : earth and its different kinds;
  6. Khordad : water and its different kinds;
  7. Amardad : vegetable and vegetable Kingdom.

All the above nine Baga, parts, are inter-dependent, and are said to see each other, i.e., they are intermingled, because they are Asha-perfect. Asha comprises three potentialities, viz., Yaon, Rashnu, Armaiti mingled together. Yaon means connection with Ahu, the light of lights. Rashnu is order divine; and Armaiti, perfect humility towards Ahu. On account of these three powers they are of talismanic numeral 9, which indicates perfection (in Good or Evil, here Good), i.e., every Ameshaspand possesses the seven respective qualities of all the seven Ameshaspands and of two Data. Still in each of the nine, one respective quality is manifest, while the rest are dormant.

Thus, in Bahman the qualities of all the Seven Ameshaspends and two Data do exist in latent condition and only Baod, i.e. perfect divine knowledge and divineWisdom, is manifest, and it is called Vohuman. Similarly, in Ardibehesht (7 plus 2=) 9 exist, of which Moral Order divine of Asha is manifest, the rest all dormant. Likewise in Shehrevar all the nine qualities do exist, but that of Shehrevar, the desirable Sovereignty is manifest, the rest dormant. Again in Spenta Armaiti all the nine qualities exist, but only that of perfect humility towards Ahu is manifest the rest are latent. Similarly in Khordad all the nine qualities do exist, but only that of Khordad of effecting and spreading well-being or right nourishment, affording health and happiness is active, the rest inactive. Again, in Amardad all the nine qualities do exist, but only that of imparting long life or immortality is manifest, the rest are dormant. In Mazdadata also the qualities of seven Ameshaspands and of Ahuradata of divine Love are latent, but its chief tendency to bring about limit of everything by gradual transmutation of Evil into Good is predominant, though it has also the power of bringing about the Reformation of the souls by smiting Evil and transmuting it into Good, but its quality of effecting gradua1 Involution (Infoldment) of Spirit into Matter is prominent. Similarly in Ahuradata all nine qualities exist, but the propensity of the laws of divine attraction is manifest, the rest are all dormant.

Thus the 'tree' emerges from Mazda Ahura, which (tree) has (7 plus 2 =) 9 main branches. In this way the Creator Dadvao Ahura Mazda has set the Universe into motion through the potentialities of seven Ameshaspands and two Data. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.


Name Zarathushtra

The name Zarathushtra is given to the unique sub-angelic soul called Asne-vir that descends on this earth some 4,000 to 5,000 years after this known material world resumes its run of one Zarvane daregho Khadat (lit., cycle of long time) comprising 81,000 years. (It may be noted that between two such cycles of Zarvane Daregho Khadat there is an interval period of about 27,000 years on an average, and the holy prophet Zarathushtra descends on the known material world some 4,000 to 5,000 years after the inception, of every Zarvane. Daregho Khadat of 81,000 years when the demoniacal powers are at the highest.)

In Avesta, the name Zarathushtra is used in two significances, 1st person and 3rd person. 'Azem yo Zarathushtra' meaning 'I Zarathushtra' (1st person) and 'Ya Ahuirish Zarathushtrish' i.e., Zarathushtra of Ahura' (3rd person). The latter is the sub-angelic potentiality belonging to the sixth heaven of Jupiter called Zarathushtra Gatha, from which the Prophet draws his name. The suffix 'ushtra' (Iit., a camel) in Zarathushtra stands for (spiritual Divine) Knowledge and practices pertaining to 'Baodangh', divine Wisdom. The zenith of spiritual and divine knowledge and wisdom and spiritual practices show old age, which commands respect. This agedness is assigned yellow colour. The potentiality of Zarathushtra-Gatha has the power of transmuting and alchemizing Evil into Good, which is operating in the ethereal regions above, and Prophet Zarathushtra executes this in the material world.


Seeming Ball of Fire in Prophet's Hand

Regarding this seeming ball of fire in the Prophet's hand, it must be stated that there was no material ball of fire of any kind held by the Prophet in his hand, nor was there any shining chemical composition applied on the palm to hoodwink people. The fact is that the Prophet's body being composed of the subtle element of fire, it (body) was transparent, and had no shadow. This fiery element related to the creative fire-energy called Adar- Burzin-Meher of two grades operating in the planetary world, the higher on the heaven of the Sun, and the lower on that of the Moon. The current of this Adar-Burzin Meher was constantly circulating in his body, and was flowing as aura through his right hand, which gave the appearance of the Prophet holding a ball of fire in his hand.

Firdousi rightly refers to this fire-energy in his Shah Nameh as under:

"Ke mehr burzin bi dood
bood Munauvar na az hizamo ood bood"


this fire Mehr Burzin was without smoke,
and was bright without wood and incense.

Thus the seeming ball of fire was no exterior or material object held in his hand but was due to the fire-energy of Adar Burzin Meher flowing through his right hand, as aura. In certain modern pictures smoke is shown emitting from his hand, which is imaginary and erroneous, because the brightness of his hand was due to his aura. Firdousi has depitcted this in the above couplet.


Unique Case of Light Shining under Holy Zarathushtra's Feet

It is well known that halo, i.e., disk of light appears around the head of a holy person when he is exalted to the saintly state. In the case of ordinary saints this light appears around the head only. In others of higher grade, the light shines also from the back of the body. Even in the case of the Prophet's holy mother, the halo emanated from behind her person (DK. VII, 1,8).

The inspired painters of other religions correctly show the halo round the head only or around the head and the back i.e., from half of the upper parts of the body over the pit of the navel because the 'Chakhras', plexuses, of the lower half of the material body are of a lower grade in purity from which no light can emanate. However, only in the case of Holy Zarathushtra, light emanated even from under his feet, because his entire body from head to feet was of a fiery type, and was transparent and had no shadow.[19]

This could be so because he was not an ordinary saint that had advanced from this material world, but he belonged to the angelic grade called the Gatha potentiality. On account of this angelic status, he could assume or rarefy his body at will. The Prophet draws his name Zarathushtra from the leading Gatha Potentiality which is Zarathushtra. It was on account of this that the Holy Creator refers to him Spitama Zarathushtra - as "the only one (aevo) who will listen to our revelations". (Ysn. 29,8).

With regard to the Holy Prophet's unique status it may be recalled that in the description of the pre-cosmo-genesis world we saw that there were two types of lights in Ahunavar: One, deficient in divine knowledge called 'Urvans' (Ysn. 55,1) and the other, perfect in divine knowledge called 'Baodanghs' (ibid). Zarathushtra belonged from very beginning to the Baodangh class to which constellations also do belong. (Baodangh it may be reiterated does not mean, 'intellect' as erroneously rendered in philology). It was on account of this unique status of Holy Zarathushtra that the halo shone even from under his feet, and hence it has been so shown in his picture from the earliest times.


'Nav-Gereh' the Nine-knotted Stick Shown in the Prophets Hand

The holy Prophet Zarathushtra has been shown in his pictures as holding in his hand a nine-knotted stick called Nav Gereh, referred to in Vandidad; 19,4 as 'Asano Zasta', meaning' stick in the hand. Nav-Gereh literally means nine-knots. The word 'Gereh' written in Pahlavi can also be read as 'Gena', which means a maiden. These Nav-Gereh, nine knots, represent nine potentialities in the form of Nav-Gena, nine maidens comprising the allegorical three wives, three sons and three daughters of the Holy Prophet, each potentiality bearing a Kehrp, phantom body-form of a maiden, but no physical body. These maidens possess life, consciousness, spiritual self-intelligence and divine knowledge and are quite obedient to their holy procreator. So it means that these Nav-Gena, nine maidens or potentialities have been represented in the Prophet's pictures in the shape of Nav-Gereh, a nine-knotted stick, since a stick represents strength or power to its holder.

The above nine maidens were the animated phantoms of the nine grades of holiness - Nava-Karshem (Yt. 4,6) possessed by , Zarathushtra where according to Zoroastrian numerology, the numeral 9 indicates perfection which in this case is in holiness. The Holy Prophet performed with the aid of angel Sarosh, the spiritual marvels of procreating nine potentialities in the shape of nine maidens from the nine grades, of holiness possessed by him, and employed for the continuation of his Faith, as also of those of other Law-givers, during the distant ages of the current Zarvanedaregho- khadat, self-created long Time, which according to Khshnoom comprises 81,000 years. Of these only some 4,000 to 5,000 years had elapsed when Zarathushtra descended on the earth some 9,000 years ago from now.

