The history of Andhra country (1000 AD - 1500 AD)

by Yashoda Devi | 1933 | 138,355 words

This book recounts the History of the Andhra Pradesh Country from 1000 to 1500 A.D. including many dynasties (for example. the Reddis of Korukonda and the Eruva Chola of Rajahmundry)....

Part 31 - Allutikka (A.D. 1248-1272)

During the last years of the reign of Tikka I, his son Manumasiddha III and son-in-law Allutikka were associated in the governance of the vast kingdom and each issued records separately and in conjunction with Tikka I. A study of the records of the period shows that there was a division of the kingdom between Manmasiddha and Allutikka, either towards the close of Tikka’s reign, or soon after his death. Allutikka and Manmasiddha ruled their kingdoms with capitals at Kanchi and Nellore respectively, not as rivals and enemies but as friends and allies like the Velamas of Rachakondd and Devarakonda and unlike the Reddis of Kondavidu and Rajamundry. The division was also peaceful for it was a measure calculated to strengthen the kingdom against foreign aggression and not one resulting in local disruption. Probably Tikka I ???er his conques entrusted the southern dominions to Allutikka and the heditary kingdom to Manumasiddha who ruled idependenti after Tikka I.

Allutikka was the first Telugu chola ruler to have issued records in his own regnal years instead of those of his suzerain. As a result of the wars and victories of Tikka I, Allutikka felt himself strong enough to declare independence and assume imperialistic titles. His earliest record is from Nellore dated A.D. 1182 registering a grant by his servant in the Vishaya-country—called after Beta. From A.D. 1244 onwards Allutikka figures in the records of Tikka I. No records of his first three years after the assumption of royalty are available. His first records known so far are dated in his 2nd regnal year. The conjeevaram epigraph dated in the 2nd year of Tribhuvanachakravarti Allutikka maharaja Gandagopaladeva records gifts by a native of Velichcheri alias Silasikhamanichaturvedimangalam in Puliyur Kottam. The donor was Tondaimandala Gurukularayan. Another record of the year at Mahabalipuram records a gift by a native of Kuttanpakkam. Several records of Allutikka’s 3rd year are available and are widely distributed. The record from Conjeevaram provides for a lamp; and the one from Tiruppalaivanam mentions the gift of Gandagopala madai. The Attur inscription mentions the gift of Nellore madai by Timkachchali TJdaiyan Tauvakkalamdan, the headman of Maimbakkam in Arrur alias Rajarajanallur and the record from little conjeevaram mentions a grant by a native of Malaimandalam. The record from Mallam mentions a grant by Tiruchchirrambala mudaiyan alias Valavandan whereas the record from Tiruppalaivanam mentions gifts by the headman of Nayarunadu, in Pulalkottam alias Vikramasolavalanadu a district of Jayangondacholamandalam.

Of the 4th year of Allutikka, two inscriptions are at Ramagin (Ponneri taluq) and Tiruppalaivanam. The former is incomplete and the latter mentions the headman of Nayaru alias Jayangendasolanallur Three records, dated in the 5th year of Allutikka are at Little Conjeevaram. One of them mentions the grant of Nellore Pudumadai by a merchant of Kavayappalli in Malaimandalam. Another mentions Kon Kattaiyan, a minister of Ganapati and the third records grant by a native of Kollanam (Kollam) in Malamandalam and refers to the 2nd year of the Chola (?) king. The only inscription of Allutikka’s 6th year is from Litttle Conjeevaram mentioning a grant by four pradhanemudalis of Idamadn in Poysalarajya. Allutikka’s records dated in his 7th year are at Kalahasti, Little Conjeevaram and Nellore. Of the two inscriptions from Little Conjeevaram, one records gifts by Brahmisetti, minister of Ganapati of the Kakatiyas. For decade from the 7th to the 17th year Allutikka’s records are not found. The record from Little Conjeevaram dated in the 17th year of Tribhuvanachakravarti; Gandagopaladeva, mentions Nalasiddhana of Kanchi, his feudatory. The next inscription is from Little Conjeevaram dated in the 22nd year of Tribhuvanachakravarti Gandagopaladeva. This seems to be the latest of Allutikka’s inscriptions.

Besides, a few records of Allutikka, not mentioning his regnal years are available. One such is at Little Conjeevaram. and another at Mannarpolur (Polur taluq) registering a grant to the local temple. Allutikka’s epigraph at Tirupati is dated in the 5th year of M.P.C. Alluntirukalattideva (A.D. 1255) and mentions Seruvanur in...nadu. As Allutikka’s 22nd year corresponds to A.D. 1272 and as no records of his are found in subsequent years that must haue been the last year of Allutikka’s rule.

His Political Relations

Allutikka had a reign of twenty-four years whereas Tribhuvanachakravarti is mentioned as a Title ofTikka I in a record of his, it forms a prefix to Allutikka’s name in almost all his records. Allutikka was variously known as Allutikaraja, Alluttiru Kalattideva etc, Allutikkaya gandagopaladeva, Allutirukallideva M Gandagopala, Tribhuvana Chakra-varti Gandugopaladeva. Allutikka M Gandagopaladeva, and M.P.C. Alluntirukalattideva. His younger brother Vijayaditya etc., figuring in a record of A.D. 1247 was probably the crown prince in this reign. Allutikka counted his regnal years from A.D. 1250 as the fifth year corresponds to A.D. 1255, as seen in his Tirupati epigraph.

