A Manual of Khshnoom

The Zoroastrian Occult Knowledge

by Phiroz Nasarvanji Tavaria | 1971 | 160,667 words

An introduction to the mysteries of Khshnoom, an ancient occult movement. Khshnoom stands for 'Divine' or 'Spiritual' knowledge and originated from Zarathushtra. This book contains knowledge not to be found in Zoroastrian religious works. The second part contains documentaion of the life of Prophet Zarathushtra....

Supplement No. 1

16 Fire-energies Operating in the Whole Universe

9 Fire-energies Operating on 9 Heavens

(Translated from "Ancient Zoroastrian Education System" (p.9) – by ourMaster, the late Mr. B. N. Shroff).

Fire Energy No. Name of Fire energy Heaven No. Functioning on
1 Atash-e-Shaedan   Beyond the stage of "Niru"
2 Athro Ahurahe Mazdao Puthra 9th (Highest) 9th heaven of Ahunavar.
3 Atash Berezi Savangh 8th Zodiacal heaven; Anaghra Raochao.
4(a) Adar Khurdad (major) 7th Kaiwan (Saturn)
5 Adar Froba (pure) 6th Barjis (Jupiter)
6(a) Adar Gushasp (major) 5th Hasham (Mars)
7(a) Adar Burjin Meher (major) 4th Khurshid (Sun)
6(b) Adar Gushasp (minor) 3th Nahid (Venus)
4(b) Adar Khurdad (minor) 2nd Tarad (Mercury)
7(b) Adar-i-Burjin Meher (minor) 1st Mah (Moon)


Fire Fire-energies Functioning in Nisti Worlds (Space)

Fire No. Name of Fire energy where Functioning
g Adar-e-Mino-Karko On Aiwi Dakhyu, Antare Dakhyu and Aa Dakhyu; region of Kurrah (division) of subtle fire element and six super-ethereal Keshvars (Note)-The fundamental fire-energy of the whole Nisti worlds (Space).
9(a) Adar-e-Vazishte-latif (higher) On region of Kurrah (division) of subtle airy element.
(b) Adar-e-Vazishte-Kasif (lower) On gross airy element and in
air (Note: Subtle air is generated here. From here invisible i.e.  intangible air begins).
10(a) Adar-e-Urvazishte-latif (higher) On region of Kurrah division) of subtle wateryelement.
(b) Adar-e-Urvazishte-Kasif (lower) On region of Kurrah (division) of gross watery element and in vegetable kingdom, and in water and in milk of animals.
11(a) Adar-e-Spenishte-latif (higher) On region of Kurrah (division) of subtle material element.
(b) Adar-e-Spenishte-Kasif (lower) On region of Kurrah (division) of gross material element and in mineral kingdom.
12(a) Adar-e- Vohufryane-latif (higher) In speaking animals i.e. humam beings.
(b) Adar-e-Vohufryane-Kasif (lower) Dumb animals.
13, 14, 15, 16 (Lower to Higher:)
All four fire-energies cooperating with Atash-e-Vohufryan in human beings


15 Fire-energies Referred to in Atash Nyaesh

(Translated from Khordeh. Avesta, 2nd edition, published by P.V.T.S. & Z.R.S., pg. 126, seq. notes inserted by the late learned Mr. D. S. Masani).

In Atash Nyaesh in the paragraph after the Gah recital, and at the end in the identical Avesta paragraph and in the Pazand passage, there are references to all the above named 15 fireenergies functioning in macrocosm and microcosm, except the first Atashe Khshaeta of Fravashi functioning in the pre-casmogenesis world. They have been woven into the Avesta passages beginning with "Athra-Ahurahe-Mazdao-Puthra" to' "Nairyasanghahe yazatahe", and some of them have been mentioned in the Pazand passage at the end by their names, so that while reciting them one may be put in mind of their great mystic functions. Thus the paragraph beginning with (i) Athro-Ahurahe –Mazdao-Puthra, which is the deified and most lustrous fire-energy possessing consciousness, and functioning on the topmost and sublimest 9th (empyrean) heaven of Parvin-i-Ala, Neptune, which 9th heaven is the throne or seat of Ahura Mazda. The fire-energy of this heaven is allegorically styled 'Puthra' (son) of Ahura Mazda, because just as a dutiful son is obedient to his father and helps him in carrying on his work or business, so this fire energy which possesses the supermost potentialities and divine authority, sustains the 9th heaven, and helps the Creator, Ahura Mazda in the administration of the whole Universe from the dead past to the dim future for the transmutation of the souls Aka or Drvao, wickedness into Asha or Gao, blissfulness.