The above potentialities have been referred to in Bundehesh XXXII, 5-9, and in Vajarkart-i-Dinik (pp. 21-22).

5. Again, I say, by Zaratusht were begotten three sons and three daughters; one Isadvastar, one Aurvatad-nar" and one Khurshed-Chihar; as Isadvastar was chief of the priests he became the Mobad of Mobads, (and) passed away in the hundredth year of the religion; Aurvatadnar (was) an agriculturist, (and) the chief of the enclosure formed by Yim, which is below the earth; Khurshed- Chihar was a warrior, Commander of the army of Peshyotanu, son of Vishtasp, (and) dwells in Kangdez, and of the three daughters the name of one was Fren, of one Srit, and of one Poruchist.

6. Aurvatad-nar and Khurshed-Chihar were from a serving (chakar) wife; the rest were from a privileged (patakhshah) wife.

7. By Isadvastar was begotten a son (whose) name was Ururvija; and they call him Aranj-i Biradan ('fore-arm of brothers') for this reason, that, as they were from a serving wife, (she) then delivered them over to Isadvastar through adoption.1

(Footnote 1. Instead of this sentence the Vajarkard-I-Dinik (pp. 21- 22) has the following, which appears to rest upon a misinterpretation of the text: -

'And Zarathusht the righteous, had three wives; all three were in the lifetime of Zaratusht; the name of one was Hvov, of the second Urvij, of the third Arnij-bareda, and from Urvij, who was a privileged wife, four children, were born; one was the son Isadvastar, and the three daughters, namely, Fren, Sritak and Puruchist; these four were from Urvij. And from the wife Arnij-bareda two sons were born, one Aurvart-nar, and the second Khurshed Chihar; and Arnij-bareda was a serving wife, and the name of the former husband of Arnij-bareda was Mitro-ayar. And from Hvov, who was a privileged Wife" (were) three sons, namely, Hushedar, Hushedar-mah and Soshans, as it says' etc. (as in par. 8).".

8. This, too, (one) knows, that three sons of Zaratusht, namely, Hushedar, Hushedar-Mah[20] and Soshyans[19], were from Hvov, as it says that Zaratusht went near unto Hvov three times, (and) each time the seed went to the ground; the angel Neryosang received the brilliance and strength of that seed, delivered (it) with care to the angel Anahid, and in time will blend (it) with a mother.

9. Nine thousand, 'nine hundred and ninety-nine, and nine myriads of the guardian spirits' of the righteous are intrusted with (its) protection, so that the demons may not injure it.

It will be noticed from above par. 8 that angel Neryosang is stated to have received the "brilliance and strength" of Zarathushtra's seed. This shows that this word 'seed' used by the Pahlavi writers conveys some meaning other than of the commonplace human seed (semen), because we know if the latter falls on the ground it is dirty, stinking and creative of Druji, microbes, but never displaying brilliance. Besides this, the three 'sons' Hushedar, Hushedar -mah and Soshyans are to take birth in future ages remote by thousands of years. This could never be possible if Zarathusht were a worldly married person, having three wives, three sons and three daughters. This again proves that these entities were not of the worldly life. Many philological scholars and others, in the absence of knowledge of Zarathushtra's unparalleled eminence, take the above Pahlavi writings literally. It is, therefore, necessary to give the correct idea of the uniquely exalted status of the Holy Prophet.


Unique Status of Holy Zarathushtra

It must first be remembered that bifurcation into sexes, marriage, wife, husband, children - all these are meant for Urvans, souls with deficiency of divine knowledge for their Reformation" while Zarathushtra was Magavan-Magav, Holy of holies and most perfect of the perfected souls and therefore he could not have family ties in the worldly sense. The quotations given below will give some idea of the Holy Prophet's unique status. The Kingly Glory is praised in Jamyad Yt. 9 followed by numerous paragraphs in which that Glory has been traced from divine Intelligences to illustrious kings and saints, till in paras. 78, 79 it is stated:

"We sacrifice unto the awful kingly Glory (of) Mazdadata . . ..that clave unto the holy Zarathushtra, so that he thought according to the Law, spoke according to the Law and did according to the Law; so that he was the holiest in holiness in all the living world, the best-ruling in exercising rule, the brightest in brightness, the most glorious in glory, the most victorious in victory."

(S.B.E: Vol. XXIII).

(ibid. 80) "At his sight the Daevas rushed away; at his sight the (Demoniac) malice’s were extinguished; at his sight the Jainis drew back their ways from the mortals, and lamenting and wailing, laid violent hands on the Daevas."

(ibid. 81) "And that one prayer, the Ahuna Vairya, which the Holy Zarathushtra sang, and repeated four times, with a song that waxed louder and louder, drove back all the Daevas beneath the earth, and took off from them sacrifice and prayer."

During some 4,000 years prior to Zarathushtra's advent on the earth, sorcery and witchcraft were most rampant, and the subangelic potentiality called Geush Urva (appointed for the protection of the souls of this known wicked world) raised his plaint to the blissful Creator Ahura Mazda for succour, where upon the latter replied:

(Ysn. 29" 8) "This (one) known to me here, who alone shall harken unto our doctrines (is) Zarathushtra Spitama; (he) himself on behalf of Mazda and Asha shall desire to declare our principles. Hence unto-him shall-I-give the good selfcommand (Hudem) of-the-Prophet."

(K. E. Poonegar).

In the last line of the above stanza (29,8) occurs the term 'Hudem' which is not correctly understood in philology. The prefix 'Hu' in this word technically stands for 'Ahu' the Light of lights. Hence Hudem means 'breath devoted to Ahu, the Light of lights only'.

So Zarathushtra alone was selected for the prophetic office. In Khordad Yasht Ahura Mazda tells Zarathushtra:

"We befriend him who may attune himself with thee (through holy ceremonies) as he would attune with the Ameshaspends Bahman, Ardibehesht, Shehrevar, Aspandad,. Khordad and Amardad."

Thus Zarathushtra is shown on a level with Ameshaspends.

Again in Dinkard (Dastur Sanjana Edition Vol. XIII) Pahlavi Vol. VII, 1,16 it is stated:

"Then Zarathushtra seemed to them (the sacred beings)…… through having a like body-Ham-Karpih as of sacred beings".

This Pahlavi term 'Ham Karpih' is often misread as 'Ham- Karichih' meaning 'sheltering with (Ameshaspends)'. In either reading can a worldly person ever have a like body as of Ameshaspends or shelter with them? Since Zarathushtra possessed a body like the Archangels, it means that he possessed Asne-vir power, i.e., he could remain invisible by rarefying his body like archangels, or assume body at will when required for appearing before the people of this material world, which is never possible in the case of human beings.

Again in 21, ibid. it is stated:

"We shall ........ convey there, to the village of Paorushaspo, him whom they will call Zarathushtra of good lineage in both ways, both of Nairyosanga (who is) from the Ameshaspends, and of Yima (who is) from mankind."

Thus we see that the Holy Prophet was like an Ameshaspend and not a worldly human being. We need not add any more references. We shall now deal with the Nav-Gereh, representing the nine potentialities.


The Three Wives (Potentialities) Urvij, Arnij-bareda And Hvovi

Urvij: We have stated above that the Holy Prophet had nine potentialities bearing phantom body-forms comprising 3 wives, 3 sons and 3 daughters. The names of the three wives are Urvij, Arnij-bareda and Hvovi. The first two were for advancement of alien religions and the last Hvovi for the Zoroastrian

Regarding the three potentialities styled 'wives' it may be stated that in ancient Iran there were five categories of brides;

  1. Shahzan, obedient to parents in choice of husband;'
  2. Khudrazan, self-determining in choice of husband.
  3. Satarzan, also a Shahzan, but giving her son for adop tion to another person; .
  4. chakarzan, a widow re-marrying; and
  5. 'Aaibzan, a disreputable woman.

