The history of Andhra country (1000 AD - 1500 AD)

by Yashoda Devi | 1933 | 138,355 words

This book recounts the History of the Andhra Pradesh Country from 1000 to 1500 A.D. including many dynasties (for example. the Reddis of Korukonda and the Eruva Chola of Rajahmundry)....

Part 30 - Tikka I (A.D. 1209-1248)

Son of Manumasiddha II, Tikka or Tirukalatti succeeded Tammusiddha on the throne. His records in large numbers are found all over the kingdom. According to one record Manumasiddha had an younger brother Attiga. Tikka’s earliest record is from Gundlapalem dated A.D. 1210 recording grant by Senangulam, son of Deva of Nellurikota and the head, servant of the king. The next record is from Palicherlapadu (Rapur taluq) dated A.D. 1211 mentioning the king and his prasasti and gift in Palachalam in chedupulinadu. Two titles in prasasti are—Tenk anannitya and Jagadobbaganda. In the 31st year of Kulottunga III (A.D. 1213) Tikka I made gifts at Nandalur for the merit of his father Manumsiddhana and Nallesiddharasa. Another records of that year at Ramatirthem records the grant of Iddattur in Mundainadu in Chedikulamanikkavalanadu to Manumakesava of Manumakesavapura, a suburb of Nellore in Perunadu in Chedikula-Manikkavalanadu. Of the two records of A.D. 1214, the Dubagunta inscription records a grant for the merit of Manumasiddhanadeva C.M. son of Rajendradeva and the Pattapuravi record mentions Tirukalatti from Nellore and.records gifts by his asthanikas Kathajiyya and chikkajiyya. The record from Chikavole of the 36th year of Kulottunga III (A.D. 1218) records a grant by Tukkinayaka grandson of Vairapanayaka, a padiyar of king Tikka. Tikka’s record from Utukur dated in the 37th year of Kulottunga III indicates the location of Melalaipakkam (a suburb of) Vellaseri in his kingdom

Tikka’s records mentioning Rajaraja III range from his 2nd year onwards. A record of that year at Conjeevaram mentions grants by Chalukyasarayana Manmasiddharasa. (A.D.) 1218). Tikkinayaka, brother of Padiyari Vairappanayaka, the mahapradhani of M.P.C. Errasiddha was the donor at Conjeevaram in the 5th year of Rajaraja III. In the Singanapalem inscription of the 8th year of Rajaraja III, figures a minister of M.P.C. Errasiddharasa. Kettamaladeviyar, queen of Pillaiyar Gandagopala, was the donor in a conjeevaram record of the 10th year of Rajaraja III. Gandagopala is obviously Tikka I. In the 12th year of Rajaraja III, Tikka M.P.C. Gandagopala made a grant at Tiruppalaivanam. The gift of Ganda gopalamadai at Gudimallam (N. Arcot district) in the 13th year of Rajaraja III indicates Tikka’s suzerainty in that area. Two of Tikka’s records dated in the 13th year of Rajaraja III are at Mallam and Tummuru. His records from Katrayapadu (Kavali taluq) and Musunur dated A.D. 1228 and 1230 respectively mention his subordinates, Patinayaka and Kararumanmarama, lord ofMuranapura. Dipkalti deva in the second record is a mistake for Tirukalatti. Of Tikka’s four records dated A.D. 1230 and the 15th year of Rajaraja III, one is at Tiruppalaivanam and the others at Conjeevaram. Of the 16th year of Rajaraja III, two of Tikka’s records are at Conjeevaram, a third at Ukukur and one each at Kurukatapalle, Vogur and Tirunirmalai.(A.D. 1231) dated in the 17th year of Rajaraja III Tikka’s records are at Kalahasti, Conjeevaram and so forth. Tikka’s inscription of the 18th year of Rajaraja III are at Conjeevaram, Kavanippakkam (Chmgleput district), Madavillagam and Moour. In the record from Conjeevaram dated A.D. 1234. Tifcka is mentioned as Cholatikka. Tikka’s records dated in the 19th 21st and 22nd years of Rajaraja III are at Conjeevaram. The record at Puvvada dated A D. 1239 mentions Bhujabalavira Manmssiddayadeva C.M. The record at Jambai (N. Arcot district) dated in the 23rd year of Rajaraja III (A.D. 1239) a fragment—mentions the victories of Nayanar Gandagopalar over Vallabaladeuan at Senbai i.e. Hoysala Narasimha. Two records dated in the 24th year of Rajaraja IIP at Conjeevaram and Seshamambapuram, the former mentions M.P.C. and the latter Manmasiddha and Allutikka (son-in-law). Tikka’s next record is from Conjeevaram dated in the 26th year of Rajaraja III. The Motupalli record of A.D. 1242 mentions Bayyachoda Maharaja. The record from Manupur (Rapur taluq) dated A.D. 1243 mentions M.P.C. Tilakanarayana Manasiddharasa. In A.D. 1244 in a record from Kavali taluq Allutikka C.M. figures as the donor. Bhujabala choddatikka and Allutikka figure in the record from Ayyavaripalle (Udayagiri taluq) with date A.D. 1245—Tikka’s records from Conjeevaram and Tiruvannamallai dated in the 29th and 30th years of Rajaraja III respectively record grants by the Sambuvarayas. In A.D. 1246 at Annamasamudram, Allutikka ruling etc. Ranchi, installed a deity at Atmakur for the merit of his father-in-law king Tikka i e Tirukalatti M who has been wrongly identified with Tirukalattideva Yadavaraya. In two records from Jaladanki (Kavali taluq) and Devaravemur dated A.D. 1244 and 1247 respectively mention allutikka and his younger brother 'Vijayadityadeva C.M.