Thus it will be understood that "Athra-Ahurahe-Mazdao- Puthra" is a compound proper noun, which does not refer to the common place fire as an element, and as such must not be rendered etymologically. This being not known in philology Dr. Geiger observes though eulogistically (vide "Civilization of Eastern Iranians " Geiger-Sanjana, Vol. I Intro. p. xxvii):

"With particular emphasis fire, the importance of which in the CULTUS of the Mazdayasnan need not be pointed out, is invoked as the son of Ahura Mazda (Ataremcha-Ahurahe- Mazdao-puthrem; Ysn. 2,4). It is the holiest and purest element, that which diffuses light. As such it appears to be the earthy and visible image of the Deity, Who is Himself light and absolute purity."

Here the illustrious savant is misguided into the belief that Ataremcha-Ahurahe-Mazdao-puthrem is the fire element that 'diffuses light'. From what has been stated above, it will be understood that the element of fire in the hearth can be easily extinguished and possesses no more power beyond imparting heat, while Ataremcha-Ahurahe-Mazdao-puthrem is immortal and possesses inconceivable potentialities for conducting the divine administration of the Universe from the dead past to the dim future.

(2) Reverting to the above Atash Nyaesh paragraph, in the next passage "Tawa Atarsh puthra-Ahurahe Mazdao" the suppliant is reminded of the 8th_heaven of Parvin-i-Adna (Uranus) which is referred to in Avesta as Anaghra-Raochao, Boundless lights (Vd. 19,35), where functions the fire-energy called Atash- Berezosavangh. This name is_met with in Afrin-i-Ardafravash prayer.

The fire-energy of Berezo-savangh is characterized by the 27 constellations of the brightest stars which comprise the zodiacal belt of 12 signs, through the instrumentality of which the Creator, Ahura Mazda, Ameshaspends and Yazads incessantly conduct the divine administration of the Universe and will continue to do so to the Boundless Time with the aid of the above 9th and 8th heavens and the seven planetary heavens, till this world of physical formations, which is said to have emerged from a ray will one day revert into a ray and thus become all light.

(3) Then the next passage:

"Athro Ahurahe Mazdao puthra"


"Kavayehecha kharenangho Mazdadatahe"

reminds one of the Adar-Froba, which has manifested itself from Ahura Mazda, and which functions on the 6th heaven of Jupiter. This Adar-Froba has been referred to as "Adaran-Shah-Firozgar" in the Pazand passage at the end of this Nyaesh.

(4) Then the passage containing the words "Kavoish Haosravanghahe" is reminiscent of the fire energy called Adar- Gushasp of two grades - the higher functioning on the 5th heaven of Mars, and the lower on the 3rd heaven of Venus. In the Pazand passage at the end of the Nyaesh, it is mentioned by its own name, Adar Gushasp.

Kavoish Haosravangha, that is, king Kae Khushru had caused this Atash - Adar Gushasp - to be drawn from the 5th heaven to the earth, and had consecrated the Atash_Behram (fire-temple) connected with it in Iran till an underground talismanic structure inaccessible except to the adepts. This fire is said to be still burning since the time of king Kae Khushru (about B. C. 8000) without any firewood or fuel, and will continue to burn till the next World Deluge.

Learned Kanga in his translation of the above Atash Nyaesh passage says in the footnote:

“According to the Pahlavi commentary king Kae Khushru had consecrated this Atash after conquering the 'Bahmandez' ... It is also known as the fire of lightening.”

According to the Shah-Nameh, history of the kings of Iran by Firdausi, the above fort Bahmandez was, as stated by king Kae Kaus, a stronghold of Ahriman, the Satan, and was unapproachable on account of its precincts having been rendered fiery hot, and its entrance sealed off by witchcraft. King Kae Khushru with his supreme spiritual powers conquered the fort.