Urvii was meant for other Law-Givers, but they being absent (dead?), Zarathushtra took her. Thus, so to say, Urvij was a Chakarzan, a widow re-married to Zarathushtra. She (of the phantom body-form) had holy connection with Zarathushtra, who functioned for them (other Law-Givers). By her, will be born Urvatat-nar and Khurshed-cheher.

Urvatat-nar literally meaning power-giver of Spiritual Unfoldment, is appointed the chief of agriculturists of (king) Jamshed's Vara, the subterranean enclosure situated in Airyana Vaeja, which is like a talismanic citadel, So sanctified that Satan cannot find entry there. (Yd. 2.43). This Vara of Jamshed which has been buried under mountain-deep snow since some 10,000 years will open up same 66,000 years hence at the end of the current Zarvane-daregho Khadat, i.e., self-created long Time, which according to' Khshnoom is of 81,000 years, followed by the next World Deluge. However, before this Deluge actually over-runs the whole of the known material world and submerges it Soshyos, Prophet's son will carry to safety on Jamshed's Vara, a pair of each of the creations of human beings and of animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms, under the influence of the five planets (except the Sun and the Moon) so that their species will grow up when the next known wicked material world commences its run once again.

Thus he (Urvatat-nar) is appointed the agriculturist (Vastriosh) i.e., developer of those species, and giver of help to the Law-Givers of other religions. .

The second son Hvare-Chithra (Khurshid-cheher) literally meaning Propagator of the Fundamenta of Staota (Vibrationary colours) like the Sun' will be the warrior-saint, residing in Kangdez. He will be the deputy of Peshotan (King) Vishtasp's son, who is its chief.

Urvatat-nar will work as the blissful agriculturist (not of the land), but for uplifting and advancing the souls of all the religions and Khurshid-cheher as the warrior-saint (Ratheshtar) will effect reformation of souls by dealing out punishment through power (Khshathra) to those souls which could not be reformed under Urvatat-nar.

Arenaj Bareda: Arenaj Bareda is also Shahzan, but with this distinction that she binds herself to give her children to others for adoption.. When Zarathushtra will attune himself with Arenaj bareda through his glory, one son Isat-vastar, and three daughters Freni, Thriti and Pouruchisti will manifest themselves.

'Isat-vastar literally meaning 'Right Willed Actor' was the chief of the Priests. He became the Mobed of Mobeds and passed away in the hundredth year of the religion (Bd. 32.2).

The names of the three daughters are Freni Crt. 13,139) literally, Spiritual Love, Thriti (ibid) or Srit, literally, Spiritual Nourishment, and Pouruchisti (ibid.) literally perfect Spiritual knowledge and Wisdom. In Gatha Vahishtoisht (Ysn. 53,3) it is stated allegorically that Pouruchisti was wedded to Hakim (Dr.) Jamasp referred to in Avesta as De-Jamasp and technically called Jamasp-phi, in which the suffix '-phi' literally means predictor.

The Holy Prophet was 'Shahud', i.e., perfect in the knowledge of the seven tenses or times, viz.,

  1. eternity of dead past,
  2. past, and
  3. present,
  4. near Present,
  5. future,
  6. future of future (ages), and
  7. Ghaiban, infinity, i.e, futurity lost in dim future.

This potentiality of Pouruchisti the Prophet bestowed upon Hakim Jamasp, who was one of his foremost holy pupils, and a great Asne-nar, i.e., highly advanced holy soul. Owing, so to say, to this spiritual wedding of Poumchisti with Hakim. Jamasp, the latter became a great Master-astrologer and super-seer of all the above said seven tenses and hence in Avesta (ibid.) he is referred to as De- Jamasp, the all-knowing predictor.

Hvovi: Hvovi (Yt, 13,139) 1iterally means 'one's own' (Hva. Sva, own). Hence Hvovi means the potentiality employed by the Holy Prophet for his own Faith. As stated in Bundehesh; 8 "Zaratusht went unto Hvovi three times", by which is meant that the Holy Prophet effected subtle holy contact with the potentiality, Hvovi, who was within the field of his glory with which he was surrounded, and produced three seeds. But since the functions of these seeds have been designed to take place in distant ages, they have been intrusted to Ashaunam-Fravashis for protection from the demons. These seeds or potentialities will then be developed into Kehrps, subtle body-forms, each at its right time. They (seeds) did not go into Hvovi, but went to the ground, i.e., the earth, by which is meant Airyana Vaeja, where Zarathushtra was born. By the consecration or holy ceremonies between Zarathushtra and Hvovi, will be procreated three holy potentialities, allegorically regarded as 'wives', viz., Srutat-fedhri (Yt. 13,141). Vanghufedhri (ibid. 142) and Eredatfedhri (ibid.). These three potentialities will, in three respective age_ procreate, three sons Hoshedar-bami, Hoshedarmah and Soshyos, the three respectively referred to in Farvardin Yasht; 128 as Ukhsbyat-ereta, Ukhshyat-nemangh and Astavatereta.


Visitations of Wicked Millennia in Distant Ages and Manifestations of the three Saviours (Sons).

With regard to the distant ages mentioned above, it may be explained that in the current Zarvane daregho khadat (of 81,000 years) this known material world will thrice pass through extremely wicked millenniums shown in column 3 below, during which mankind will be more beastly than human, and the duration of life and man's height will be stunted.

Wicked period during major cycle of Duration of wicked period After how many years from 2,000 AD.
Mars 2,000 years 3,000 years (Hoshedar-bami)
Venus & Mercury 9,000 and 13,000 years. 40,000 years (Hoshedarmah)
Saturn 12,800 years …… 1,100 years. 64,000 years (Soshyos)

On the expiration of each of the above three respective millennia shown in the last column, this known material world Venus & Mercury Saturn will witness glorious periods in which the three Saviours, Hoshedar-bami, Hoshedar-mah and Soshyos, marked against each will manifest themselves.


Significance of 99,999 Fravashis.

In Farvardin Yt. 62 it is stated that 99,999 Fravashis watch over 'Khshudra' the seed of the Holy Zarathushtra. According to Zoroastrian numerology, 9 indicates perfection or excellence; it (9) is expressed 5 times, because 5 stands for perfect divine knowledge and divine Wisdom. So 99,999 Fravashis mean Ashaunam Fravashis who possess perfection of divine Knowledge and Wisdom. Hence this figure group is not to be rendered as 'many myriads' as done by learned Dr. Mills in his book "Our Own Religion in Ancient Persia" (p. 20 foot note). In his rendering of the above par. 62 the same scholar has not understood the real significance of the term 'Khshudra', seed. It is true that in the case of worldly sinful men, their Khshudra, seed (semen) represents the essence or virility. But when this seed is exposed, it is stinking and creative of Druji, microbes. In the case of the Holy Prophet there was no such secretion of semen. His (Prophet's) seed i.e. (Spiritual) essence-Khshudra-consisted of 21 Nasks or volumes of the Avesta.

Dr. Mills does not understand this allegorical use of the term 'Khshudra' and in his misconception, criticizes in the footnote:

"Compare this drivel with the grandeur and simplicity of the Gatha S.B.E. XXXI pp. 1-194. .

He does not know why the Gathic style differs from the other Avesta.


Allegorical Reference to "Maiden Bathing in Lake Kansava"

In footnote to his translation of Yt. 13,62 Prof. Darmesteter states:

"A maid Eredat-fedhri, bathing in Lake Kansava, will conceive by that seed and bring forth the Saviour Saoshyant; his two forerunners Ukhshyat-ereta and Ukhshyat-nemah will be born in the same way of Srutat-fedhri and Vanghufedhri

(Yt. XIII, 141,142).

Then in footnote below the name Srutat-fedhri (whose Fravashi is worshipped) in par. 141 (ibid.) it is said:

"Ukhshyat-ereta's mother... The Saddar Bundahish ... states that bathing in lake Kansava, she will become pregnant from the seed of Zarathushtra, that is preserved there .., and she will bring forth a son, Oshedar-bami".

