A Manual of Khshnoom

The Zoroastrian Occult Knowledge

by Phiroz Nasarvanji Tavaria | 1971 | 160,667 words

An introduction to the mysteries of Khshnoom, an ancient occult movement. Khshnoom stands for 'Divine' or 'Spiritual' knowledge and originated from Zarathushtra. This book contains knowledge not to be found in Zoroastrian religious works. The second part contains documentaion of the life of Prophet Zarathushtra....

Chapter XII

"Key" No.2

Map and Cosmography of the Universe

We now come to the second 'Key' of the Khshnoom Teaching, which treats of the Map, and Cosmography of the Universe. This Universe is Nature's gigantic machinery for transmutation of the Evil clung to the totality of Urvans, souls, which in their origin were lights, but with deficiency of divine knowledge, which (deficiency) is the source of all wickedness in the world. In other words, the total transmutation of the Evil into Good constitutes the extinction of Ahriman, the Satan, leading to the final bringing about of 'Roshan Rooz', the Glorious Day.

The Universe comprises two main divisions:

  1. Immortal worlds, and
  2. Mortal worlds.

Immortal worlds consist of

  1. 'Minoi Alam' literally spiritual or heavenly world); and
  2. 'Jirmani Alam', planetary world.

The Minoi Alam consists of

  1. the empyrean, which is the 9th heaven, also known as the heaven of Ahunavar; and
  2. Anaghra Raochao (Vd. 2,40) (literally Endless Lights), which is the 8th heaven of the zodiac.

It is also called 'Stehr Paesanghem', decorated with stars (Ysn. 9,26). On the 9th heaven is located the divine Cabinet of Creator Ahura Mazda, Ameshaspends (Archangels) and Yazadic (angelic) Intelligences.

Besides these, on this 9th heaven are located the highest divine powers for conducting the divine administration of the whole Universe, viz.,

'Atar-Puthra-AhuraMazda' (compound technical term), the creative fire energy which is the highest potentiality among the 16 fire-energies operating in the whole Universe;
Yavaecha-yavaetat, Infinity, comprising seven cycles of Zarvana- Akarana, Boundless Time, from Eternity of the past to Infinity of the future;
Niru-khadat, the Law of Glorious Universal diffusion and Expansion;
Baodangh, brilliance of perfection of divine knowledge;
Paourva Fravashi, the highest Light ineffable and indivisible representing divine Wisdom, besides other highest powers, in which all, is diffused as Urvan of Manthra-Spenta, the lustrous part of the original Urvan with Taromaiti, arrogance, since turned into Armaiti, perfect humility.

The 8th heaven of the zodiac is the sidereal Home of all Urvans, souls. All souls are exiled for their Reformation first to the planetary world, and thence to the varied stages of the lower world (the Space) or to the earth at its bottom. Every soul on its long, long journey of exile is labeled with the divine prescription from this 8th heaven, which lays down Nature's processes for transmutation of the soul's Druj into Gao, i.e. Evil into Good for effecting its individual 'Frasho-gard', Renovation (of the soul). These processes which are detailed further on are chalked out by Dame Fate, and as such, a soul's destiny is pre-ordained, in which (Destiny) the Free-Will has a very small share, for the soul trails down to this material world heavily shackled in its physical body, and heavily veiled with the Veil of Darkness, and bound down by the laws of 'Akem-akai', evil to evil (Ysn. 43,5). Thus the Fate of the soul is sealed on this 8th heaven, on account of which the latter is allegorically called the heaven of 'luhokalam', slate and pen.


Mt. Alborz

In Avesta, this 8th heaven, besides being known as 'Anaghra Raochao', Endless Lights, is also referred to allegorically as 'Haraiti-Barsh' (Yt. 19,.1) or 'Hara-Berezaiti' (Yt. 10,51) the Mt. Alborz, in which the extreme height of the 8th heaven of the Zodiac is compared with the top of a high mountain, which indicates sublimity; while one of the constellations of the zodiac called 'Hu-kairya' is regarded as one of its peaks. Thus it will be understood that Haraiti-Barsh is not a mountain on this earth.

En passant, it may be stated about Mt. Alborz that of the four cerebral plexuses in the human body, which remain latent in worldly sinful people, but are active in the case of saints, the first called 'Lahian' is regarded as Mt. Alborz of the physical body, being most sublime in imparting highest spiritual powers to the soul concerned. Thus the 'four legs of the black steed of king Kae Gushtasp, said to have been retracted in its abdomen', were the four latent cerebral plexuses which were rendered active by the Prophet, and which cleared the darkness of the king's mind which enabled him (king) to discern the truth of Zarathushtra being the true prophet and not a demon, as the real demons had misrepresented him to the king.

Again, 'Khanirath Bami' (Yt. 1O,15) lit., 'Golden Shore', situated on the heights indestructible from the waters of the World Deluge on the top of this earthy globe, is also called Mt. Alborz. It is the seventh and the only terrestrial Keshvar that is the residing place of saintly souls referred to as 'Gava-Shitim' (ibid), where Gava is used for saintly souls, who possess the blissful characteristics as of the kine (Gava). This Khanirath Bami is referred to as 'Thrishva' in Farvardin Yasht; 2 which is the onethird holy section of the globe at the Arctic region towards the North-Pole, which is almost Satan-free, and buried under Aredvideep snow (Vd. 2,22) since over 10,000 years. Consequently, its very existence or geography is unknown to modern scholars. Here in this Khanirath Bami is situated Airyana Vaeja, where Zarathushtra was born. Besides the above three allegorical Mt. Alborz; there is the actual mountain of that of that name in the North of Iran.


Planetary World

Below the 8th heaven of the zodiac are the seven planetary heavens; (from 7th on top) Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury and Moon (lowest). To the varied influences of the above planets on this earth, races and individuals, their religions, cultures and civilizations and all major upheavals of worldwide or nationwide magnitude react in rise or fall, peace or war, weal or woe, according as the 'aspects' of the movements of the planets are favourable or otherwise. From here_ i.e., from the planetary world operates the law of Jirm, planet, which governs the souls. We have seen in the description of pre-cosmo-genesis world that souls possess varied degrees of Drvao, Evil The rotations and revolutions of the planets being of varied velocities, the souls accommodated themselves in different planetary heavens suitable to their varied degrees of Drvao. Here a large mass of the souls succeeded in eliminating their Drvao by self effort by a process somewhat akin to that of evaporation. However, there was another lot of souls which could not do so owing to their Drvao being very rigid or dense, and so for their purification, Nature has created 'Dami', lit., creation (the Space) with which begins the mortal section of the Universe.


Mazda-data and Ahura-data, Deified Laws of Infoldment of Spirit into Matter, and Unfoldment of Spirit from Matter

Before proceeding further, it would be well to take a correct idea of the two terms 'Mazda-data' and 'Ahura-data', which are quite erroneously rendered in philology, and which relate respectively to the Infoldment of wicked souls into Matter, that is investing them into physical bodies for their (spiritual) purification, and to the Unfoldment of saintly souls from Matter on their attaining complete purification.

"The unfoldment of a soul is a process requiring ages after ages, and the Avesta word Urvan from its derivation Uru, wide, and An, to breathe or to exist suggests that it is a principle always widening itself out, and thus expanding its consciousness",

which means in other words that the consciousness of Urvans is not fully developed. In Khshnoomic parlance an Urvan up to the Lunar heaven, at the bottom of the planetary world is a light with deficiency of divine knowledge, which is the cause of all Evil (Druj) -in the world. Consequently, for effecting Reformation, that is for transmuting this Druj, evil, into Asha, holiness, for which the Universe is created, souls are exiled from their sidereal home in the 8th heaven – of the zodiac (Anaghra Raochao; Yt. 12,35) according to Mazda-data (Yt. 10,67), the deified Law of Infoldment of Spirit (soul) into Matter, whereby the soul is invested with a physical body an this earth.

Inversely, it may be stated that when a soul is on the path of righteousness, and after death advances upward to the paradisiacal regions on its repatriating felicitous journey back towards the planetary world, though very very slowly, it (soul) is governed by Ahura-data (ibid.), which is another law, also deified, but of Unfoldment of Spirit from Matter. It may be noted that Mazda-data and Ahuradata are both technical terms, where '-data' in both cases means 'law', and not 'made by', as erroneously rendered in philology (though etymologically correct) in the absence of Zoroastrian, esoteric commentary knowledge. From the above it will be understood that a wicked soul trails down to this material world according to Mazdadata, and a holy soul ascends to the paradisiacal regions according to Ahura-data.


