The history of Andhra country (1000 AD - 1500 AD)

by Yashoda Devi | 1933 | 138,355 words

This book recounts the History of the Andhra Pradesh Country from 1000 to 1500 A.D. including many dynasties (for example. the Reddis of Korukonda and the Eruva Chola of Rajahmundry)....

Part 32 - Manmasiddha (III A.D. 1248-1267)

Manumasiddhi III succeeded his father at Nellore and ruled contemporaneously with Allutikka. His earliest record is from Mulakalur dated A.D. 1249. Another record of the year dated in the 6th year of Virarajendra is from Tirunirmalai. The next record is from Nandalur dated A.D. 1250 recording gifts to the temple for the recovery from some illness of M.P.C. Gandagopala alias Manumasittarasar. The Yepilagunta inscription of A.D. 1253 and the 9th year of Virarajendra records gifts by Tikkayadeva, minister of Manmasiddha III. Manumasiddha’s next record is from Kistnapatam (Gudur taluq) dated A.D. 1256 and the 13th year of Yirarajendra III recording grants by men of Kollattur alias Gandagopala pattama to the deity named after Manmasiddhi II, father of Tiakka I. His Pentral inscription is dated A.D. 1257. The Nandalur epigraph of the 13th year of Virarajendra chola—s 1179 lA D. 1257) gives Manmasiddhi’s genealogy and records his restoration of Perungandura renamed Koduru to its original residents for the merit of his father (Annajiya) Tirukaladeva C.M. Manumasiddha’s record from Pottapi gives a list of birudas at the beginning. Two of Manmasidda’s inscriptions dated in the 15th year of Virarajendradeva (A.D. 1259) are at Little Conjeevaram and Kistnapatam. The Gundlapalem record of A.D. 1249—Kalayukti—a mistake for A.D. 1258—narrates the fight between Nallasiddha of Nellore and the Yadavas at the junction of Lingalakonda and Erragaddapuru. Another record of the year is at Pentralarecording grants for the prosperity of the kingdom of Manmasiddha by Alladasiddhadeva M of the Telugu Pallavas. In A.D. 1261 at Pentrala, Siddhamadevlua Vijayadeva and Bhimadeva of the Telugu Pallavas made grants desiring the prosperity of Manmasiddhi’s kingdom. Manmasiddha’s Munganur record (Kavali taluq) records the grant of a village in Poritinadu, a subdivision of Pakanadu by the Pradhani of the king. The next record is from Mandapalle dated in the 18th year of Virarajendra chola (A.D. 1264) mentioning Vijayagandagopala, the son of Gandagopala Tirukalattideva i.e. Tikka I. Here either Vijeyaganda is a mistake for Manmasiddha, or else, he was a brother of Manmasiddha III. The last record is from Little Conjeevaram dated in the 22nd year of Rajendra III corresponding to A.D. 1268.

Some records of the reign bear no date. One such from Nellore records the grant of Errayapalle in Pungainadu. The record at Pulapattur (Rajampet taluq, Cuddapah District) mentions a grant by a servant of M.P.C. Manmasittarasar to a tample at Pulapattur, also called Rajadhiraja Pottapichchola Akimalla Arasurar in Melpakkainadu a subdivision of Adhirajandracholamandalam. A record at Bezvada dated A.D. 1253 mentions Manumaraja, whose suggested identity with Manmasiddha III is not satisfactory. The record from 5 Nakinenipalle on the 38th year of Rajaraja III mentions M.P.C. Errasidda and his daughter Chodamadevi The date is A D. 1254 corresponding to the 8th year of Rajendra III-A. The relationship of this Errasidha to Manmasiddha III is not known. A record of A.D. 1408 at Kistnapatam, of the reign of Viradeva I, son of Harihara I, renews a grant of Manmasiddha III and mentions Rajabibhala Rattana in Nellurnadu. Manumasiddha III must have associated his son Tikka (II) in ruling the kingdom from A.D. 1265, the year in which Tikka started issuing inscriptions of his own.