Lake Kansava is referred to in Avesta (Yt. 19,66) as Zrayo Kansum, technically called 'Zareh Kyanse' explained in this book under 'Cosmography of the Space'. Zareh literally means a sea, which signifies expanse of salt water. Kyanse is called Zareh, because like sea it is a vast expanse, but ethereal. Thus normally, it is the ethereal interlink between the four lower ethereal planes (Dakhyus; Yt. 10,144) in Space. So it will be understood Zrayo Kansu or Kyansai is not "the present Zareh or Hamun Sea in Seistan" as erroneously conjectured by Prof. Darmesteter in philology. In the above quotations it also signifies the interlink between the termination of the wicked ages arid the emergence of the pure. So on the arrival of the interlink period (referred to as 'lake Kansava'), the maiden, i.e., the potentiality Srutat-fedhri, will go for bathing, which means she will be purified. At this propitious stage she will come in holy contact with the seed (Khshudra) of Zarathushtra protected by Ashaunam Fravashis mentioned above. As the result of this contact Hoshedar-bami, the first of the three prophetic place-takers and Saviours will manifest himself after 3,000 years as shown in the tabulation above, and the pure Zoroastrian Teachings of the 21 Nasks (volumes) will spread in all their glory.

Similarly, Vanghu-fedhri will come in holy contact with the second seed of Zarathushtra (some 40,000 years hence) preserved by Ashaunam Fravashi, and as the result Hoshedar-mah will manifest himself and the holy teachings of 21 Nasks will again flourish in all their glory.

Still again, according to calculations of the heavens, after about 51,000 years from now will commence the rulership in the heavens of 15,000 years of the king or major cycle of Saturn (the seventh and the last, within the current Zarvane daregho khadat of 81,000 years which will be terminated by the next world Deluge). After a lapse of 12,778 years of dire wickedness in this king cycle will follow the placid minor cycle of the Moon of 329 years (under the inter-cycle also of the Moon).


Manifestation of Soshyos.

In the interlink between the above mentioned wicked and the glorious periods the third potentiality of maiden will come in holy contact with the third 'seed' (Khshudra) of Holy Zarathushtra, resulting In the manifestation of the exalted Saviour, Saoshyant named Soshyos (Av. Astavat-ereta). -In this connection it is stated in Farvardin Yt. 142, as under:

"We worship the Fravashi of the holy maid Eredat-fedhri, who is called Vispa-taurvairi. She is Vispa-taurvairi (the all destroying) because she will bring him forth (i.e; Saoshyant), who will destroy the malice of Daevas and men, to withstand the evil done by the Jahi". (licentiousness).

Soshyos possesses the potentiality of "Yim" with the aid of which he will select good souls of all religions, as well as a pair of every kind of species of animals, vegetables and minerals. These selected human souls and, other creatures he will carry to safety on the indestructible heights of Airyana Vaeja on Mt. Alborz at the North Pole, where the climate will then be habitable and pleasant. The above selected human souls and other creatures saved from the waters of the Deluge are called Maabadians.

In later ages after the time of Soshyos, a horrible period of wickedness will follow again culminating in the next World Deluge, which is dealt with under the head "Un-fettering of Azhi Dahaka" in Supplement No. 10.

In conclusion, it must be emphasized that the nine entities designated as three wives, three sons and three daughters are none but the nine fully developed spiritual divisions, for explaining the functions of which the analogies of wives and their offspring have been employed, for as shown already, Holy Zarathushtra, though born of holy parents, was an angel on earth.


Miraculous Passing Away of Zarathushtra.

At the outset it must be distinctly understood that Zarathushtra had no worldly death, i.e., his body had not fallen on the ground as in the case of human beings. In Sanjana-Dinkard (Vol. XIV, Ch. IV) we are informed that "the passing away (vikhiz) of Zarathushtra of the revered Fravahar to the best abode (Pahlum Ahwan) took place when he attained the age of 77, i.e., 47 years onwards from conference (with Ahura Mazda) and 37 years onwards from the acceptance by Vishtaspa of the Religion."

With regard to the Prophet's passing away, the parable in Pahlavi states:

"While Zarathushtra was offering his prayers in an Atash Behram, he was killed by a Tur who pierced a dagger in his back, but Zarathushtra threw his rosary on the Tur which killed the assailant".

It is explained further on, how inconsistent this statement would be if taken literally, because according to Khshnoom, the 'rosary' mentioned there was not a material one of beads, but was the lustrous holy ring of the Prophet's halo.


Zarathushtra's Passing Away by Lightning Or A Flame From Heaven

In Greek and Latin accounts cited by Prof. Jackson, there is reference to lightning or some such luminous phenomenon connected with the passing away of Zarathushtra. Since such occurrences are normally impossible and incredible in the case of worldly people, they are mentioned as 'fabulous' by the illustrious scholar (Jackson). He gives them in his book "Zoroaster" the Prophet of Ancient Iran" as under:

"From the fate of Empedocles we are not surprised to find a miraculous departure attributed to a great sage; and the Greek and Latin patristic writers give a fabulous account of the passing of Zoroaster. His is no ordinary end; he perishes by lightning or a flame from heaven, which recalls the descent of the fiery chariot and the Whirlwind in the apotheosis of Elijah: For such a description our principal source is the Pseudo-Clementine RECOGNITIONES and the spurious Clementine HOMILIES, whose statements are followed by later writers.. All these passages are given in Appendix V, so they are simply summarized here.[22]

(a) A passage in the "Clementinae Recognitiones (dating about AD. second century, and existing in the Latin translation of Rufinus) identifies Zoroaster, with Ham or Mesraim of the family of Noah, and anathematizes him as a magician and astrologer. To deceive the people, it is said, he was wont to conjure the stars until finally the guardian spirit or presiding genius of a certain star became angry at his control and emitted a stream of fire in vengeance and slew the arch-magician.

(b) The later Persian work Dabistan (beginning of 17th century AD.)….A Turk named Turbaratur, or Turbaratur-hash (i.e., Tur-Bratur-Vakhsh) having entered Zardusht's oratory, the Prophet received martyrdom by his sword. Zardusht, however, having thrown at him the rosary (Shu-, mar Afin or Yad Afroz) which he held in his hand, there proceeded from it such an effulgent splendor that i'ts fire fell on Turbaratur: and consumed him."[23]

When we put together the above accounts by non-Iranian writers, who were not necessarily eulogistic of the Iranians or their faith, one thing becomes evident that the Pahlavi tradition of a Tur killing Zarathushtra is not literally true, but is only an enigmatical and allegorical statement which modern scholars have not understood. From the above accounts of patristic writers, one thing that comes uppermost is that the passing away of the Prophet had connection with lightning or some such luminous phenomenon in the sky which those (patristic) writers did not know in its genuineness, and consequently presented it mixed with their own erroneous conjectures. At the same time, it also proves that the Prophet was not killed by the piercing of a dagger by the Tur (or Turk).


Demons Could Not Kill Zarathushtra.

It will be understood from the following arguments adduced by Ervad S. M. Bhadha in his book “Amar Jyoti Zarathushtra” (pp. 45 seq.) that the Pahlavi statement mentioned in the beginning would be quite inconsistent if taken literally. In Tir Yasht 44, it is distinctly stated:

"Neither Ahriman (the Satan), nor sorcerers nor witches nor all the demons collectively can strike or dare to strike Prophet Zarathushtra."

When we put the above Avestan passage and the traditional Pahlavi statement side by side, we can understand that the latter has some allegorical meaning because Avesta are the most authentic.

It must be stated that the Prophet's passing away is related as a simple parable. Here Tur or Turk does not signify member of the Turkish race, but stands for “Tur-bara-Tur”, the Satan. Tur-bara- Tur represents the invisible, monstrously inflated, giganic cloud of the Dark side, which was the veritable body of Darkness that rained dire havoc on the earth with plague, cholera, lusts, famines, floods, earthquakes, warfares, robberies, sorcery, murders, etc., during some 4,000 years prior to the advent of Zarathushtra on this material world. These gave cause to Geush Urva to raise her appeal for deliverance from all those catastrophes. Geush Urva is the blissful phantom arisen out of the White side of the totality of souls of human beings of the earth appointed for their protection.