Aka Chithra the Wicked Seed

With regard to the souls, it may be stated, that originally, that is, in the pre-cosmo-genesis world, there were two types of lights, viz., lights with perfect divine knowledge called Baodangh (Ysn. 55,2), and lights with deficiency of divine knowledge called Urvan (ibid. I). From this deficiency of divine knowledge arise all types of wickedness called 'Aka', or 'Drvao'. So, as the first step towards redeeming the lights with Aka or Drvao, wickedness, Ahuraongho, the junior angels led them out of Naba-nazdishta, the precincts of the zodiacal centre of light, to the planetary world below. The rotations and revolutions of the different planetary heavens, as well as of the Drvao, wickedness of the Urvans, souls, being of varied degrees, those souls were attracted to the respective planetary heavens suitable to their Dryao, and accommodated themselves accordingly. Here a part of the Urvans, souls, became pure, that is, became evil-free by eliminating their Drvao-affected portion by a process which may crudely be likened to that of evaporation. The Drvao or Aka, evil, thus evaporated was caused to be drawn to the respective Zamrirs, transitional regions between each pair of firmaments. Here the form of the Drvao, evil, was then caused to be changed a little, by being, what may be called, condensed. This changed or condensed form of the Drvao-affected part of the soul is called 'Aka-Chithra', wicked seed (Aka, unholy or wicked and Chithra, seed).

The purified portion of the Urvan, soul, having thus become Drvao-free, that is, pure, its Rae_divine self-knowledge which was confused or inert so far, now became self-enlightened. So it (purified portion) now endeavors to redeem its erstwhile Drvao, which is turned into Aka-Chithra, wicked seed, and to merge the latter into itself after its purification. As the result of this endeavor, 9/l0ths (or 0.9) of the Aka-Chithra became illumined, but the Drvao, wickedness of the remaining l/l0Oth (0.1) was very dense or rigid, and could not be reclaimed, and hence that l/l0th (0.1) part, which was like the dross of the soul, was exiled for its Reformation to the lower world referred to in Avesta as 'Dami', the Space, literally meaning creation (Ysn. 57,2), and technically called 'Nisti', the evanescent world, so called because it is not an immortal world and because one day it will be absorbed into the planetary world above.


Divine Prescription for Soul's Reformation

The Drvao above mentioned is the soul's malignant malady of wickedness, for the cure of which the above l/l0th (0.l) part of the original whole soul will have to go on a long, long journey of exile through the Space technically called Nisti, the evanescent world, which may be said to be Nature's huge spiritual Reformatory or hospital. The soul trails down from the planetary world to the earth labeled, as it were, with the divine prescription from the 8th heaven (of the zodiac) where sits Dame Fate. The prescription lays down what processes of spiritual therapeutics would be administered to the soul for its redemption, which different paths of religions (Ysn. 42,1) and their respective grades of purity would be required to become sin-free, how many rounds of birth and death it would have to repeat, what type of weal or woe or both it would enjoy or endure, how many aeons would be necessary for it to gain emancipation, that is, liberation of the soul from its physical body, and after it is emancipated when it would be able to return to its original native Home in the 8th heaven, the seat of Ahura Mazda - ALL that is laid down in the divine prescription accompanying the soul as stated above, according to which its destiny is pre-ordained. In this journey of exile of the soul the share of its good constituent is supplied to it by Yazad (angel) Payu (Ysn. 57,2), and the wicked constituent by Yazad Thworeshtar (ibid.). Thus the soul takes birth on this known material world heavily shackled in the physical body which is its instrument or tool (Snath) for appearing on the earth, heavily veiled with the Veil of Darkness, and bound down by the laws of Akem-akai, evil to evil (Ysn. 43,3) whereby the density and rigidity of Drvao, (evil) becomes vulnerable to Nature's Reformative processes. With its destiny thus chalked out for it by Dame Fate in which Free Will plays but a small part, the human soul takes birth as a child.


Miswane-Gatu, Intermediate Region between Planetary & Evanescent Worlds

It is stated above that Urvans, that is, souls with deficiency of divine knowledge from which all evil arises, are exiled from the 8th heaven of the zodiac, and transferred to the Nisti world for the transmutation of their evil into goodness. However when the souls start on their long journey of exile, they first pass through 'Miswane-Gatu' (Vd. 19,36), the intermediary region that separates the planetary world from Nisti, the evanescent world. This Miswane Gatu is not 'Hameshta Gehan' as erroneously believed in philology from similarity of meanings.]


'Hameshta Gehan'

'Hameshta Gehan' is the term applied to the six planetary heavens other than of Jupiter which is called "Garo-Nmana", lit., 'Home of Hymns' i.e., of perfect bliss. Hameshta Gehan is derived from 'Ham-Yasaite' (Yasna 33.1), lit., confused or mixed up. Hence Hameshta Gehan are the centres for searching out and separating the Good of the soul from the Evil which are mixed up. This function of separating the two is performed by the six planetary heavens of the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars and Saturn, which have been evolved from that of Jupiter. It may be noted that the centres of the above six planetary heavens are the residing places-called 'Hu-yaon' (Yt. 13,29) of Yazads (angels). Thus Hameshta-Gehan are the Reformatory institutions for saintly souls, where there is neither perfect bliss of Garo-Nmana, nor the sufferings of the mortal worlds.


Atash-e-Mino-karko, Creative Fire-energy of the Whole Nisti

On Miswane-Gatu mentioned above, functions the creative fire-energy called Atash-E-Mino karko referred to towards the end af Atash Nyaesh. This Atashe-Mino-karko is the Be-all and End-all of the Nisti worlds (the Space), for it is the source of creation of the seven Dakhyus, and numerous other regions and stations, both paradisiacal and wicked contained in the Nisti. Further details of the fire-energies operating in the Nisti worlds are given in Supplement NO. 1.

This Atashe-Mino-karko is like a mirror, so that the wicked souls an their arrival at the Miswane-Gatu are able to see in it, what may be called, the dark spats of the evil clung to them on their otherwise spotless shining-selves. Moreover, this fire energy has the power of changing one state into another, according to which the souls are first turned from luminous to semi-luminous state and vice versa. The conversion of luminous into semi-luminous is the first change from a higher to a lower state. After crossing the intermediary stage of Miswane-Gatu, the exiled souls arrive on the top region of the Nisti, evanescent world, described below, for their Reformation.


General Idea of the Space (Dami)

As stated previously, the dross of the souls is exiled for their Reformation to the lower world referred to in Avesta as 'Dami', (literally creation) and technically called Nisti, the evanescent world which is commonly known as the Space, that is, the invisible worlds above, generally believed to be 'regions beyond ken'. However, in Avesta-Pahlavi-Pazand writings there are technical references to planes, regions, stations both wicked as well as paradisiacal, about which all there is full commentary knowledge in Khshnoom, as described below.

This Space is not a void, but the most wonderful, inconceivably gigantic, multi-dimensional invisible world or worlds of the most complex pattern, with (beginning from top) its Miswane-gatu; transitional region; Dakhyus; Zarehs; Keshvars; Chakati Bridge; Dadare-Gehan; Pahlum-Ahwan; regions of jaza; Yim-var-kard; Chinvat Bridge; Var-i- Jam Kard; Kang Dez: Gang- Dez; Vantar; Spirit worlds; Hades; the earthly globe with its holy Thrishva in the Arctic region (buried under mountain deep snow since some 10,000 years); and the known wicked material world; Apakhtar; the infernal regions; and with its living creation from the semi-luminous souls of Gava-Chithra, to souls of higher and lower sprites of both sexes, fishes from aquatic monsters – 60 to 70 feet long to microscopic animalcules, and insects, wide-winged birds to butterflies, and human beings divided and sub-divided into blissful as well as destructive animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms. .

Almost all the above mentioned technical terms are met with in Avesta-Pahlavi writings, though learnt mostly parrot-wise or conjecturally in philology. Our Master was the first to teach the map and cosmography comprehensively, based on the original teachings of Zoroastrian Khshnoom, the heart-rejoicing esoteric commentary knowledge.


Map of Nisti (Space)

The Nisti or the Space is divided into four main sections:

(The technical terms occurring below have been explained under Cosmography in their proper places for which please refer the Chart.)