His Political Relations

Manmasiddha III had a reign over twenty years. He was variously known as Bhujabala viramanmasiddhayadeva C M., M.P.C Gandagopala Manumasittarasar, Manumasiddarasan, and Manumasiddhadeva C.M. in his records. Probably Tikka II was the crown prince in this reign. Here it may be noted that no particular branch of the Telugu chol as ruled at Pentrala except that a few records of the Telugu cholas of Nellore and Telugu pallavas are found there. Similarly some of Manmasiddha’s inscriptions are at Pentrala in which he is given the epithet bhujabalavira. So the statement that “neither mahamandalesvara Manmasiddhayadeva C.M. of KV 43 or Manmasiddharasar of G 39 could have had anything to do wirh the Pentrala chodas.” is wrong, as both the Manmas are identical. And “it is not impossible that Manmasiddha reinstated by Ganapati is identical with Bhujabalavira Manmasiddha C.M.”

Manmasiddha and the Cholas

Emperor Rajendra III was the Choi a contemporary of Manmasiddha III. In Professor Sastri’s words “very few inscriptions of Rajendra are found outside the Cola country proper” and they are the last traces of a suzerainty that had long ceased to be more than nominal. The latest regnal year cited in the inscriptions of Rajendra III is the thirty-second corresponding roughly to A.D. 1299” Manmasiddha’s allegiance to the Chola emperor is well attested by his records-dated in Rajendra’s regnal years ranging from the 6th to the 22nd year. Besides, the several topographical names in the records speak for the Chola influence in the Telugu Chola. kingdom.

Manmasidda III and the Pandyas

Manmasiddha came into conflict with the Pandyas. Jatavarman Sundara Pandya’s northern expedition was a great success. He took Kanchi and occupied Nellore. It is suggested that the civil war in the Telugu chola kingdom between Manmasiddha and his rival cousins brought about the Pandyan expedition. For just as Manmasiddha sent a deputation to Ganapati asking for help, his rivals probably appealed to the Pandyas to support their cause. In response the Pandyas came, deprived Manmasiddhi of Nellore, crowned his rivals in A.D. 1250 and made grants to Pallikondaperumal (Pallikonda-Perumal) at Nellore. But then with the help of the Kakatiya generals Manmasiddhi and his brother Vijayagandagopala reoccupied Nellore driving out his rivals and the Pandyan armies. So long Ganapati lived, the Pandyas did! not give further trouble to Manmasiddha. But on the death of Ganapati, they in alliance with Kopperunjinga seem to have taken Nellore for a while.And Manmasiddha secured it again perhaps with the help of the Kakatiyas.

Manmasiddha and the Kakatiyas

Manmasidda’s Kakatiya contemporaries were Ganapati and Rudrama. Ganapati was eagerly awaiting an opportunity to interfere in Vengi politics. When it came towards the close of his reign he made full use of it by conquering completely the Velanandu areas and subduing many of the local kings in the Telugu chola kingdom.

King Manmasiddha III some time in his reign was deprived of his kingdom by his rival cousins, Akkana and Bayyana. Then the king sent his minister Tikkana Samayaji as ambassador to the court of Ganapati of the Kakatiyas at Warangal. Tikkana pleased Ganapati by his capacities chiefly as a poet explained the object of his visit and requested his help. Ganapati promised help and rewarded Tikkana with earnings of 9 lakhs of treasure, and some villages—sixty-eight according to Siddhesvara charitra alias Pratapacharitra and 25,000 according to Somadevarajiya. Thus consequent on Tikkana’s intervention, Ganapati took up the cause of the exiled Manmasiddhij, and with a vast army marching on both his flanks, invaded the Velanandu country, vanquished its ruler, and burnt his capital He invested Nellore, drove out Bayyana and regranted his titles to Terala Rudradeva. Ganapati reinstated Manmasiddhi at Nellore, conquered 24 durgas and "68 towns and made a gift of them to Manmasiddhi. Ganapati constructed a tank at Nellore, went against Gangapura, halted on his way to Ganapura and returned to his capital. This.account is from Mackenzie Mss.