The above terrific condition had reached such limitless proportions that just as water overflows during floods in rivers, so had Druji, i.e., Evil crossed all bounds. This overflow of Evil i.e., the dire inflation of the Body of Darkness is allegorically called Tur-bara-Tur. Zarathushtra alone possessed the power of shattering this body of Darkness with the aid of the divine Aoj power of holiness which he, Zarathushtra, possessed in common with Ameshaspends and Yazads.


Zarathushtra Shatters Tur-bara- Tur's Body of Darkness.

When Zarathushtra completed the work of spreading the divine mission, he undertook the task of smashing the Body of Darkness and so he darted the ring of his halo full of lustre to the sky towards the above Tur-bara-Tur's body of Darkness. This agrees with the note in Dabistan above referred to, where it is stated that "there proceeded from it such an effulgent splendor that its fire fell on Tur-bara-Tur and consumed him", (though actually it did not consume but shattered it to pieces and reduced it to its normalcy).

From the Tir Yasht 44 cited above, we find that no demons with all their witch-craft powers could kill Zarathushtra. Hence it is easy to understand that it was quite impossible for a Turk to have murdered him. In the Avestan passage cited above, it is also stated that Tir Yazad is appointed as the guardian of the stars, and Zarathushtra as the chief and protector of human beings. Thus holy Zarathushtra was not an ordinary human being, whom a Turk, could have killed by piercing a dagger, but was the deputy of Sarosh Yazad and of the potentiality called 'Gatha (which is distinct from the Gatha prayers in the Avesta).


Zarathushtra Master Astrologer.

The holy Prophet was sent to this world endowed with great powers and authorities. He was Master Astrologer who could predict the events from dead past to the dim future, and as such he possessed the knowledge of all ages. So is it possible, that he could not have foreseen his own death by a Turk? Ahura Mazda and Ameshaspends constantly rendered him succour and saved him on all occasions during which the demons left no stone unturned to kill him by their great powers of sorcery. Would those holy divine Intelligences not have saved him at such a critical juncture of attack on him? This proves that a Tur was not a man, but represents Tur-bara- Tur, the Satan.


Angelic Power of Zarathushtra.

Zarathushtra had unique and limitless powers compared to those of demons and human beings. Nobody could approach him. Owing to the talismanic currents flowing through his body, it gave a shock when touched_which has been testified by Pliny also. His body, composed as it was of solid aura, was lustrous and transparent. No implement of any kind had any effect on his body. In fine, his body was not composed of flesh and bones. If we remember all the extraordinary facts about his angelic powers and the composition of his body, we would realize that the Prophet could not have undergone ordinary, worldly death, because it is utterly impassible that a human being Tur could have killed him when all the combined powers of the demons did not succeed in effecting his death by their dreadful sorcery.


NO Mausoleum of Zarathushtra.

Had Zarathushtra been killed by a human being as alleged, the great Iranian empire would have erected in his memory, lofty mausoleum and we would have had at least the ruins of that monument, just as we have various ruins existing to this day like those of Persepolis. Nay, such place and the monument would have became the holy centre for pilgrimage by Zoroastrians. Moreover, the narrations of the events of his death, the attendance of the King and the courtier in the funeral and speeches delivered by them would have been preserved in Avesta-Pahlavi writings and such books in the form of Nask or Nasks would have been referred to with great reverence by the community. But as we know, nothing of this sort has happened. On the contrary, we find indirect proofs of his becoming invisible.


The Greatest Ordeal

As stated before, Zarathushtra darted his lustrous ring of halo towards Tur-Bara-Tur's body of Darkness with his divine Aoj power and shattered it to pieces, and voluntarily drew its rebound shock on his purity-perfect body, whereby, on the one hand, the Prophet's luminous body elements were dispersed and drawn back to their respective paradisiacal ethereal regions above and on the other, reduced the power of Darkness, i.e., of Satan, to its normalcy. So dire was this shock, that had Zarathushtra not drawn it upon his body, but allowed it to strike against the earth, it (earth) would have been pulverized.

Thus Zarathushtra did not have a worldly death, but his passing away (Vikhiz) was spiritual ordeal of the highest degree.



The subject of the Era of Holy Zarathushtra, over which there has been much controversy among the philological scholars of the world for over a century past, can be easily found to be B.C. 7,551 or over 9,000 years remote from today in the light of "Khshnoom".

It is pertinent to remark that while all the eminent and illustrious philological scholars and savants of the West and the East with all their high academical qualifications and knowledge of worldwide literature have failed in their attempts to salve the puzzle of the Era, a practically unlettered prodigy in the person of our Ustad-Saheb (revered Master') the late Seth Behramshah Naaroji Shroff, cleared the haze with the light of Khshnoom. It is in the light of this heart-rejoicing esoteric knowledge that the subject of the Era of Zarathushtra has been attempted in the pages that follow.

Since the approach to the question by the Parsi scholars has been confined to an antiquated system of bare 1inguistic study of Avesta-Pahlavi-Pazand without the illuminating "Zand-Akas" of Khshnoom, the heart-rejoicing commentary knowledge, it will never lead any one to find out the true Age of the Holy Prophet because philological scholars are not aware of the mystery behind the 300 "years" enigmatically mentioned in Pahlavi, which they erroneously 'believe to be _he "traditional period of the life-time of Zarathushtra" nor are they in possession of the true knowledge concerning the ancient history of Iran prior to B.C. 2000. In both the above basical view-points the philological scholars have been misguided.

The learned scholars, for whom my respect is second to none, will find their efforts rewarded, if they but take pains to drink at the fountain of Khshnoom. Otherwise their search would be but a search in the wilderness, as it has been till now. In no way will it harm them if they study Khshnoom, but on the contrary, if they look outside their shuttered philological window upon the wide vista of Khshnoom, they would be able to find the Age of Zarathushtra in its true retrospect, and would be charmed to see a wide expanse of Zoroastrian true knowledge in its pristine purity.

It is a great misfortune of the Zoroastrian community that though there has been in existence in Bombay a regularly constituted Associatian far "researches" into the Zoroastrian religion since nearly a century past, its activities in that field are conspicuous by the absence of approach to Khshnoom, which, has thrown considerable new light on the Zoroastrian religion. This research body does not seem to realize that as scholars of the holy scriptures, they enjoy a high position of honour in the community, particularly an account of their microscopic number.

However, high as this position is" it is also accompanied by the grave responsibilities of enlightening the ignorant masses of the community that depend upon them for religious light. It then becomes amply evident that our scholars should play the game, and prove faithful to the trust reposed in them, because they are expected to be on the quivive for search of fresh light on the Zoroastrian Faith, wherever it may be found, no matter what its source. Had this been done with an unbiased mind, and with a zeal for exploring into Khshnoom, which is the sister-branch of the study of their religion for elevating their knowledge,- they would have long since came out of the mire of their linguistic stagnation by being disillusioned on the question of the Era themselves, and would have been able to enlighten the Iranian scholars with the same in particular, and the scholars and savants of the world in general.

In spite of all the facilities existing for gaining true knowledge, the above said Research-body have failed in their duty of exploring into their religious literature by remaining aloof from the new light.

It is not intended to say that they must accept everything without any question. If, after a fair-minded study of Khshnoom without any prejudice of aversion, they find it’s teaching, to be un- Zoroastrian or alien in character or antagonistic to the doctrines of the Avesta, they can expose the same. But, otherwise the present inertia is highly derogatory, and displays utter apathy to duty particularly, on the part of the scholars of that "Research" body concerned. Besides this, such attitude is highly detrimental to the cause of the study of the religion in all its aspects, of which philology and Khshnoom are but sister-branches requiring a conjoint study.

With regard to the Date it is intended to show:

  1. how the oldest Greek writers who reported that Zara thushtra lived in B.c. 6000 were right;
  2. how the scholars the world over have been misled for a century past by the enigmatical mention in Pahlavi of the 300 'years', an account of which they have erroneously placed the Era in question between 600 and 1000 B.C .or so, though historical records exist at least as far back as B.C. 2458.
  3. how the philological school is entirely innocent of the Huafrit and Kudarvand dynasties of Iran that combined ruled for over 3200 years prior to B.C. 2000; and
  4. how is it possible to find the era in the question approximately by mathematical calculations of the heavens, independently of any evidence of writings or chronicles of ancient Iran, both of which have been instrumental in misguiding the scholars.