  1. Nisti-a-Auwal, the first or the sublime Nisti;
  2. Nisti-e-Myana or the Miswane-gatu-e-duvvum, the inter mediate Nisti;
  3. Arvahi Alam, the worlds of sprites; and
  4. Aipi Dakhyu including the earthy globe

The contents of the above divisions are as under:

(1) Nisti-e-Auwal is the super-ethereal top section of the Nisti. It comprises the following six sub-sections:

  1. The first and the topmast Zamrir, transitional region (between Miswane-gatu-e-Auwal above and Aiwi Dakhya and its inner homologue Zareh Vourukasha below). This Zamrir includes two top Keshvars - Keshvar No. I (S.E.) Vida-Dafshu, which is topmost, and Keshvar No. II (S.W.) Frada-Dafshu - the former being higher up in the Zamrir and the latter, lower down in this same Zamrir; [1]
  2. Aiwi Dakhyu; first plane or expanse at the top, with its inner homologue Zareh Vourukasha (Between 7th and 6th Zamrirs);
  3. Second Zamrir containing Keshvar No. III(E) Savahi and Keshvar No. IV(W) Arezahi (between Aiwi Dakhyu above and Antare Dakkyu below. Savahi is higher up and Arezahi is lower down.
  4. Antare Dakhyu, the second plane with its inner homologue Zareh Frakhnkard (Frankard) (between the second Zamrir above and the third Zamrir below).
  5. third Zamrir including Keshvar No. V(N.E.) Vauru Zareshti, a little above and No. VI (N.W.) Keshvar Vauru-Bareshti, a little below, (between Antare Dakhyu above and Aa Dakhyu below).
    (Note: Now the chart can be seen again.)
  6. Aa Dakhyu with its inner homologue called Zareh Puitik, (between third Zamrir above and the fourth below).

(2) Nisti-e-Myana, the middle Nisti. It begins with the fourth Zamrir containing three paradisiacal stations, viz.,

  1. Dadare Gehan at the top; below it
  2. Pahlum-Ahwan, and
  3. sub-region of Jaza (reward); this Zamrir is also called Yim-var-kard. Here Yim is Yazad and not king Jamshed.

Next below is; Upairi Dakhyu, Nature's laboratory of subtle elements; (here is the seat of Geush Tashan);
next below is: fifth Zamrir containing the Chinvat Bridge comprising four sub-regions, viz., Var-i-Jam kard, the felicitous top subregion, connected with the paradisiacal upper section of the Nisti;
then below, Kang-Daeza;
still below, Gang-Daeza; and lowest down, Ganjesh, the portal (to the Chinvat (Bridge) connected with wicked section of the Nisti below;

(3) 'Arvahi Alam, consisting of Adairi Dakhyu, the world of superior sprites, followed lower down by: sixth Zamrir; then still lower down Pairi Dakhyu, the world of inferior sprites.

(4) Aipi Dakhyu including the earthy globe: In this last division of the Nisti is first located the seventh Zamrir, and below the latter is the Aipi Dakhyu (also the seventh and the last), which mostly contains the earthy globe excepting its top, which is located in the lowest sub-regions of above (seventh) Zamrir. The Aipi Dakhyu also contains the infernal regions. On the earth is the seat of Geush Urva. On the top of the known material world, in the Arctic region is 'Khanirath Bami', lit., Golden Shore, the holy 'one-third' section ('Thrishva') of the earthy globe now buried under deep snow. Here is situated Airyana Vaeja, the birthplace of holy Zarathushtra.

The Cosmography Chart :


Cosmography of the Space (Dami)

It must be noted that this Dami or the Space is too complicated. The map of the whole Dami is divided into four main sections, which are given under the preceding head "Map of Nisti (Space)". The exact aspect of the Dami (Space) can only be gained in 'Sijda, spiritual trance (note: it is also said to be understood by mathematics). However, for a crude idea the Dami (Space) may be conceived as a gigantic spinning-top or a screw with seven outer ridges and seven inner, and ending in a point.

The seven outer ridges represent the seven Dakhyus, the seven inner (ridges), the seven transitional regions each called a "Zamrir" between a pair of consecutive Dakhyus, or between two main consecutive regions. The Dakhyus are wide expanses of inconceivably huge magnitude, and hence referred to in Avesta in language of this material world as "Vouru gaoyaoiti' (Yt. 10.3) literally 'wide pastures'.

They are enumerated in Meher Yt; 144 (from upper to lower) as under;

  1. Aiwi; Dakhyu;
  2. Antare; Dakhyu;
  3. Aa; Dakhyu;
  4. Upairi; Dakhyu;
  5. Adairi; Dakhyu;
  6. Pairi; Dakhyu; and
  7. Aipi; Dakhyu;

Our earthy globe which represents the point of the spinning-top mentioned above is mostly located in the Aipi Dakhyu at the bottom, with its (globe's) upper portion in the Zamrir, transitional region between the Aipi Dakhyu below, and Pairi Dakhyu above. The composition of the top three Dakhyus is superethereal, and lower four ethereal, with the earthy globe, of course, material.

All the seven Dakhyus with their respective Zamrirs, transitional regions, make concentric domes, being ranged like the petals of an onion - the smallest (at bottom) enclosed within next larger, that is, the second; that within the third still larger, and so on; but with this distinction that these Dakhyus being ethereal in composition are inter-penetrating at the bottom Zamrir, and mot one above the other as the onion petals are arranged. In other words, these Dakhyus may be described as concentric and geocentric with dome within dome, the whole Nisti or the Space in its outer aspect resembling a gigantic spinning top, as stated above, the uppermost widest circumference of which being that of the topmost Aiwi Dakhyu spiraling down to the globe of the earth, which represents the lowest point of the spinning top. Thus the dome of the Aipi Dakhyu at the bottom is encaged in that of the Pairi Dakhyu next larger above it (with Zamrir transitional region between) (please see the Chart); then the dome of Pairi Dakhyu contained in that of Adairi Dakhyu still larger; and so on, till the dome of the Antare Dakhyu being contained in that of the top dome of Aiwi Dakhyu.


Combined Idea of Dakhyus and Their Inner Homologues, the Zarehs

All Dakhyu expanses have two sides - one inner, the other outer. The latter (outer) is the Dakhyu proper. The inner homologue is called Zareh, (Avesta 'Zrayangh; Ysn. 42,4) meaning a sea, allegorically so called because like seas and oceans, the top three Zarehs are limitless in expanse, and besides, waves, not of water but of super-ether are generated in the three respective Zarehs connected with top three Dakhyus, viz., Aiwi. Antare and Aa.

The inner homologue of the topmost Aiwi Dakhyu is called Zareh Vouru-kasha (ibid.), that of the middle Antare Dakhyu called Zareh Frakhn-kard, and that of third Aa Dakhyu called Zareh Puitik. The fourth Zareh Kyanse, which does not get waves, and which is an inter-link between the aforesaid three Zarehs and the last four Dakhyus, namely, Upairi, Adairi, Pairi and Aipi, is like the sensitive plate in photography which records the minutest vibrations of all thoughts, words and deeds in all the four Dakhyus.


Functions of Zarehs

Zareh Vourukasha - All souls of varied degrees of wickedness on their journey of exile are first gathered (Vd. 21.4) on this top Zareh Vourukasha, which is characterized by several fundamental important noumena and phenomena described further on. Here on this Zareh Vourukasha, stands 'Khar Ashavan' (Ysn. 42.1) the allegorical 'holy ass' - the lustrous holy Kehrp, the deified invisible body of the 3-stage Ahunavar Plan (expounded under Supplement No.9).

Zareh Frakhnkard - Here souls are classified under the five main religions of the world suitable to the varied degrees of Druj (Evil) clung to the souls. Khshnoom teaches that each of the five great law-givers and their respective Faiths are under the influence of one of the five planets as under: (higher to lower)

  1. Holy Zarathushtra and Zoroastrianism... under Jupiter,
  2. (a) Shri Krishna arid Vedic idolatrous religion of the White side,
    (b) Gautam Buddha and Buddhist religion, and other idolatrous religions of the under Mercury White side
  3. Mahomed and Mahomedanism... under Mars,
  4. Moses and Judaism ... under Venus, and
  5. Jesus Christ and Christianity ... under Saturn

The heavens of the Sun and the Moon are transitional stages for a change after death from a higher to a lower religion, and vice versa.

(Prof. Zaehner being unaware of the functions of this Zareh Frakhnakard (Frakhvkard) imagines it to be "a mythical sea" ("Zurvan" p. 483).

Zarek Pilitik - In this Zareh Puitik (V d. 5,18) souls are invested with ethereal vestures to designed shapes contracted in nuclei, each called Kehrp (Ysn. 55, 1), the invisible body.

Zarek Kyanse - This fourth and last Zareh is common to the last four Dakhyus, namely, Upairi, Adairi, Pairi and Aipi. A soul after being invested with ethereal vesture (Kehrp) on Zareh Puitik as stated above, trails down to the earth, and takes birth of parents following the religion to which it (soul) itself belongs.