The prasasti of the Rechala family was the titles—Nellurivirakshetranobharatikamalla i.e. reknowned warrior of the heroic battle of Nellore which is compared with the Mahabharata war and Tikka Bayyana pranapahara—stealer of lives of Tikka and Bayya. Another epithet is—Nellurivirakshetranahalla Kalola i.e. one who caused great disorder and confusion in the heroic battle of Nellore. One of the titles of the Srimalla family is Tikkana bayyamatalagonduganda i e. beheader of Tikkana and Bayyana These epithets supply important details about the events of the Kakatiya expedition and the battle at Nellore between Manumasiddhi and his partisans including Ganapati on one side and his enemies on the other—Tikka probably a mistake of Akkoma, and Bayyana, the usurpers were killed in the battle by the ancestors of the Recherla and Srimalla families who must have accompanied Ganapati in the expedition. The Bayyana is probably identical with Bayya C,M. who issued records in the reign of Tikka I. One record is at Motupalli dated A.D. 1242 and another with date A.D. 1244. The decisive battle was fought at Nellore. According to one author perhaps Manmasiddhi took refuge during the period of his exile in Pentrala (Kandakur taluq). We may note further that the Telugu works call.Manmasiddhi as Mamagandagopala and mistake Rudradeva M for Ganapati. Whether mahamandalesvara Bayyamadeva M and China Bayyanadeva M figuring in an inscription at Trovagunta (Ongole taluq) were Telugu cholas and had any connection with Bayyan chola’s not known.

As for the date of the expedition, A.D. 1245 has been suggested. In the account of the Mack. Ms. the date A.D 1250 is given. But it is more probable that it took place after A.D. 1257 and before A.D. 1260 for the Nandalur epigraph of A.D, 1259 shows that Manmasiddhi III and Ganapati were friends. The record says that to secure the friendship of Ganapati Manmasiddha III fought a great battle on the banks of the Godavari. Thus Manmasiddha was desirous of the friendship of Ganapati which was quite natural. Friendly relations between the Telugu cholas and Rudradeva probably continued under Rodramadevi also and probably were begun much earlier about A.D. 1250 for as seen above, it was with the Kakatiya help that Manmasiddha could beat back the Pandyan invader about A.D. 1250

Manmasiddha III and the Yadayas

Three families of Yadava Kshatriya lineage were ruling locally within the precincts of the Nellore Chola kingdom owing allegiance to its rulers. They were the Yadavas of Addanki, Alavulapadu and Yerragaddapadu. On account of some differences between the suzerain and the feudatories, Manmasiddha III and the Yadavas of Alavulapadu and Erragaddapadu, they came into conflict. The Yadavas revolted against Manmasiddhi and were subdued after war and bloodshed. King Alapoluraja of Alavulapadu, after the payment of Pullari, the grazing tax to Manumasiddi called Nallasiddhi or Siddharaja in the Gundlepalem inscription, left his territories and encamped on the Pennar with his cattle wandered further and halted at Yerragaddapadu. Consequent on the refusal of the Yadavas to pay the Pullari to Nallasidhhfs ambassador, a battle was fought by both parties at the junction of Lingala Konda and Yerragaddapadu in A.D. 1259. On the ground of having lost some calves in the fields of Manmasiddhi III, Katamaraju of Erragaddapadu refused the payment of the grazing tax to Manmasiddhi III. So battle between the two armies ensued at Somesila on the Penna. Many verses speak about Rana Tikkana, the commander of Manmasiddhi’s armies. One verse says that when he made his horse jump on the enemy and shouted, even heroes had a fright, probably the battles—between Alapola or Valluraja and Manmasiddhi and Katamaraju and Khadga Tikkana formed part of the war between the Telugu Cholas and the Yadavas. Tikkana distinguished himself in this battle. A story is current that Tikka who lost his life in the battle, was brought back to life by the blessing of Vemulavada Bhima and thus became Siddaya Tikkana. At Somasila which is 45 miles from Nell ore on the boundary of Cuddapah and Nellore on the banks of the Penna, is a figure of a hero—probably of general Tikkana in the mandapa before the Somesvara temple At Tikkapadu near Pattapurayi near Nellore is a stone with the figure of a soldier on a horse—said to have been that of Ranatikkana.

Singaladeva and Sarngapani II were the Yadava contemporaries of Manmasiddhi III at Addanaki Sarngapani claims to have been a feudatory of the Yadavas of Devagiri and seems to have become a source of constant trouble to Manmasiddhi III. Manmasiddhi vanquished him for Tikkana says that Manmasiddha had a very easy victory Saranga, the Maharatta subordinate. Here Maharattas are none other than the Yadavas of Devagiri. Manumasiddhi must have achieved this victory in A.D. 1253 soon after the accession of Sarangapani to the throne.