Besides these and several records at Conjeevaram dated in the regnal years of the chola emperors, are many undated inscriptions of Tikka I. One record at Little Conjeevaram mentions Tribhuvana Chakravarti Gandagopaladeva. The Babbepalle record mentions king Tikka, son of Tirukalattidevaraja. The Nelattur record (Nellore taluq) mentions Tikka and Allutikka. The Manimangalam epigraph mentions M PC Gandgopala i.e. Tikka, as father of Nilagangaraiyar. Here father just means lord. In a Conjeevaram inscription Tikka calls himself a staunch devotee of Srivaradaraja. A later record at Nandalur dated AD. 1257 refers to Tikka’s capture of Kanchi, and defeat of Someesa at Champapuri.

Tikka’s Political Relations

Tikka I was the greatest of the Nellore cholas if not of all the Telugu cholas. His kingdom comprised a vast area. His numerous records and liberature of the period speak of his significant military successes and attest his manifold capacities as a warrior and administrator. His long name—M.P.C. Manumasittarasan Tirukalattidevan alias Gandagopala is composed of his own name Tirukalattidevan alias Gandagopala and the names of his father Manumasittarasan and grand father Errasiddha entitled M.P.C. Tikka’s record dated A.D. 1245. At Ayyavaripalle by specifically mentioning Tikka and Allutikka frustrates the mistaken identity of both supposed by Sewell. Allutikka was the son-in-law of Tikka I as £the word Allu i.e son-in-law and later records make it clear. Tikka had a long reign of nearly forty years and had his own coinage the Gandagopala madai and the Gandagopalapudumadai. He “combined the energy and enterprise of an aggressive chief with loyalty of a faithful varsal.” wh’ch was the keynot of his success. His popularity and importance are born out by references in recorded tradition and literature. For the KaiSyat of Pattapuravi refers to the rule of Tirukalitadeva C.M. and that of Ravulakollu (Siddhavatam taluq) records that after Nallasiddha, king Tirukalattideva C.M. ruled over the region. The chaku verse about Nellore says that Tirukalat, ruled with courage.

Tikka I played a predominant role in the contemporary politics of South India. Besides other sources of information, his prasasti and titles bear testimony to this In his political dealings Tikka came into contact with the Hoysalas the yadavas, the kakatiyas, yadavarayas, Satnbuvarayas, Telugu Pallavas.

Tikka and the Cholas

The Chola emperors contemporaneous with Tikka were—Kulottunga III, Rajaraja III and Rajendra III. The condition of the chola empire, to cite Professor Sastri was a follows:

“The Cola supremacy was certainly still maintained at its full vigour up to Guddapah and Nellore at the time of Kulottunga’s accession. And except for the short interlude now engaging our attention, Kulottunga’s inscriptions do not give a contrary impression. There were many indications that the feudatories of the empire were increasing in their strength and that the moment the Central Government passed into incompetent hands, the empire would go pieces. But Kulottunga was by no means a weak ruler and on the whole he succeeded in the midst of many troubles in maintaining the integrity of his inheritance.”

“In Kulottunga’s reign the Telugu chodas did not once find themselves strong enough to defy Kulottunga III for any length of time. And the statement in the Srirangam epigraph that “Kulottunga entered Kanchi with his anger abated shows that the campaign was of the nature of punitive expedition directed against vassals who had raised the standard of revolt.”

Professor Sastri says “the great Tikka I himself who figures under the name Gandagopala along with his queen and his officials in a large number of Rajaraja’s grants,” was the Chief among the Telugu chola feudatories of Rajaraja III.

“The Telugu chodas of Nellore had obtained considerable power and were ruling over an extensive territory in the Nellore, Chingleput and Cuddapah districts. We have seen that these rulers on the whole were more friendly with the Chola monarchs of the south and ready to acknowledge their formal suzerain position, Tikkanripatti alias Gandagopala was. the contemporary ruler of Nellore.”