After this conquest he worked the miracle of drawing the fire of lightening, and consecrated it as Azar Gushasp, which Firdausi records in his Shah-Nameh in the following couplets:

"Befarmood Khusrav badan jaygah Yaki gumbadi ta abre seyah."


Khusrav ordered a dome to be erected in that place

"Ze birun chu nim az tage Tazi asp Baravordo benhad Azar Gushasp."


Its circumference was equal to half the round of a speedy steed, in that he consecrated Azar Gushasp.

With regard to the origin of the name Azar Gushasp it is stated in learned Kutar brothers' Gujarati translation of Shah-Nameh (Vol. III, p. 191) as under:

"In this warfare, lightening fell near the ear of Kae Khushru's: steed, and the fire blazed. Thereupon Kae Khushru named it Azar Gushasp (Azar, fire; Goosh, ear; and Asp, horse.)"

Such is the interesting account gathered from different sources of the consecration of Azar Gushasp by king Kae Khushru.

(5) Reverting to the Atash Nyaesh paragraph, in, the next passage the words "Raevantahe garoish Mazdadatahe" remind one of the fire-energy called Adar-Burzin-Meher of two grades, the higher functioning on the 4th heaven of the Sun, and the lower on the 1st heaven of the Moon. In this case also the actual name Adar Burzin Meher is given in the Pazand passage at the end of the Nyaesh.

In one of the carvings in Iran, the prophet is shown as bringing this fire from the heaven in his right hand, which is indicative of the high grade of his wonderful physical constitution. By virtue of this fire-energy he possessed Asne-vir (Dk. VII; 2,22), the knowledge and wisdom par excellence of the angels, which enabled him to come into direct contact with Ahura Mazda with the aid of Bahman Ameshaspend, and by gaining His divine vision could derive omniscient knowledge from the omniscience of Mazda, as can be found from the words "Ta toi izya Ahura Mazda darshtoishcha hem-parshtoishcha" in Yasna; 33,6, where he, Zarathushtra, addresses Ahura Mazda, and supplicates, "I long for Thy vision and conference" (B. T.. Anklesaria).

(6) In the next passage the word "Raevantahe garoish Mazdadatahe" are reminiscent of the fire-energy of Adar Khurdad of two grades - the higher functioning on the 7th heaven of Saturn, and the lower on the 2nd heaven of Mercury. In the Pazand passage mentioned above, the actual name Adar Khurdad is given.

(7, 8, 9, 10) In the following passage the words "mat vispaeibyo aterebyo" indicate the four fire-energies referred to in Haptan Yt. 2. With the words "Ahya thwa Athro Verezena", and the Avesta name of Mino-Karko is also "Athro-Verezena. Thus "Verezena" is taken as the technical term, which is analogous to 'Karko'.

The four fire-energies are - higher to lower,

  1. Atash-i- Mino-karko,
  2. Atash-i-Vazishta,
  3. Atashi-Urvazishta, and
  4. Atash-i-Spenishta, of which Mino-Karko is the leading fireenergy.

In the above Haptan Yt. passage also are mentioned the last three fire-energies which have emanated from Mino Karko and are its co-operators in their higher and lower grades as shown in the schedule in the beginning of this chapter.

All these four fire-energies in their higher and lower grades function in the whole Nisti-Geti, that is to say_ in the Gava or blissful, semi-luminous world and the elemental planes of subtle and gross formations and in their creations.

(11) Again, Atash-i-Vohu-frayan, which is compounded of the last named four fire-energies, and which is mentioned in Afrin-i-Arda-fravash prayer, functions in its higher and lower grades in all mankind and animals respectively. Then the words "Khshathro nafedro Nairyosanghahe Yazatahe" remind us of the four fire-energies functioning in the four cerebral centres of Kehrp (Ysn. 55,1), the invisible body (according to which the human physical body is formed).

These four fire-energies are

  1. Atash-i-Dara,
  2. Atash-i-Nairyosangha,
  3. Atash-i-Khoreh and
  4. Atash-i-Frah, which is another form of Adar-Froba functioning on the 6th heaven of Jupiter mentioned under (3) above.

The 16th is the fire-energy of the Fravashi, which (fire) develops all the above 15 fire-energies, but without associating with them. The last four are the co-operating fire-energies of

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