Manmasiddha III and the Telugu Pallavas

Nagadeva, Abhideva, Malideva, Inumadideva, Viragandagopala, Vijyagandagopala were the Telugu Pallavas contemporary with Manmasiddha at Guntur and Nellore. Manmasiddha III has been frequently identified with Gandagopala, Nallasiddha, Bhimaraja, Siddhaya. Vijayaditya (Biji), Manmaganda gopala and Vijayagandagopala. He is often wrongly mentioned as Manmasiddhi Vijayagandagopala or Manmavijayagangopala by Sewell and so his last data is given as A.D. 1261.

Tikkana says that Manmasiddha vanquished king Vijaya, the leader cf his great enemy kings in the battle at Prayeru with great valour and crushed the pride of Vijaya Vijaya no doubt refers to great Telugu Pallava Vijayagandagopala. Manmasiddhi III came into conflict with him. The conflict must have come about thus—Probably Vijayagandagopala at the head of the enemies of Manmasiddhi—Akkana, Bayyana so invaded the Telugu chola territories some time after A.D. 1250 the earliest date for Vijayagandagopala. His progress was stayed at Prayeru—evidently a local stream in the Kellore District—by the armies of Cholanamanmasiddhi and the battle was fought there. Probably, the armies of Manmasiddhi III were commanded by Ranatikkana. In the beginning of the fight, the armies of Manmasiddhi seem to have suffered a defeat for a verse extant in Telugu says Tikka fled when pursued by the invading armies of king Vijaya and left his birudas—insignia in the tank at Penutulli or Penujallipalli. But later on the Telugu cholas proved successful and Vijayagandagopala, finally was vanquished as borne but by the testimony of Tikkana, No evidence of any further conflicts between Manmasiddhi III and Vijayagandagopala is available.

At Pentrala, Adlada Siddhadeva M, Siddhaduadmala Vijayadeva M and Bhimadeva of the Telugu Pallavas were the contemporaries of Manmasiddha III, They acknowledged the suzerainty of Manmasiddha III, which is attested by their records dated A.D. 1258 and 1261. Khandevaya, Bhimadeva, and Siddhadeva were the Pallavas at Cuddapah, with whom, Manmasiddha III did not come into conflict.

Manmasiddha and the Pallavas

Kopperunjinga, the most powerful of the later Pallavas, had a long and stormy career as seen from his records and set up himself a defact independent ruler in the period of political confusion that ensued. Having suffered a defeat in the Pandyan hands, Kopperunjinga drove the Telugu cholas from Tondamandam and advanced into Vengi as far asDraksharama. His records are found at Tripurantakam, and Draksharama. Kopperunjinga was vanquished by Ganapati of the Kakatiyas in A.D 1249, whose supremacy he had to acknowledge in his northern dominions.

Kopperunjinga’s records dated in his regnal years range from his 2nd to the 36th year from A.D 1243 to A.D. 1279. His Tripurautakam records, in Nagari, Telugu and Grantha—mention him as Avanyavanpsambhava, sarvajana—Khadgamalla. Nissankamala Maharaja simha, the son of king Jiya and Silavati and record his building activities in the Chidamabaram temple. Khadganalla, the Sanskrit epithet—same as the title in tamil. Sakalabhuvana, Chakravartin, Avaniyalappirandan i.e. the one (who was) born to rule in the earth, and Kadavaraya—the Tamil form of Avanyavana sambava are his epithets mentioned in records the tiruvannamalai inscription of Kopperunjinga mentions that this son drove the Telunger to the north to perish. “Here Telungar refers to the Kakatiyas. In advancing into the Telugu country Kopperunjinga must have come mto conflict with Manmasiddhi III either as an ally or enemy. Probably Manmasiddhi III had to face him in opposition as he was an enemy of the Kakatiyas and Manmasiddhi III and the Kakatiyas were allies. Ganapati vanquished Kopperunjinga about A.D, 1259 and Ambadeva, a feudatory of the Kakatiyas had the title—Kadavaraoavimardaka i.e. vanquisher of Kopperunjinga. Along with Ambadeva. Manmasiddha also musthave participated in the fight aginst Kopperunjinga—It is not impossible that he suffered a reverse in Kopperunjinga’s hands along with the Kakatiyas.