The controversy over the date of Zarathushtra has, arisen from the fact that certain oldest Greek writers have stated that Zoroaster lived 6,000 years before Christ. However, when the modern philological scholars set themselves to calculate and verify that distant date, they found a huge gap of some 5,500 years, for which they could not find any historical chronicles, but on the contrary, they found mention in Pahlavi of the religion having been disturbed after 300 "years." Coincidentally, this period of 300 years was seemingly almost "synchronous" with the destruction of Iran wrought by Alexander the Great in B. C. 320 or so. Thus this statement of the Pahlavi writer supported the paucity of historical chronicles, and strengthened the misguided belief of the scholars in a much nearer date, and so they came to the conclusion that Zarathushtra lived in the neighborhood of 600 B. C. Such, in brief_ is the idea of how the controversy over the date of Zarathushtra arose, and how its true distant antiquity of over 6,000 B. C. came to be reduced to 600 B C, According to 'Calculations of the heavens' this distant antiquity is of 7551 B. C.

While modern scholars thus scale down the era to 600 B. C. other foreign sources declare the same to be 8,900 years remote or very near to it. Thus in "Oahspe, The Kosmon Bible" (p.l) it is said:

"Zarathushtra erroneously called Zoroaster a Persian Law Giver who lived in the cycles of Fragapatti eight thousand nine hundred years ago, the farthest back of all historical characters".

According to the above, the date of Zarathushtra comes to (8900 minus 1955 =) 6,945 B.C. Similarly in September 1957 number of the "Mazdaznan" magazine (p. 2) published in Los Angeles, California, we find the following under the heading .'Zarathushtra":

"On September 19th, the family of Mazda throughout the world again celebrates the birthday of the thrice blessed Zarathushtra, who according to our extant records, was born 6,900 B.c."

From the two quotations cited above it is clear that the ancient Greek writers were not the only ones to have reported the era to be beyond 6000 B.c.


Science Supports Distant Date

(The following is an extract from the Presidential address delivered by the learned Mr. Jamshed C. Tarapore. at the Iranian section of the All India Oriental Conference, the XXth Session (Bhubaneshvar) in October 1959). (pp. 12-13).

"The main difficulty in the way of scholars who assigned a very early date to the Avesta was the question as to when people in Iran and adjacent countries adopted a settled agricultural life, as so clearly shown in the Avesta literature. It was difficult to put such a settled life very far back in human history.

Now science has come to the aid of the archaeologist and students of ancient languages and history. Radiocarbon tests are now used to determine the age of articles found buried in mounds for many centuries. The atomic signals given out by such articles are measured on delicate instruments and their readings help the scientist to determine the age. All organic things have in their composition what these atomic scientists call Carbon 14. The presence of Carbon 14 makes all these things radioactive. The life scale of these radioactive particles is measured and determined and it is found possible to determine the age of an article up to 30,000 years.

These tests are likely to, revolutionize our ideas of the ancient world and the life in ancient times. The age of Hammurabi, the ancient law-giver of the first dynasty of Babylon was differently stated by different scholars. Excavations carried out in the ruins of the ancient city of Nipar yielded some pieces of charcoal from the roof beams of a house. These pieces were subjected to reading to ascertain their age. The conclusion reached was to fix age of Hammurabi much later than was formerly supposed.

Dr. Robert Braidwood of the Chicago University Oriental Institute, carried on some excavations in Jarmo, a village in the Kurdish Hills of Northern Iraq close to the Iranian border. A very early agricultural village was unearthed. When radiocarbon tests were applied to the articles found b the ruins it was ascertained that they were about 9,000 years old. "Some 4,000 years before historic times, Jarma's people grew barley and two kinds of wheat", says Dr. Braidwood "We are sure they had the domesticated goats, pigs, dogs, cattle and horses."

If it is thus established that people lived in settled villages and led an agricultural life in such a distant past, we shall have to revise our ideas about the age of the Avesta and the time when Zarathushtra propagated his religion in Iran. These revelations go to prove that Dr. Geiger was not wrong when he placed the age of the Avesta in "remote antiquity".

The age of Avesta being the age of Zarathushtra, Mr. Tarapore's belief expressed at the end in the above quotation regarding Dr. Geiger is surprising, since that illustrious savant does not believe the distant date of 6,000 B.c., on the ground that "chronicles could not have been available in those distant ages" and at the end of his enquiry he declares as under:

"After a review of the different statements recorded in Western writings, it will not surprise anyone, if we give it as our opinion that neither Occidental nor Oriental testimony yields us any sure ground on which to fix the age of Zoroaster."

(Geiger-Sanjana- "Civilization of Eastern Iranians" pp. 184-85).


Historical Records Refute near Date

When we look to the historical side we find that in B.c. 2,027 (or in B.C. 2,000 as shown by Dr. West) king Zarathushtra (Oxyartes) was defeated by the Assyrian monarchs Ninus and Semiramis. Still further back. according to the history of Berosus eight Median kings had ruled aver Babylania for 224 years, and in a schedule given by Raw linson[24] also, eight Median kings have been shown to have ruled aver Babylonia for 224 years, from 2458 B.c. . the name of their first ruler, as given by M.C.Muller quoted by Dr. Geiger was “Zoroaster”[25] Thus there are historical records at least up to B.C, 2,458, compared to which also the so-called traditional date "600 B.C." is absurd and incorrect. .


Misguided Dates given by Scholars

Before proceeding further it would be well to take a note of the misguided dates given by different scholars as furnished by Dr. Unvala. In his Presidential Address at the Iranian Section of the All India Oriental Conference 1955, it is stated in the printed pamphlet of that Address (pp. 9, 10) as under:

"As to the date of Zarathushtra".............I have placed it tentatively between the fifteenth and eleventh century B.c. onarchaeological grounds. I may add that Prof. Carmoy of Liege places it with Bartholomae not later than nine hundred B.c., whereas Prof. Henning fixes it categorically at 588 B.c……….taking the traditional date in the neighborhood of 600 B.C. According to the Syriac writer Theodore Bar Quoni, Zarathushtra lived 628 years and seven months before Christ."

Then in the "Kaiser-i-Hind" weekly of Bombay dated 29-4-56 (p. 22) in his article headed "Brief History of the Zoroastrian Religion" under the sub-head 'Controversy over Date' the learned Doctor observes: "'

"The Greek writers have.............placed him (Zarathushtra) at 10,000 B.c. and later. The Parsis would place him at least at 6,000 years from today. The majority of Western scholars, including Jackson, whom Dr. Mody follows, place him at 600 B.c., following therein the late Sassanian tradition, according to which Zarathushtra lived 300 years before Alexander the Great. Herzfeld has declared precisely 576 B.C. as the date of the birth of Zarathushtra. .................Dastur Dr. Dhalla (is for) 1,000 B.c."

Besides the dates given above Prof. Zaehner fixes it (date) at 628- 551 B.c. ("Dawn & Twilight…..” p. 33).


Fairly Correct Dates given by Ancient Greekwriters

With regard to the ancient Greek writers Dr. West mentions the facts as under: (S.B.E. Vol. XLVII, Intro. par. 71):

"Singularly enough the oldest writers, those who lived only two to four centuries after the traditional period of the life-time of Zarathushtra are those who report that he lived some 6,000 years before that period. Pliny the elder (Natural History XXX, 2) quotes Eudoxus (368 B.C.) as stating that Zarathushtra existed 6,000 years before the death of Plato that is B.C. 6,347, which is also confirmed by Aristotle. And he quotes Hermippus (about B.C. 250) as placing him 5,000 years before the Trojan war, that is B.c. 6,184. A third mode of describing this period seems to have been used by Xanthus of Lydia (B.c. 500-450?) who stated that Zarathushtra lived 6,000 years before Xerxes as quoted by Diogenes Laertius, that is B.G 6,485."

Thus it will be seen that the above-mentioned Greek writers connect the era of Zarathushtra with different events, and it is not on the authority of one and the same writer that the remote periods of 5,000 and 6,000 B. C. have been stated for that age.