Functions of Last Four Dakhyus

The last four Dakhyus are:

  1. Upairi,
  2. Adairi,
  3. Pairi and
  4. Aipi.

Upairi Dakhyu - This is the plane from which the power of Nature's Dark side becomes prominent. From here the superethereal state becomes ethereal. On this Dakhyu is located Nature's laboratory of subtle elements from which the known four elements are formed in the end. All that is physical has its origin on and from this plane of Upairi Dakhyu. 'Geush Tashan' sub angelic potentiality, the modeler of souls' subtle bodies has its seat on this Dakhyu.

Adairi Dakhyu - This plane comprises the world of superior sprites, who often save children from serious accidents. These superior sprites are attached to and hover where holy Avesta prayers are chanted. All sprites, good as well as bad, possess incredible powers denied to human beings.

Pairi Dakhyu - This is the plane of inferior sprites despised in Avesta, for they are harmful to mankind and other good creation. This is the region where go human departed souls of false preachers of religions (Ashmogan), wandering souls of sorcerer, murderers, robbers, suiciders, highly licentious persons, and Zoroastrian souls that die without receiving the funeral ceremonies of the first four days.

Aipi Dakhyu - Most part of our earthy globe is located in this Aipi Dakhyu, The top portion of the earthy globe is located in the transitional region (Zamrir) just above the Aipi Dakhyti This Aipi Dakhyu also contains the infernal regions. Souls trail down on the earth in the reverse order as under: First, the mineral kingdom, then vegetable, then animal kingdom and lastly human souls. Geush Urva, the sub-angelic potentiality representing the collective blissful side of the totality of souls on earth, and appointed for their protection, has its seat on the earth.


'Geush-Aevo-Datayao and 'Keresani' Respective Phantoms of Souls' Collective Blissful and Destructive Characteristics

According to Nature's curriculum at the inception of every 'Zarvane daregho-Khadat' (Siroza 21)- meaning self-created-longtime (of 81,000 years as taught in Khshnoom), a batch of countless souls with rigidity of Drvao or Aka, wickedness, is transferred to Dami (Ysn. 57.2) technically called Nisti, evanescent world or the Space. Here in this Nisti, souls undergo processes of Reformation, that is, transmutation of their Aka, wickedness, into Asha, holiness. Souls exhibit two characteristics in varied degrees-one blissful, the other selfish and harmful or destructive. The former (blissful) is referred to in Avesta as 'Gao'[2] literally meaning the kine, and representing their beneficent characteristic belonging to the 'live-and-help-others live' principle in Nature used metonymically, the animal expressed to designate its special blissful characteristics, while the other (destructive) is called 'Aka', wickedness, as stated above.

When a batch of countless souls mentioned above gathers on the Aiwi Dakhyu, or rather on Zareh Vouru-kasha (Vd. 21,4), their collective Gao or Geush, the blissful side becomes animated, which is called in Pahlavi Gavyodat and in Avesta 'Geush-aevodatayao' (Yt. 7,7) literally meaning 'sole-created bull', used figuratively to designate the animated blissful phantom (Geush), which of course has no physical body. Similarly, the collective Aka, wickedness or the Dark side, also becomes animated, but in the form of dire destructive phantom called 'Keresani (Ysn. 9,24), who is the deputy of Angra Mainyu, the Satan in the Nisti worlds. Between the Upairi Dakhyu and the earth 'Gavyodat', the White phantom, and Keresani_ its Dark opponent phantom chase each other, the former to persuade, the latter to devour, its opponent partner. This chasing causes the phenomena of day and night. Geush-aeva-datayaa is bright, and Keresani dark, though shining. Keresani is analogous to Keresa meaning 'oppressor' (Harlez), or 'tormentor' (Spiegel). This term is further dealt with in its different aspects under Supplement No. 10.


Fundamental Noumena and Phenomena

The Nisti or the evanescent world (the Space) is distinguished from the immortal planetary world, being characterized by four fundamental and most important noumena and phenomena, viz.,

(1) Time and Space, which in the zodiacal and planetary worlds are inseparably amalgamated, became separated from the top of the Nisti;

(2) Urvans (Ysn. 55,1) wicked souls, by which is meant souls possessing deficiency of divine knowledge, and hence rebellious against AHU, the Un-nameable Light of lights, and who were lights up to the bottom of the planetary world, that is, up to the Lunar heaven are, on their arrival on Zareh Vourukasha on the top of the Nisti (the Space), passed through the fundamental law of the In-foldment of Spirit (soul) into Matter, referred to technically in Avesta as Mazdayasni Daena (Yd. 19,13). This investiture is super-ethereal in the top three Dakhyus, then ethereal in the lower four Dakhyus, and at last material an this earth;

(3) phenomena of birth and death of (or at) however short or long periods in different regions and the earth; and

(4) division of every soul into sexbifurcation, and sub-divisions of l/l0th (0.1) of both sexes into animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms. Thus at first a whole soul, an its arrival at Zareh Vaurukasha gets bifurcated into two dissimilar counterparts - 1, 'Sharif', superior; and 2, 'Khasis' inferior.

In this division the essential of the soul is caught in one part, which makes it superior (sharif), while the absence of that essential in the other part makes it inferior (Khasis). On the earth the two are known as male and female respectively. After this main bifurcation into sexes, both of these counterpart souls are subdivided gender-wise as human parent-souls, i.e., main souls and decimal particle-souls of animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms, in which the human being, male as well as female, gets the lion's share that is, 0.9 of the masculine and 0.9 of the feminine soul. Owing to this, the human being gets the reasoning power, speech, authority, consciousness, wisdom and Nature's promise of the Ten Commandments.

These "Ins", mankind souls of males as well as females are again divided on the principle of decimals (Av. 'Daseme'). Thus 9/l0th of each male and 9/l0th of each female remain permanently as human, and l/l0th of each goes to form and embody in the animal kingdom - male to male and female to female. Again 1/10th of this animal soul-particle (that is, l/l00th particle of the original human male or female soul) goes to form and embody gender-wise in the vegetable kingdom. Still again, l/10th of this vegetable soul-particle (that is, 1/l000th particle of the original male or female human soul) goes to form and embody, gender-wise, in the mineral kingdom. The above sub-divisions may be expressed in decimals as under:

0.9 Human soul, 0.9 human soul,
0.09 Animal " , 0.09 animal soul,
0.009 vegetable " , 0.009 vegetable soul,
0.001 mineral " , 0.0001 mineral soul,
1.000 masculine whole   1.000 feminine whole  

Thus is a masculine as well as a feminine soul originally divided and sub-divided as above, and thus are the above two human main parts and the particle-souls of both genders in the three lower kingdoms-making in all 8- truly the 'Khaetu', (Ysn. 12, 9) 'own relatives' of each other. These particle-souls are said to be simultaneously produced from and are inter-related to, the original "Ins Chithra", mankind-seed on Zareh Vourukasha, the top region of the Nisti world (the Space). On account of the above said simultaneous creation, they (particle-souls) are called in Pazand "Ham-daheshni". It will thus be understood that in Nature the human soul comes into being prior to the animal soul,-nay, the latter is, as it were, drawn from the former.

(Because Zareh Vourukasha and Caspian Sea both mean 'wide-shored', the learned scholars in the absence of genuine knowledge erroneously compare Caspian Sea with Zareh Vourukasha).

Khshnoom teaches that the fundamental divisions into spiritual masculinity and spiritual femininity effected on Zareh Vourukasha as shown above remain constant throughout, that is, unchanged from one to the other at all stages. Even in the divisions into animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms, from human masculinity come animals, vegetables and minerals of the masculine gender, and from human feminine gender come feminine animals, vegetables and minerals.

Moreover, from the humanWhite side in Nature come genderwise, blissful animals like cowkind belonging to the 'live and help others live' principle and nutritive vegetables; and from the Dark wicked side of human beings come genderwise, carnivorous animals of Khrafstric side, that is, those belonging to the 'kill or harm others to live' principle in Nature, and vegetables that are poisonous or those that excite lower passions.