Manmasiddha II and the Pandyas

The Pandyan power was growing in this period under Mavavarman SundaraPandya and Jatavarman Sundara Pandya The Pandyas conquered Virasomesvara and Kopperunjinga They vanquished the Kakatiya governors at Kanchi attacked Nellore, conquered Manmasiddha III and performed Virabhisheka at Nellore.

Tikkana says that Manmasiddh III purged the pride of the lord of Dravida. Here lord of Dravida is ruler of Tamilnad cannot refer to the cholas for emperor Rajendra III was an ally of the Telugu cholas and so of Manmasiddhi. So the reference applies to the Pandyas, the most powerful at the time in Tamil land. As the Pandyas were of late vanquished by Rajendra III and Tikka I, as a counter measure, they invaded the Telugu chola kingdom after Manmasiddha recovered his power from his rival cousins with the help of the Kakatiya armies. Manmasiddhi vanquished the invader and beat back the Pandyas. The identity of the Pandyan king vanquished by Manmasiddha is not definite.

Manmasiddha and the Kayasthas

The Kayasthas, as feudatories of the Kakatiyas, ruled an. extensive kingdom from Warangal to Marjavadi with almost independant powers. Gangayasahini and Jannigadeva were the contemporaries of Manmasiddha. According to Tikkana, Manmasiddhi III sent Gangayasahini to rule over the kingdoms conquered by him from Rakkasa Gangana and restored them to him. When Gangaya came under the Telugu cholas is not known. Probably he invaded the Telugu choda kingdom which Manmasiddhi was in exile, but vanquished by Manmasiddhi with the help of the Kakatiyas. Then Gangaya acknowledged Telugu chola suzerainty.

Manmasiddha and the Hoysalas

The Hoysala contemporaries of Manmasiddhi were Somesvara or Virasomesvara or Soyideva (A.D. 1234-1163) and. Narasimha III or Siranarasimha 280 (A.D. 1254-1291). Tikkana says that Manmasiddhi vanquished the king of Karnata. Karnata refers to Hoysala kingdom and the ruler must refer to either Somesvara or Narasimha III. As Somesvara did not lead any expeditions into the Telugu chola kingdom and his officials acknowledged Allutikka’s suzerainty, it must have happened that Narasimha III, to avenge the failures of Somesvara in Tikka I’s hands, invaded the Telugu chola kingdom of Nellore and was defeated by Manmasiddhi III. This probably happened about A.D. 1263 after the death of Somesvara.

Manmasiddha and the Western Gangas

The contemporary of Manmasiddhi among the Western Gangas was Rakkesa Gangana ruling in a part of Renadu. Tikkana says thal Manmasiddhi conquered Kakkesa Gangana. probably Manmasiddhi led an expedition into the Cuddapah tracts vanquished the local ruiers including Rakkesa in Gangana and Gangayasahini, reinstated them in their respective kingdoms and appointed Gangaya as the suzerain over them.

Manmasiddha must have maintained friendly relations with Allutikka of Kanchi and the local rulers in the Telugu chola kingdom. According to the genealogy in the Nandalur epigraph, Manmasiddha had an elder brother whose name is not known. Probably he is Vijayagandagopala, brother of Manmasiddha III figuring in another inscription. The Pavvada epigraph dated AD 1239 (Vinukonda Taluk) shows that Manmasiddhayadeva C.M. was issuing records ten years prior to his actual rule. A record at Kavali mentions Jagadobbaganda Kamayadeva M and his son mahamandalesvara Siddhayadeva M whose relationship to Manmasiddha III is not known.

Manmasiddha was great warrior which is borne out by his achievements and epithets, such as—Tribhuvanapandaru, rayavesyvhujanga, Khandiyaraya, rayagandagopala and Kaliyugarjuna. Bhagirathanvaya, sagarakula, and parivarasannaba were some of his titles mentioned by Tikkana. Manmasiddha purged the pride of the enemy kings and was king to the vanquished. Ketana says that Manmasiddha was a Hanumantu in destroying enemies, a meru in valour, and a vainrayavesyabhhujanga Tikkana says that in the battlefield Manmasiddhi kills the elephants, disturbs the infantry by pouncing on the soldiers and cutting their umbrellas. He looks the same while fighting the enemy in the battlefield and when victorious. In Telugu literature, Manmasiddha III is mentioned as Siddhi, cholana—Manmasiddhi and Manmaksmapala and Manmakshamavallabha.

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