Allutikka and the Cholas

The contemporary chola emperor was Rajendra III (A.D-1246-1272). None of Allutikka’s records are dated in Rajendra’s regnal years. He assumed the imperial chola epithet—Tribhuvana chakravarti and dated his records in his regnat years. Nevertheless, the friendly relations between the Telugu cholas and the chola emperors probably continued in this period.

Allutikka and the Pandyas

The Pandyan emperors in this period were Maravarman Vira Pandya and Jatavarman, Sundara Pandya. On the death of Tikka I, the Pandyas frequently attacked the southern part of the Nellore chola kingdom the tracts to the north of Kanchi, constituting the kingdom of Allutikka. So, during the initial years of his rules Allutikka had a formidable enemy in the Pandyas. The Pandyas even occupied Kanchi in A.D. 1249 and Allutikka vanquished and took Kanchi with the help of the Kakatiyas. Perhaps this explains Allutikka’s counting his regnal years from A.D. 1250, though he began rule in A.D. 1249. After overcoming his enemies, styling himslf, Tribhuvanachakravarti he issued records.

Allutikka and the Kakatiyas

The kakatiyas rulers at the time were Ganapati and Rudramadevi. Allutikka and the Ganapati were on terms of alliance. Almost at the beginning of Allutikka’s reign, Ganapati helped him in overcoming the Pandyas. In A.D. 1240, Somanathabhoja, minister and general of Ganapati and governor of Kanchi granted Kalattur to Ekamranatha. This speaks for the influence of the kakatiyas in Allutikka’s kingdom. Gradually Allutikka consolidated his power, and there is a change in the position of the Kakatiyas in their relations with Allutikka, thongh both remained friends throughout the latter’s reign. Two records of Ganapati, dated A.D. 1250 are at Conjeevaram. Kon Kattiyan, the minister of Ganapati, made grants at Little Conjeevaram in that year. The Kakatiya records after A.D. 1250 in Allutikka’s kingdom are dated in Allutikka’s regnal years. For instance, in the 7th year of Allutikka, at Little Conjeevaram, Brahmi Setti, minister of Ganapati made grants. Friendly relations must have continued between Allutikka and Rudramadevi.

Allutikka and the Nellore Cholas

Allutikka’s contemporary rulers ot Nellore were Manmasidda III and Tikka II. As pointed out elsewhere Allutikka and Manmasiddha were on terms of freindship. And Allutikka’s records are found in the Nellore Chola kingdom and those of Manmasiddhi in Allutikka’s kingdom. The same relationship continued between Allutikka and Tikka II.

Allutikka and the Hoysalas

The Hoysala ruler in this period was Somesvara I alias Virasomesvara (A.D. 1234-1262). Unlike in the reign of Tikka I, the telugu cholas, the Hoysalas and the Yadavas had mutual friendly relations in this reign. In Tikka’s time, the Hoysala in their wars defensive and offensive—with the Nellore cholas fared badly for Narasimha II lost his life and Virasanes svara suffered reverses in Tikka’s hands, Probably the Hoysalas for while even acknowledged the supremacy of Tikka I.

Allutikka did not lead any expeditions of conquest into the Hoysala kingdom. Neither Virasomesvara did invade the Telugu chola kingdom of Kanchi, inspite of his defeat earlier in the hands of the father-in-law of Allutikka. Foresight, wisdom, political diplomacy and a true estimate of the strength of the enemy i.e. Allutikka, must have prevented Somesvara from attempting to wreak vengeance for his failures in the past in his dealings with the Telugu cholas. The Hoysala officials in the Telugu chola kingdom dated their records in the regnal year of Allutikka. For a record at Little Conjeevaram of the 6th year of Allutikka records the grant by the four pradhani mudalis of Idnianadu in Poysala rajya i.e. Hoysala kingom, to the temple. Thus probably, the Hoysalas acknowledged the suzerianty of Allutikka temporarily. The sixth year corresponds to A.D. 1256. Perhaps similar relations between the Telugu cholas and the Hoysalas continued for the rest of Allutikk’s reign.

Allutikka and the Telugu Pallavas

Nagadeva, Abhideva Malideva, Inumadideva Viragandagopala and Vijayagandagopala, of the pallavas were ruling in this period. There are records of Vijayagandagopala at Kanchi dated A.D. 1257 and after and the Kakatiya records therein A.D. 1257, are dated in the regnal year of Vijayagandagopala. It is likely that Allutikka and Vijayagandagopala were political allies as no signs of enmity between the two kings are discernable.

Allutikka and the Kadurayas

Allutikka must have been a freind of the Sambuvarayas and the Kaduvarayas. The Kaduvaraya, contemporary with Allutikka was Kopperunjinga.

Allutikka and the Yadavarayas

Viranarasinga Yadaraya (A D. 1209-1263) was the Yadavaraya ruler contemporary with Allutikka. The amicable relations between Allutikka and Narasinga are seen from the fact that Lakshmidevi, the queen of the former was the daughter of the latter. In the record mentioning the Allutikka is mentioned as M.P.C. Allu.xtirukalattideva. Thus Allutikka was the son-in-law of Narasinga.

Though none of Allutikka’s records are dated in chola emperors regnal years—the location of temples, villages and persons—specified in records—invariably show the great influence of the Cholas in the kingdom of Allutikka. Singaladeva, Sarangadhara II of the Yadavas, were ruling at Addanki in this period. Allutikka did not came into contact with these, or the Kota and Natavadi rulers.

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