Communion of Child with Nature in Infancy

As stated previously under Zareh Kyanse, a soul (child) takes birth on this material world. After it (child) is born it is in communion with Nature up to the age of about four or five. This is most aptly described by poet Wordsworth in his "Ode on the Intimations of Immortality", and hence we reproduce the relative lines below:

“Our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting:
The soul that rises with us, our life's star.
Hath had elsewhere its setting,
And cometh from afar;
Not in entire forgetfulness.
And not in utter nakedness,
But trailing clouds of glory do we come
From God, who is our home.
Heaven lies about us in our infancy;
Shades of the prison-house begin to close
Upon the growing boy,
But he beholds the light, and whence it flows
He sees it in his joy.
The youth, who daily farther from the east
Must travel, still is Nature's priest.
And by the vision splendid
Is on his way attended;
At length the man perceives it die away,
And fade into '"the light of com'"mon day:”

"Thou, whose exterior semblance doth belie
Thy soul's immensity;
Thou best philosopher, who yet dost keep
Thy heritage; thou eye among the blind,
That, deaf and silent, read'st the eternal deep,
Haunted for ever by the eternal mind
Mighty Prophet! Seer blest!
On whom those truths do rest,
Which we are toiling all our lives to find,
In darkness lost, the darkness of the grave;
Thou, over whom thy immortality
Broods like the day, a master o'er a slave,
A presence, which is not to be put by;
Thou little child, yet glorious in the might
Of heaven-born freedom, on thy being's height,
Why with such earnest pains dost thou provoke
The years to bring the inevitable yoke,
Thus blindly with thy blessedness at strife?
Full soon thy soul shall have her earthly freight,
And custom lie upon thee with a weight
"Heavy as frost, and deep almost as life!"


"For in and out, above, around, below,
Tis all a magic shadow show,
Played in a box whose candle is the sun,
Round which we phantom figures come and go."

(- Unknown?)


Veil of Spiritual Darkness over Worldly Souls

Thus, as shown above, a soul trails down to the earth. Here the soul is heavily shackled in the physical body, and heavily veiled with the Veil of Spiritual Darkness after the age of four or five, and bound down by the laws of 'Akem Akai', evil to-evil (Ysn. 43,5) meted out to it, which is mild or severe, proportionate to its wickedness. On coming into age a person's, soul is like a rustic, fresh from the village visiting a large city here cheats, that is, worldly attractions surround him. On account of the Veil of Darkness, the soul knows not WHERE it came from and WHY, WHAT it brought with it at birth, WHAT it takes With it at death and WHAT is the Ultima Thule of its existence.

Consequently, it is attracted to sensuous pleasures, which it mistakes for true happiness, and thus wastes whole life-time and dies. The physical dead body changes form on the earth, but the wickedness accompanies the soul to the sky. Here if it is a Zoroastrian soul, it sees on the dawn of the fourth; day after death, the sorry picture of its own thought-word-action graph of the whole sinful past life on earth in the form of a hideous hag (Hadokht Nask, an_ it shudders. At the proper time; it takes birth again, when it Cries, because it knows that a life' of condign punishments awaits it. Such shuttling between the sky and the earth is called 'Thwasha Khadata' (Yd. 19,13). The following lines correctly convey the idea of Thwasha Khadata and are hence cited here:

"Heaven is not reached at a single bound,
But -we build the ladder by which we rise,
From the lowly earth to the vaulted skies,
And we mount to the summit round by round."

(Quoted by H.V.S. in "Kaiser-i-Hind" weekly, D/- 29-9-57).


Three Stages of 'thwasha Khadata' Automatic Rounds of Re-births

There are three stages of Thwasha Khadata. In the first, the soul descends from the sky (Thwasha) and lives a worldly life. In the second, the person dies, goes back to the sky (Thwasha), traverses the three sub-regions of Chinvat Bridge_ and arrives on Var-i-Jam-kard, the top sub-region of the Bridge, but it (soul) being of a sinful person cannot cross it (Ysn. 51.13), and so is hurled lower down away from the paradisiacal path, to the 'Apakhtar', the wicked region and halts there. In the third stage, the soul undergoes 'Tan-Asak', re-birth and distress in the material world. HUMAN BODY FULL OF "NASU", PUTRIDITY The human body composed as it is, of the four elements of fire, air, water and earth, is a structure of the most intricate pattern into the details whereof we need not enter here. Yet a very brief idea about its putridity may be taken. Each of the aforesaid four elements ceaselessly gives out 16 kinds of electrical energies, which energies have their own motions and waves. Thus there are 64 types of energies with different permutations and combinations. From these a kind of putrid heat is constantly given out. We know all putrid states are full of microbes. Such putridity is intensified during certain daily domestic occasions, such as, intake of food, attending Nature's calls and other excreta, bath, wash, "Haeer-nasa Khurashni", eating of dry putrid things, "Haeer-nasa joeshni", eating of green putrid things, and during out-bursts of evil emotions or passions, in men during seminal discharges and in women during menstruation, and from dead bodies of men, animals, etc. The above putrid magnetic emanation in each case comes in contact with the atmosphere, and produces destructive energy, which culminates into "Druj", evil vibrations of different grades which are twenty-one in all, a few of which are mentioned in Khordad Yasht. Such a Druj-infested body of an ordinary human being is also technically called "Nasu", putridity.


Zoroastrian Laws for Turning Putridity into Purity

The problem and goal is to turn this putridity - wherever and whenever it arises - into purity, and the responsibility for the same rests on the human soul. Extremely strict are the laws taught in the Zarthoshti Daena for transmuting all putridity into purity at all times and at all stages. The practice of strictest truthfulness in thought, word and action with contrition for sins of commission and omission, together with the practice of the exercises of different anti-microbe 'Baj' rites respectively pertaining to the above said daily domestic attendances of bath, Nature's call etc., transmute putridity into purity, and make a person "holy for the sake of holiness" (Ashim-Ashai, Ysn. 46; 10). The observance of these "Baj" rites and the respective holy blissful formulae of Manthra-Spenta uttered in a whispering tone before and after in each case, as also the Zoroastrian code of Vandidad, the anti-demoniacal law, are the real and actual smiters of Druj, Evil or putridity. They are the veritable "Ashtra Mairya" (Vd. 18.4) the "weapons" for killing the (allegorical) "serpent" of lust, worldly attractions, etc., and "Khrafstraghna" (V d. 18.2) the allegorical sledge-hammer for effectively smashing and crushing the power and force of Druj, impurity, which is the real Khrafstra, the beast in man or the internal noxious animal in the human body, expressed figuratively. Thus these "weapons" are not of steel or the like, but of holy formulae uttered in conjunction with the different rules and modes of observance in each case.


Transmutation of Evil into Good

Human beings in their normal activities of life-leading come into contact with various people, animals, vegetables and minerals. If in such life-leading, "Hutokshi" is observed, i.e., life is led in such a way that the harmony and economy in Nature are not disturbed by any thought, word or action, the blissful principle of Good (called "Gava" _in Avesta) pertaining to Ahura Mazda is helped. Such a result can ensue when the "golden mean" (Patman) in every thought, word and action is maintained. When foreign particles of souls of other human beings, or the particles of their souls in animal, vegetable or mineral kingdom, go into the physical system of a person principally by way of food they create passions because such foreign particles are misfits. This is called the indulgence of "Vohun", i.e., act of opposition to Nature's working. By the observance of strict rectitude: the right goes to the right, that is, the foreign particle-souls in food return to their own respective human souls. This is called act of co-operation with Nature's working. If the life-leading is kept at centre-poise, it creates fair-mindedness, whereby one does not deprive others for one's own selfish ends.

If the passions exhibit themselves, they must be curbed by will-power and effort. When this is exercised, the wrong particle-souls are attracted back and return to their respective human souls, and the person's own particle souls that are scattered about are attracted to him or her. This way Truth pervades the atoms of the body through and through, and the “Druj”, i.e., distinctive disturbing emanation from every atom succumbs to "Gava", the principle of Good or blissfulness in Nature, which in other words, is the light of the_sou1. The right assimilation of the particle-souls scattered about in the three kingdoms return to their respective higher particle-souls in this order, namely, the minerals get first absorbed into their relative vegetable kingdom through manure; then that vegetable into animal, through the food.

Thus re-complemented that animal has now become spiritually superior to ordinary draught animals ('Staora': Yt. 5,89).


Technical, Significance of 'Pasu'

The re-complemented quadruped above mentioned with its erstwhile alienated particle-souls in vegetable and mineral kingdoms now regained and assimilated, that is, reintegrated into its own particle-soul, is Druj-free, i.e., evil-free, and is not like ordinary draught animal, ('Staora', ibid.), but is now a holy animal and is called "Pasu" in Avesta. Such Pasu can usually be found amongst goats and lambs, which are destined to eat and digest every and any kind of herbs and the produce of the whole vegetable kingdom.

The soul of that holy animal is now enlightened in spiritual knowledge. It is conscious of its elevated spiritual condition, because its "'Rae", (self-enlightenment) is now developed by the assimilation of its own particle souls in its lower vegetable and mineral kingdoms.

It, that is, that holy animal is anxious to be absorbed - even by immolation – into its relative parent human soul (male or female, as the case may be) from which _it was originally drawn; together with its relative dark side (Ahuviyat), now transmuted into White (Ahumat). This elevated stage of its body is also called “Pasu” as against "Nasu" or the ordinary human or animal impure body. The word "Pasu" comes from Av. Root Pas, to tie or unite; and hence it connotes one willing to unite with, or get merged into, its original parent human soul.