These distant dates have been given independently and from their connections with different events. Still it is a matter of surprise that the modern scholars do not see the possibility of some link or links missing in the chain of information they themselves possess. On the contrary, they treat the dates given by those Greek writers as "extravagant". And on this fundamental misconception Dr. West and others base many more erroneous calculations of dates.

For their calculations of the era of Zarathushtra the scholars mainly depend on two considerations - one what they call "the traditional date of 600 B.C.", and the other, the historical chronicles. In both these they suffer from lack of knowledge of true and full facts, and consequently whirl round and round the parochial pool of the scrappy information they possess; and because they fail in their attempts to arrive at the distant antiquity, they conveniently imagine the distant Date as _'extravagant", as stated above, and cut down its true antiquity from about 6,000 B. C. to about 600 or 1,000 B. C.

Such being the case, the contents of this book on the question will be found to be a complete departure from the attempts of the philological scholars on the subject of the Date inasmuch as it is not based, merely on the writings of Greeks or Iranians or on the known history of Iran, but on the true and original knowledge possessed by the holy saints in seclusion in Mt. Demavand in Iran conveyed to our Master during his stay in their secluded paradiselike colony. On the strength of the above knowledge our Master has thrown new light from three different angles, namely, (1) the mystery behind the word "years" mentioned in Pahlavi writings, (2) New light on the history of ancient Iran and clues to two ancient Iranian dynasties unknown to scholars; and (3) scientific method of finding the era of Zarathushtra bv "Shumar-i-Falak", calculations of the heavens.


We shall take a brief idea of the above three items.

(1) TheMystery Behind

"Years" With respect to the "years" mentioned in Pahlavi writings it may be stated that modern philological scholars, like the Arab writers of old, are unaware of the intricacies of different types of "years" of varied lengths calculated from different planets, and these again reduced to 30 or 360 times by the Iranian 'Kar' and 'Far' year systems of reckoning mentioned in "Dabistan" also. Thus 300 years mentioned in Pahlavi are Lunar 'Kar' years, each of which is equal to 27 normal years, because Lunar year is 0.9 of a Solar year. So a Lunar Kar year is (0.9 X 30 =) 27 normal years. Hence 300 years which are stated in round figures are equal to (300 X 27 =) 8,100 years, which represent the period from the revelation of the religion up to the time of Alexander the Great. And since the latter lived in 300 B. C., we must add 300 to 8,100 to arrive at the beginning of the Christian era. The great Iranian doctors of ancient times, who were past masters in astronomy and astrology besides several secret sciences, could from their profound knowledge ascertain which type of the year was meant in a particular connection.


(2) New Light on the History of Ancient Iran

In the matter of the ancient history of Iran unknown to modern scholars, our Master not only gave clue to the two new Iranian Dynasties but also showed how long the Kayanian dynasty continued and how it was terminated.

The period of this unknown history is shown below:

  1. 40 years; birth (B.C. 7551) to Revelation of Holy Zarathushtra (B.C. 7511); Rule of Kayanian king Kae Gustasp (or Vishtasp) 90 years from above Revelation (shown in Bd. 34;3); (B. C. 7511-7421).
  2. 2,000 years; Kayanian dynasty continued (B.c.7421-5421). History completely destroyed by enemies of Iran;
  3. 40 years; Birth and Revelation period of Lord Shri Krishna (B.C. 5421-5381);
  4. 100 years; Indian rule over Iran (B.c. 5381-5281);
  5. 1,626 years; Huafrit dynasty (B.C. 5281-3655)
  6. 1,629 years; Kudurvand dynasty (B.C. 3655-2026) terminated by defeat of king Zarathushtra (Oxyartes) at the hands of Assyrian monarchs Ninus and Semiramis in B.c. 2026.


5,435 years; representing the period of history unknown to scholars.

The historical chronicles of the Kayanian dynasty after Kae Gustasp pertaining to (B) above have been completely destroyed by the enemies of Iran, while those of the Huafrit and Kudurvand dynasties against (E) and (F) above have been rendered sacrosanct, to be disclosed only at the proper time and by the proper authority, as stated by our Master.

The name of Huafrit appears in Aban Yt. 130, but the scholars being unaware of the existence of a dynasty of that name treated the name Huafrit etymologically in S.B.E. Vol. XXIII. A reference to "the good rule... by the descendants of Huafrit' is to be found in MSS Dinkard Vol. XI Rehetseck's App. II cited by the late scholar Ervad S. D. Bharucha. As shown above this dynasty ruled for 1,626 years. The king of the same Huafrit dynsty who succeeded to the throne after the above period called himself "Kudur-Na-Na- Vandi", meaning the servant or devotee of Na-Na, the holy individuals who have entered the Garo-Nmana, the abode of (divine) Music, which is the sublime heaven of Jupiter. Thus the birth date of Zarathushtra comes to B.c. 7,551 as under:

90 years rule of Kayanian king Kae Gustasp since the Revelation (Bd. 34; 3);
5,435 " shown above, and
2,026 " from defeat of King Zarathushtra to the Christian era.
7,551 " B.C birth date of Zarathushtra.

A complete schedule indicating the break-up of the known and unknown periods right from the year of birth of Holy prophet Zarathushtra upto the beginning of the Christian Era is given below for the benefit of the readers:

1. 40 years (7551 to 7511 B.C.) period from the year of birth of Holy Prophet Zarathushtra up to the Revelation of religion;
2. 90 years (7511 to 7421 B.C.) period of rule of Kayanian king Kae Gustasp (or Vishtasp) from the year of Revelation upto the end of his rule. (shown in Bd. 34;3);
3. 2,000 years (7421 to 5421 B.C.) period of continuation of the rule by Kayaniam dynasty after king Vishtasp, the history of which is completely destroyed by enemies of Iran;
4. 40 years (5421 to 5381 B.c.) birth and Revelation period of Lord Shri Krishna;
5. 100 years (5381 to 5281 B.c.) Indian rule over Iran;
6. 1,626 years (5281 to 3655 B.C.) period of the rule of Huafrit dynasty;
7. 1,629 years (3655 to 2026 B.C.) period of the rule of Kudurvand dynasty which was termiinated by the defeat of king Zarathushtra (Oxyartes) at the hands of Assyrian morarchs Ninus and Semiramis in B. C. 2026;
8. 1,561 years (2026 to 465 B.c.) period after the defeat of king Zarathushtra upto the Achaemenian king Behman called Ardashir Longimanus, B.c. 465.
9. 465 years (465 B. C. to the beginning of Christian Era) period from king Behman or Ardashir Langimanus to the beginning of the Christian Era.

7,551 B.C. Birth date of Zarathushtra.

Since there is proof in existence of the Iranian rule at least as far back as B.C. 2,026 as shown above, the periods of Assyrian, Median and other later dynasties are ignored as also of the Persian King Cyrus, because they do not help in determining the earlier antiquity of the Date of the Prophet.


(3)' Shumar-i-Falak" the Calculations of the Heavens

For finding the era of Zarathushtra the ancient Iranian doctors had not to resort to vague speculations based on incorrect data, either of the enigmatical Pahlavi writings, or of the extant meagre history of Iran, but they possessed the knowledge of the independent laws of Soteriology - the science concerning Saviours - embodied in the mystic science of Shumar-i-Falak, "calculations of the heavens'. Thus they realized by their knowledge that each of the five great Saviours and his Faith is under the influence of a particular planet, that each Law-Giver descends on the earth at the time pre-ordained in Nature during the respective conjunction of Time cycles most propitious for his divine, Message to flourish, and so on. From this it will be understood that finding the era of Zarathushtra or any other great Law-Giver is not a subject for speculation.

Shumar-i-Falak, the Reckonings of the heavens, is a scientific method based on Zoroastrian astro-numerological mysticism - connected with eternal verities. The special value of this system lies in the fact that its workings are independent of any writings of old, or of the historical chronicles both of which data have been the sources for misguiding the modern philological scholars for a century past.