The ceremony of cooking of, the meat of such a holy animal - goat or lamb is referred to in Behram Yt; 50 and Tir Yt: 58 as "Pasupachayen"; by partaking which consecrated meat the relative human soul, male or female as the case may be, gets' reintegrated. . This reference to Pasu Pachayeri is in, the form of a reply given by Ahura Mazda to Holy Zarathushtra to the latter's question as follows: "What is, O Ahura Mazda, the attunement through ceremony (yasna) and invocation in honour of Behram (yazad) of Ahuradata as it ought to be performed in the perfection of holiness? (Behram Yt; 49)

To This Ahura Mazda replies (in 50, ibid.):

"Airyao Danghavo (lit., Iranian countries) shall carry for him (Behram) offering (Zaothra) ... spread other necessaries (Barsam) ... cook the (holy) animal (pasu pachayen), whitecoloured or good-coloured or homogeneous-coloured or of anyone of the varied colours."


Pasu Jubilant over its Voluntary Offer for Immolation

The above reference is to the holy ceremony in which the Pasu willingly offers itself for immolation, if close by, and is even jubilant over it on account of its elevated Rae, inward divine knowledge enhanced by the powers of Behram Yazad, if the Pasu be not close by, the holy Sraoshavarez (Gah; 3,5), chief of the Magavans, with his spiritual powers of clairvoyance locates the Pasu in whatever part of the world it may be, and instructs a Magavan-deputy to fetch it. A magavan is a born asexual perfected soul, i.e., one in whom the masculine and feminine counterparts are blended together, such blending being a postsalvation noumenon, after the respective souls of both counterparts have gained deliverance from their physical bodies. These Magavans possess incredible spiritual powers (denied to worldly people) on account of which they succeed in fetching the Pasu in miraculously short time. The Pasu being jubilant over its impending immolation, on account of its Rae, self-intelligence being elevated, there is no inward moaning or lamentation on its part as in the case of an ordinary quadruped awaiting its massacre in a slaughter-house. It must also be noted that prior to the ceremony the blood of the Pasu is caused to be absorbed and dried up in its body by the efficacy of the special Nirang, holy formulae recited by the Ashavan, holy priest at the ceremony so that not a drop of blood falls on the ground. By partaking the consecrated meat of such Pasu the relative saintly human soul, male or female as the case may be, become complete or re-integrated as far as the absorption of his or her particle souls in the lower three kingdoms is concerned. Now this saintly soul is fit for Khaetva-datha (Ysn. 12,9) meaning 'giving itself up' (-datha) to its own relative (Khaetu), which is its counterpart soul.


Correct Significance of Airyao Danghavo

In the above passage, 'Airyao Danghavo' refers to the sublime cerebral plexus (Chakhra or nerve-centre of Kehrp, in visible body) (Ysn. 155,1) expressed by way of metonymy for the wise (Dangh, the Ashavans who are wise and holy) and are of noble birth (Airyao) who alone are authorized to cook and partake of the consecrated meat of such a holy Pasu as can be seen from the paragraph 51 of Yt. 14. Hence 'Airyao danghavo' cannot mean 'Aryan nations' as has been rendered is S.B.E. Vol. XXIII, because the - word 'nations' includes all the wicked types of men and women also, who are prohibited to 'take of those offerings' in the above paragraph, while the ceremony and invocations (Yasnascha vahmascha) are to be performed with the perfection of holiness (Ashat hachat yat vahashtat) (49, ibid.). The piety of the Ashavan, holy priest performing the ceremony, the sanctity maintained in the performance, the mystical charm of the special holy incantations for attunement with Behram Yazad attract that Yazad to the ceremony.


Colours Indicate Degrees of Excellence.

Aggin, the colours - white (Aurusho), red (Vohu-gaono) etc., refer, not to the colour of the animal's skin, but to the different vibrationary colours produced by the different degrees of excellence of the performance of the ceremony, in which the white colour indicated the highest excellence. For a crude analogy the cutting end of a steel tool when heated in the furnace till it blazes white in brightness and then dipped in water, the surface of the portion dipped is covered over with whitish mark, which signifies 'white tempering' - the hardest. Again when a tool is heated red hot, which is milder in degree, and tempered, the colour shown is red. Here the colours are not of steel, but of the degrees of brightness to which the tool end was heated. In somewhat like manner in the identical Behram- Tir passages quoted above, the colours do not refer to the skin of the Pasu concerned, but to the vibrationary colours of the varied degrees of perfection of holiness attainable in different aeons, corresponding to the sublimest three vibrationary colours-white, red and blue - of the Celestial Note of Ahunavar, on the basis of which the prayer Yatha Ahu Vairyo has been formulated by the Holy Prophet.

Behram Yazad is called in Avesta "Verethraghna", lit., the . smiter of the (internal) enemy, the Druj, i.e., human passions, the inveterate enemies of mankind and since he (Behram) is the smiter, he is also called Firozgar, victorious. He punishes the wicked who follow Vyambura Daeva (Yt. 14,35) the demon of lust, falsehood, avarice etc., which sins constitute 'Margarjangunah', deadly sins, on account of which the soul has to take birth again in this material world. He (Behram) meets out disease and death to the liars, who are sinners against Meher

Yazad and to the disturbers of Nature's Order Divine and Nature's Economy - who are sinners against Rashnu (47, ibid.). In the latter paragraph "armies arrayed" refer to the army or chain of evil thoughts created by Druj in the human mind.

While Behram Yazad is thus the smiter of the wicked, he is the helper and protector (44,45 ibid.) of those who take the 'smoothly-moving wheels' of holy path of life - Rathvya Chakhra (Yt. 10,67) and practice rectitude and 'Druj-parhez' the tenets for the control over passions; Behram Yazad comes to the succour of that person's soul in its progress onwards, because that Yazad's function is connected with Ahuradata, the Law of Unfoldment of Spirit from Matter. This is proved from the fact that every chapter of Behram Yasht begins with "Verethraghnem Ahuradatem yazamaide", i.e., we attune ourselves with Behram of Ahuradata.


Relation of Tir Yazad with Ahuradata, the Unfoldment of Spirit from Matter

Tir Yazad is the agency of bringing down the rains and implanting the soul of a child into its mother's womb usually three months and twenty-seven, days after conception. The rigidity and density of Drvao, evil, arising from divine ignorance is represented in the Tir Yasht as the demon Apaosha dominating over human beings during life on this earth, whereby their emancipation is retarded. This is depicted in the Yasht as the defeat of Tir Yazad by Apaasha Daeva (ibid. 22). So the Yazad cries out in woe and distress... 'Men do not worship me as they do other Yazads' (ibid. 23).

In the subsequent paragraph reference is made to the strength of 10 horses, 10 camels, 10 bulls etc. In Zoroastrian numerological mysticism the numeral 10 represents perfection such as of Divine knowledge of Yazadic Existences, horse stands for great divine power of the top cerebral plexus of the Kehrp (Ysn. 55,1), the subtle physical body; camel for divine knowledge and the practice of the exercises of piety, and bull (Gavam) for Gao, blissfulness embodying the principle among cow-kind of "live and help others to live- and advance" - as opposed to 'Khrafstri tewishi', the desireforce of destructiveness embodying the principle of "kill to live", or selfishness. Mountain stands for sublimity, and river for the power of Ardvi-sura possessed by it of smiting the Demon and imparting piety to the devotees. Similarly, Azhi Dahaka represents the perfection or nadir of Evil, where dah means 10 and Aka, evil. Hence Azhi Dahaka means the serpent representing perfection of Evil, that is, the Satan. Here 'Serpent' is not in the sense of earthly reptile.

In paragraph 51 (ibid.) there is an allegorical reference to "the malice of ...' Pairika Duzyairya whom evil-speaking people call Huyairya." Pairika means enchantress. Here worldly attractions are personified as the enchantress to which evil-speaking people, that is, ordinary worldly people are attracted or enchanted. Duzyairya (lit., evil season), the season composed of the span of life of sensual pleasures indicates the period of illusory or transitory happiness, which evil persons mistake for good-period or happiness (Huyairya).

In S.B.E. Vol. XXIII the meaning of Duzyairya is given in footnote as 'bad year.. .sterlity, draught' and reference, is made to the use of the word 'Duzyairya' in one of the inscriptions of king Darius Hystaspes, where that word is rightly used in its literal sense of 'sterility' or 'draught'. But in the above passage the words Pairika, Duzyairia and Huyairya are used in, an allegorical sense. A 'bad year' of draught is never called a 'goad year' of prosperity by worldly people, howsoever evil-speaking or foolish they be, but the transitory happiness derived through worldly attractions of sensual pleasures is mistaken far real happiness by spiritually ignorant people all over the world.

At last after numerous rounds of shuttle runs over and over again up the sky and down to the earth called Thwasha Khadata (Siroza Yt. 21), the soul's Rae, self-intelligence is developed by dire retributive sufferings, and the human being concerned takes to the straight-path of truthfulness (Rathvya chakhra) and practices the Zoroastrian anti-microbe Baj rites for Druj-parhez, control over the passions. By such exercises of holiness that person's particle-souls in mineral and vegetable kingdoms get first absorbed in the relative goat or lamb concerned, which thereby becomes a Pasu. Thereafter the soul of the latter (Pasu) gets absorbed in that saintly person by the Pasu-pach ceremony. This consummation of Druj transmuted into Gav, blissfulness, glorifies Behram and Tir Yazads (Yts. 14,50 and 8,58 respectively) because that holy ceremony pertains to Ahuradata, the deified Law of Unfoldment of Spirit (soul) of the saintly person concerned, from Matter.


Concept of Transitional Regions Between Dakhyus Andwicked or Paradisiacal Stations located therein

We took some idea so far of the seven Dakhyus and their inner homologues, the Zarehs, through which wicked sows trail down to the known material world for their Reformation. Here on the earth is the seat of Geush Urva (Ysn. 29,1), the sub-angelic potentiality, being the animated phantom representing the collective blissful side of the totality of souls on earth, appointed for their protection. Let us now look into the six transitional regions, technically called 'Zamrirs', each of which separates one Dakhyu from another, and each comprises seven sub-regions. The seventh top Zamrir is between the top Aiwi Dakhyu and Miswane- Gatva-khadata beyond. A holy soul scales upward on its repatriation march through different paradisiacal stations located in different Zamrirs.

Our earthly globe is mostly situated in the lowest Aipi Dakhyu, while the top portion of the globe is located in the lower sub-regions of the Zamrir, transitional region immediately above the Aipi Dakhyu. This is the first Zamrir from the earth's end, These Zamrirs are shown in the map in green arcs.

Between Pairi Dakhyu (below) and Adairi Dakhyu (above) is the second Zamrir. Inferior sprites, mentioned already under Pairi Dakhyu, who live in that Dakhyu rest after death in this second Zamrir. Departed souls of sinful non-Zoroastrians come here after death in the material world, and at proper time, very long after though, take birth again on the earth via Vantar, the halting station situated in the next Zamrir higher up, which (Vantar) is the halting station for all souls destined for re-birth.

Between Adairi Dakhyu (below) and Upairi Dakhyu (above) is located the third Zamrir which is the largest of all the Zamrirs and most important, for here is situated the famous "Chinvat Bridge", to which we shall refer further on, together with other higher states, stations, regions etc. Between, Upairi Dakhyu (below) and Aa Dakhyu (above) is the fourth Zamrir which is called 'Yim-var-kard', vide Nikiz 1 p. 434, in which there is 'Chakati' bridge leading to Dadare-Gehan. This 'Yim' refers to Yim Yazad (angel) and not king Jamshid.

In the super-ethereal regions, far beyond the visible sky, above the Aa Dakhyu, Antare Dakhyu and Aiwi Dakhyu are situated respectively the fifth, sixth and seventh Zamrirs, in each of which are located two Keshvars, making in all six, in six different angles from the centre of the earthy globe far down below.


Concept of Chinvat Bridge and Paradisiacal Regions Beyond

The Chinvat (meaning Requiter) Bridge comprises four graded stages. This Chinvat is allegorically called a 'Bridge', because from its top sub-region called 'Var-i- Jam-kard' begin the paradisiacal regions, while the lowest sub-region of the Chinvat called Ganjesh (which is the portal sub-region! of the Chinvat) is connected with the regions of the spirit worlds and of wicked or sinful souls.

Chinvat is derived from Chi, to select; or punish (after judgment). It is a selector of saintly souls, who on account of their practicing strict truthfulness in life on earth with contrition for wrongs done, accompanied with control over passions, and practice of the Zoroastrian anti-microbe Baj-rites in daily life, become 'Ashim ashai', 'holy for the sake of holiness' (Ysn. 46,10), whom Zarathushtra promises to help cross the Chinvat Bridge, while the wicked on account of the sinful life on earth cannot go higher beyond Ganjesh its bottom stage. Partly better souls can go up to the second or third stage called Gangdez or Kang-dez respectively, but not Var-i-Jam-kard" the paradisiacal top stage. The rejected souls are hurled down to the halting station of Vantar above mentioned prior to rebirth. Thus Chinvat selects the pious, and rejects and thereby punishes the wicked as its derivative signifies. It may be noted that higher sub-regions of this Zamrir are connected with paradisiacal regions, and the lower sub-regions with Vantar, the halting station for sinful souls destined for rebirth on the material world.

As stated above, a saintly soul by becoming 'Ashim-ashai, holy for the sake of holiness, succeeds in crossing the Chinvat Bridge, and ascends to the fourth Zamrir, in which are located the 'Chakati Bridge' and several paradisiacal stations known as centres of 'Jaza' meaning 'reward' (as opposed to 'Saza', punishment to sinful souls in this material world). The highest among these paradisiacal stations is 'Pahlum Ahwan', literally the 'best abode', which is referred to" in Avesta as 'Vahishtem Ahum' (Vd. 19,36).

Khanirath Bami: After crossing the Chinvat Bridge, the soul takes birth again in this material world for drawing to itself its particle-souls alienated in the beginning of its journey of exile to the Space. It may be recalled that at that stage every wicked whole soul ('Aka Chithra') is bifurcated into sexes on Zareh Vourukasha, and that l/10th particle of both sexes is divided among animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms. Ages and ages after, when that parent human soul (masculine or feminine, whichever it be) becomes pure, it attracts to itself and absorbs those alienated particles of its soul in the three lower kingdoms as also in other human beings, and renders them Druj-free, i.e., turns their Druj into Gao, evil into good, by its spiritual powers of holiness. Such alchemization of the Druj in those particles effected in its microcosm by that pious soul on this earth is called 'Khanirath Bami'" literally Golden or shining shore. Khanirath Bami as the seventh and the only terrestrial Keshvar is expounded in its own place in part II hereafter.

Rastakheez: Having achieved the great desideratum of alchemizing the particles of the soul in animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms to the state of Khanirath Bami, as explained above, the saintly soul is delivered from taking birth in this material world, and so gets Rastakheez (Iristekheez), i.e., takes birth in the paradisiacal region of Pahlum Ahwan, which is within the range of, but beyond, Var-i-Jam-kard, the top region of the Chinvat Bridge.

Dadare Gehan: From Pahlum Ahwan, the soul advances to 'Dadare Gehan' higher up. The term 'Dadare Gehan' occurs at the end of every Nyaesh and Yasht prayer. The devotee thrice repeats the Pazand sentence "Man ano avayad shudan" meaning 'I must get there', i.e., to the felicitous Dadare Gehan by rarefying the material body by transmutation of Evil into Good and (must) advance to the Keshvars higher up, which are stations of 'Ravangh', bliss (Yt. 13,99). Then turning to the South (in which direction Dadare Gehan is situated) the devotee supplicates to Ardvi for imparting purity, because the potentiality of Ardvi or Avan Yazad is the deliverer of mankind from the impurities of lust etc., and "the smiter of Satan with terrific weapons' (Sura) of perfection-ofpurity.

Dadare Gehan is the portal region to the six fiery orbs of Keshvars, the residing places for holy souls. These six Keshvars are situated in the super-ethereal regions beyond Dadare Gehan as shown in the Chart. On leaving Dadare Gehain, the soul takes birth in 'Tane-pasin', the last finest and subtlest fiery-type elemental body, leading to Ushta, eternal bliss. This TanePasin is a semiluminous fiery-type body fit to reside in, the fiery orbs of Keshvars. This is individual case of Tane-Pasin which is extremely rare in this material age and in this current fourth Zarvana-Akarana, Boundless Time, when the mixed activities of Ohrmazd, the Blissful Principle, and Ahriman, the Destructive Principle, are the order of the day (Bd. 1,7). By the time a soul gets Tane Pasin, it is so purified that, as stated above, its particle-souls in animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms are reabsorbed in the human parent-soul, masculine or feminine, as the case may be, and moreover that exalted soul gains mastery over the five senses, to which worldly people are more or less like slaves. Tane-Pasin indicates end of 'Tanasak', re-birth. In the end, on reaching the top Keshvar 'VidaDafshu', the soul awaits the arrival of its tardy counterpart to become Khaetvadatha, i.e., to blend together into one asexual whole soul called 'Magavan' (Ysn. 33,7)

The terms 'Rastakheez, and 'Tane-Pasin' occur together in the short prayer-formula called 'Nirang' appended to Hormazd Yt., where the devotee confirms faith in birth in paradisiacal region, and in the last fiery-type body Tane-pasin. Thus, these two terms here refer to exaltation of an individual soul, whether masculine or feminine.