The above system of reckoning forms part of what is called Tawil-i-Zarvane-daregho-khadat", i.e., commentary on the self created long cycle of Time. This long cycle of Time is, according to Khshnoom, of fixed 81,000 solar years, which comprise the seven planetary ruler-ship_ each ranging from 4,000 to 17,000 years, and called a royal or major cycle. Each of these royal cycles is divided into seven smaller cycles under the same seven planets, each such division being called a minister or inter cycle. Again, each minister cycle is also sub-divided likewise into seven still smaller cycles under the same seven planets, each such subdivision being called a magistrate or minor cycle. The above figure group 81,000 is a mystic numerological number, each of which numerals, viz.,. 8,1,0,0,0 has its own distinctive significance based an eternal verities explained further an under Chapter III. The Tawil or commentary is the veritable mirror of the Ages influenced by the rotations and revolutions of the planets above, whose periods (major, inter or minor) are worked out by mathematical computations, called Shumar-i-Falak mentioned above. Thus this Tawil constitutes the readings of the horoscope of the earth, in which _he whole past history, not only of Iran but of the whole world of some 14,000 years since the restoration of the known material world is reflected, cycle by cycle, and the expert adept of that science can also picture to himself in that horoscopical mirror the great future events of worldwide or nationwide importance, a very few of which are given under Appendix II.

From the ready-reckoner chart of the planetary Time-Cycles given against pp. 364, 365 the birth-cycles of different Law-givers can be seen at a glance. The Chart shows the respective era, and not the actual year. However, where the birth of a Law-giver takes place at the very inception of the magistrate cycle concerned, the result comes correct even to the year, or very close to it.

Thus we know the 2,500th anniversary of Gautam Buddha's Pari-Nirvana was celebrated in 1956. Gautam Buddha and his Faith are under Mercury. So going back up to the Mercury magistrate cycle (j) from (a) at the bottom of the chart, we get by addition the total period 2,560 years, which is the birth-year from 1,940 AD. So naturally in 1,956 AD. it would be 2,576. Pari- Nirvana indicates Buddha's departure from the earth, which is said to be at the age of 79. So the 2,500-year works out correct to a trifling difference of (2,576 minus 79 = 2,497 i.e.) only 3 years or so.

Again B.C. 2,026, the year of defeat of king Zarathushtra (Oxyrates) by the Assyrian monarchs Ninus and Semiramis works out correct to the very year by adding up the magistrate cycles from (a) to (1) and deducting 1940 of the Christian era. This date is stated variously by different writers.

In this connection Dr. West says (S.B.E. Vol. XLVII, Intro. par. 74):

"The time in which this Bactrian (Oxyrates) lived is also very uncertain for though Semiramis has recently been placed about B.C. 800, her position in Albiruni's tables is certainly 1,200 years earlier."

This means her position is (800 plus 1,200 =) 2,000 B.C. which though stated only approximately, is yet very near the true date 2,026 B.c., the year that marks the change in the heavenly minister (inter) cycle from Moon to Saturn (under Jupiter royalty) unfavorable to Zoroastrians and their Faith. The above observation of Dr. West discloses at the same time what reliance can be placed on the dates estimated by modern scholars.

Still again, Oxyrates was the last king of the Kudarvand dynasty which scholars do not know to be Zoroastrian, just as they do not know about its preceding dynasty founded by Huafrit (Yt. 5,130)_ over 2,000 years after the Kayanian king Kae Vishtaspa in whose royal court Zarathushtra revealed his religion. The Kudarvand dynasty commenced at the inception of the intermediate Time-cycle of Moon (under Jupiter major cycle), and ruled for about 1,629 years between B.c. 3656 and B.C 2,027. During the last two centuries of this Lunar ministry, idolatry flared up in Western Iran due to its last magistrate (minor) cycle of 260 years being under Mercury, which supports idolatry. Gautam Buddha and Jain Mahavir whose cults are likewise idolatrous of the White side of Nature were both born under the Mercury magistrate cycle. Similarly, in the remoter age Shri Krishna, whose Faith is also idolatrous (of the White side) also appeared under the minister as well as the magisture cycles of Mercury (under Jupiter royalty) between 5,421 and 5,381 B.c.

Coming to the immediate past, the Jupiter magistrate cycle (a) of 261 years shown at the bottom of the Chart terminated in 1940 AD. Parsis and Zoroastrianism are under Jupiter. So they prospered during that period of over two centuries in India and to a certain extent in Iran as well, chiefly under king Rezashah Pahlavi. This same epoch-making magistracy brought about Zoroastrian religious upheaval; the new occult light of "Khshnoom" came to be shed for the first time in the beginning of this century, through which the genuine teachings of the Zoroastrian religion were revealed in their pristine purity, faith-shattering :misconceptions of the philological school got automatically exposed and refuted, and the darkness in the field of Zoroastrian religious knowledge was dispelled.

All the above instances show on the one hand that the main activities of worldwide or nationwide importance are engendered by planetary influences, and on the other, that the science of the "reckonings of the Heavens" taught by our Master is proved to be true and the time cycles worked out mathematically correspond with the actual events, that happened on the earth during the past 4,000 years, dates of which are well known.

Thus the Master lifted the Veil of Darkness that shrouded the Date of Zarathushtra ever since the philological school came into existence, while the Pahlavi Dasturs (high priests) of yore knew the mystery behind 300 "years". It may also be stated that of late Parsi Philological scholars refer to 8,000 or 7,000 years for the date, depending on the reports of the earliest, Greek writers, well knowing that they would not be able to fill up the gap in Iranian history of nearly 5,500 years, without the aid of Khshnoom.

Footnotes and references:


Prof. Henning's 'Ratanbai Katrak Lecture' No.3, 1949, p. 43.


(there) to Nisti, the - evanescent world (Space) including the known material world.


(two birds) Geush Tashan (Ysn. 29,2) and Geush Urva (ibid. 1), the former regarded as the male bird called Amru (Yt. 13,109), and the latter, the female bird called Chamru (ibid). As explained already several times, 'Geush' does not mean 'ox', but the sub-angelic potentiality blissfu1 like the ox or cowkind. Geush Tashan is stationed on Upairi Dakhyu (Yt. 10,144), the 4th region in the Space, which is nature's laboratory of the four subtle elements, each getting 16 electric circlings making in all 64, from the permutations and combinations of which is formed Kehrp, the internal invisible body-form comprising 16 plexuses from which the material body is developed.


(progeny) souls - to turn from vice to virtue.


(nest) Space or material world.


(devoured by serpents) engrossed in wickedness resulting in being subjected to the rounds of death and birth between the sky and earth (Thwasha Khadata); (Vd. 19,13).


(Seven years) according to Zoroastrian numerology 7 indicates sway either of good or evil forces - here reference is to the evil.


(before) the preceding evil period of rank materialism under the influence of Mars during the sway of that planet in the heavens.


(Haoma) blissfulness - by the advent of Zarathushtra and his Faith resulting in destruction of the demons and their nefarious activities.


(carried away) imbibed or absorbed the blissful currents of Asha Chithra, Vaha Chithra, whereby those elements gradually became subtle.


(tree) Geti, the material world.


(nest) Nisti / Space (here).


(serpents) evil propensities - material world was rife with evils from demons and their followers resulting in humanity subjected to re-births.


(latter (serpents) might pass off) devilry be subjugated.


(fell down & died) began to die out.


(blood) the demoniacal propensities though reduced to embryonic state, still possess the destructive characteristic awaiting their time to grow.


This term refers to the holy ceremony of Pasu Pachayen already explained under the head "Technical Significance of Pasu" in Part I.


By Dr. West (ibid) – The female archangel Bountiful Devotion in whose special charge are the earth and virtuous women; Sls XV; 5,20-24) Sls = Shayast – la shayast.


(Zoroaster ... pp. 21.22 Prof. Jackson).


Av. Ukhshyad-ereta and Ukhshyad-nemangh of Fravardin Yt. 128


Av. Saoshyans of Vend. XIX, 18, Fravardin Yt. 129, etc.


The best material on this subject from the classical side, is to be found in Windischmann, ZOROASTRISCHE STUDIEN pp. 306-309 (accessible now in translation, Darab D. P. Sanjana, "Zarathushtra in the Gathas" pp. 131-135.


Dabistan pp. 371-372


"History of the Kings of Iran" Vol. I p, 357 (in Gujarati) byMr. P. B. Desai.


Eastern Iranians-by Geiger-Sanjana Vol. II (p. 185).

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