In Bundehesh; 1,2 the reference to Tane-pasin is to the gradual exaltation of totality of souls who will gain Tane-pasin in the next fifth 'Zarvana Akarana', Boundless Time, involving millions of years_ during which all souls will gain Emancipation, the internal conflict (Yaokhedra; Ysn. 12,9) will cease due to Druj, the source of conflict having been transmuted into Gao, blissfulness, and they (souls) will gain control over the five senses, when vice will turn into virtue in totality of souls, and consequently the existence of Satan will be extinct.


The Fiery Orbs of Six Superethereal Keshvars, the Centres and Residing Places of Emancipated Souls

At the end of every Nyaesh and Yasht prayer there is reference to 'Haft Keshvar Zamin'_ seven Keshvars, of which six are located in far-super-ethereal heights, and the seventh called Khanirath Bami, lit., golden or shining shore (Yt. 10,15) is the only terrestrial Keshvar which is entirely different from the above six as explained below.

The term Keshvar is referred to in Avesta (ibid.) as Karshvare. According to Kanga dictionary, Karshvare is derived from Karesh, to draw the circle, and means a country or region.

Then it is added there:

"The earth is divided into seven Karshvares separated from one another by seas and mountains",

and then the names of the seven Keshvars enumerated in Meher Yt. 15 are reproduced. Thus the seven Keshvars are mistaken to be the divisions of the earth. This is due to the fact that it is not known in philology that Avesta treats mostly of the invisible worlds above in phraseology of the material world, and besides the above paragraph is shrouded in allegory. Thus with regard to seas and mountains, the vast expanses of the inner homologues (of the top three Dakhyus) engendering superethereal waves are referred to as Zarehs, seas, which are not of water; the un-imaginable height of the heaven of the zodiac is compared with the top of a mountain," Haraiti-Barez, Mt. Alborz (Yt. 10,51); and one of its 27 constellations is depicted as its peak, Taer (Yt. 12,25); the flow of holy vibrationary currents of Asha Chithra (Ysn. 19,1) from the planetary world is depicted as river; the different paths, Patham (Ysn. 42,1) are not the East Street or West Street of a city, but the different paths of religions, and so on.

Karshvare according to its derivation Karesh implies a circular country or region. We know that no country or region of the known material world is circular. Hence Karshvares are not the divisions of earth as imagined by philological scholars. The term Karshvare is so derived because the six super-ethereal Keshvars are fiery orbs, where reside saintly souls who have gained Tane-Pasin, the last fiery-type body fit to reside in the fiery orbs of the six superethereal Keshvars.

With regard to the locations of the above six Keshvars, it may be recalled that under the head "Concept of Transitional regions…." we took some idea of the four Zamrirs, transitional regions, and of the cosmic stations of the wicked and holy souls located in the third and fourth Zamrirs respectively from the side of the earth. Now we shall see how the six Keshvars referred to above are located with regard to the seventh terrestrial Keshvar Khanirath Bami, which Prof. Zaehner erroneously believes to be a "mythical clime" ("Zurvan" p. 9 footnote 1). It may be observed that though the Khanirath Bami is terrestrial, still it being located on the top of the earthy globe, the whole ice-bound Arctic region is circular in its latitudinal belt unlike the countries (or continents) of the known material world.


Locations of Six Keshvars

In the fifth Zamrir (from the bottom) are located two Keshvars, of which Vouru-Bareshti, the lowest among all the six is in the N.W. lower down in the Zamrir. The second, the next higher Keshvar Vouru-Zareshti is in the N.E., a little higher up in the same Zamrir. Then in the sixth Zamrir are Keshvars Arezahi in the W., and Savahi in the E., the former lower down in the Zamrir, and the latter a little higher up in the same Zamrir. Lastly, in the seventh Zamrir are Keshvars Fradadafshu in the S.W., and Vida- Dafshu, the topmost in S.E., the former lower down and the latter a little higher up in the same Zamrir. It will thus be understood that the above six Keshvars are arranged in tiers. It may be noted that the directions S.E., S.W., etc. are supposed to be from the centre of the earthy globe at the bottom of the Nisti (Space) as stated already.

The seventh Keshvar is the Khanirath Bami, literally meaning the golden or shining shore, which is terrestrial. The joint magnetism of the above six Keshvars in six different angles around this Khanirath Bami keeps the earthy globe always in its position in the cosmos. Khanirath Bami thus being centrally located (Bd. 11,1) among the above six Keshvars is referred to in Yasna 11,7 as 'Mademe Thrishve', the central one-third.

The combined aspect of the above six Keshvars may be likened to a six-armed expanded umbrella of a parachute, the outer ends of the six arms representing the six Keshvars, and the pendent earthy globe as the parachutist. These Keshvars are all allegorically referred to in Meher Yasht; 15 as 'Gavashayana, Gava-shitimcha, the centres and residing places of the kine, that is, of the purified human souls, who being Druj-free possess the philanthropic characteristics and 'Live and help others live' principle in Nature in common with the cowkind. Thus these Keshvars are not the centers and residing places in the sense of pens for the quadruped kine as misconceived in philology. The function of Khanirath Bami, the terrestrial Keshvar, is, as stated above, entirely different from the six super-ethereal Keshvars, and hence its exposition is given under Supplement No. 14.


Repatriation of Saintly Soul to the Heaven of the Zodiac

It is stated above that the saintly soul enters the lowest Keshvar Vouru-Bareshti in the last fiery-type body called TanePasin. From Vouru-Bareshti the soul flies from Keshvar to Keshvar till it arrives on the highest Keshvar Vida-Dafshu, on the top of the Space, and awaits the arrival of its tardy counterpart. When he latter comes up likewise purified, the two counterparts give themselves up (-'datha') to each other's 'own relative' (Khaetu) which is not the worldly husband or wife, but the counterpart holy soul. Such blending of the two counterparts - masculine and feminine - forms one perfected whole soul called 'Magavan', who is naturally asexual and an I-e-Su, passionless birth.

The Magavan then enters the lowest heaven of the Moon after crossing Miswane-Gatu, the intermediary region between the Lunar heaven and the Space, i.e., between the immortal and the mortal worlds. Thence at last it (Magavan soul) gets repatriated to the 8th heaven of the zodiac, whence it was originally exiled.

When a righteous soul succeeds in eliminating its Evil through its transmutation into Good by the strict observance of the Zoroastrian anti-microbe Baj rites and other Laws of purity, the erstwhile incessant conflict within the body, ceases. This conflict (-'yaokhedra') is between the Good and Evil propensities of the soul, which are the two contestants (Ranoibya).

Thus to repeat, the conflict and the two contestants or fighters are all within the body, i.e., internal and not external. Thus the observance of the Zoroastrian laws of purity enables the termination of this internal conflict. Simultaneously with the termination of the internal conflict, the soul gets deliverance from the physical body (-'snath') (Ysn. 12,9). In this connection it may be recalled that the physical body is compounded of the permutations and combinations of the four elements, each getting 16 electric circles, making 64, mixed with the mixture of the soul's Good and Evil. So when the Evil is transmuted into Good, i.e., into the light of the soul, the physical body is neither needed to be formed, nor is it possible to be formed without the soul's Evil which is the principal element in the making of the body. Hence after death the soul does not take birth in this material world. In this way, side by side with the cessation of the internal conflict, the soul is delivered of the physical body (-Snath), i.e., it is Emancipated.

These two exalted conditions give the Zoroastrian Faith the epithets of

  1. Fraspa-yaokhedram, terminator of the (internal) conflict, and
  2. Nida-snaithishem, deliverer from the instrument, i.e., the physical body.

We shall deal with these two epithets together with Khaetva-datha in the next chapter.

Footnotes and references:


(It may be noted that the directions S.E., S.W., etc. are supposed to be from the centre of the earthy globe, which is situated at the bottom of the Nisti (Space.)


In Shah Nameh Firdousi refers to the great saintly paladins as 'Gavan', meaning those full of Gao_ blissfulness. Thus

"Bepurseed shan az nezade Kayan, Vazan namdarane farrokh Gavan,"


Inquired of them about the origin of Kayan (kings) and the illustrious intrepid paladins who were Gavan, full of blissfulness.

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