“Tikka’s first inscription dated in Kulottunga’s regnal years is of the 31st year (A.D. 1213) recording an endowment for the merit of his father Manmasiddha and (alias) Nallasiddha.

“In all these inscriptions the princes concerned take good care to define in an unmistakable manner their vassal position to Kulottunga. And this relation is continued almost up to the end of Kulottunga’s reign.”

“For besides Tikka’s Ramatirtham record dated also in the 31st year, his Chikavolu record is dated in the 36th year the Ukrikaru apigraph in the 37th year and yet another from Tiruvorriyur in the 38th year of Kulottunga III—the last mentioning an agent of Siddharasa in that place. Here may be noted that we get records of a Bhujabalavira Errasiddha (N.I.A 38, R 38, G 59, G 58) who rules in the early years of Rajaraja III and like Nallasiddha some times acknowledges the Chola suzerainty and sometimes does not was this Errasiddha, the son of Nallasiddha?”

As to Kulottunga III, Tikka’s allegiance to Rajaraja III also, is attested by his records. His first record dated in Rajaraja’s regnal year is of the 10th year if not of the second year. His next record is of the 12th year from Tiruppalaivanam and the serie(?) continues upto to 26th year of Rajaraja, the record of that year coming from Connjeevaram. Besides, the specification of some places and temples in the records, for instance. Chedupaludu, Perurnadu and Mundainadu in Chedikulamanikkavalanadu in Jayangandacholamandalam, Erikilanadu in Kaliyurkottam, Kaveripakkam in Paduvurjcottam, Puhyurkottam, Amurkottam, Pagamanadu etc. speak for the Chola aegis over the Nellore Chola kingdom. Besides, “there is clear literary evidence of (Tikka’s) his friendship with the cholas and his hostility to the Hoysals.” Tikkana in the introductory verses to his Nirvachanottava Ramayana says that Tikka defeated Karnataka Somesa, Sambhuraju. and oter enemies, established the Chola king on his throne and assumed the title—Cholasthanacharya. As Tikka was ruling in conjeevaram Rajaraja’s reign, probably he helped Rajaraja III against Maravarman Sundara Pandya when he was dirtrubed by him and thus established a claim to the title—Cholasthapanacharya. In a record dated A.D. 1231 and the 15th year of Rajaraja III, about Tikka, it is stated, that after having acquired his ancestral kingdom in due succession, he' captured the wealth of all princes who were self willed, shook the southern quarter, killed the kings of the south, took Kanchi and was ruling there after making it his own.

After the release of Rajaraja III in A.D. 1232, not only Tikka but Gangapati, Narasimha II, Somesvara, Jatavarman Sundara Pandya—each styled himself the establisher of the chola kingdom.

“The growth of difference between Somesvara and the cholas on Pandyan policy forced the latter to seek allies for themeselves.”

Tikkana says that Tikka fought aginst Sambaraja and other enemy mandalikas and compelled Kanchi and Chadimandala and Kadavapati to acknowledge his supremacy.

“The importance of these successes lay in that they checked the predatory activities of the turbulent Kopporunjmga and his confederates and thereby strengthened the position of the monarch. The presence of Gandagopala’s inscriptions dated about A.D. 1230 and later in Kanchipuram and its neighbourhood and the fact that many of them are dated in Rajaraja’s regnal years corroborate the statements of Tikkana Somayaji on the relations between Tikka and the Cholas.”

For Tikkana states that Tikka subdued the Karnata ruler Somesvara and thereby easily established the chola in his position and acquired the title—Cholasthapanacharya. This is again confirmed by a hoysala inscription dated s 1162 (A.D. 1240) which mentions an expedition of Somesvara against Gandagopala. Once more the date of the Hoysala inscription indicates that Rajendra’s activities for the inscription of Chola power were Ibegun some years prior to his formal installation as heir apparant. We thus see that accession of a weak Pandyan ruler, the commencement of Rajendra’s campaign of recovery, the estrangement between the Cholas and Hoysalas and the alliances of the Cholas with the Telugu Cholas all hang together and constitute a sort of a diplomatic revolution in the political condition of South India. In fact it was an age of rapid changes in the political map of South India. The particular phase that was devoloped by the advent of Rajendra and has just been described furnishes a very good example in the practice of the diplomatic theory of the mandala developed in the scholastic treatises of Hindu Polity. The Cholas kingdom is surrounded by enemies on all sides and its only ally is a ruier whose territory lies beyond that of a neighbouring enemy.” Again Professor Sastri opines that Somesvara’s title Cholasthapana charya is of doubtful historical significance and is a simple repetition of the title of his father.

Tikka as a loyal subordinate helped the Cholas in their wars against their enemies As Ketana in Dasanumara charitra says that Tikka levied tributes from the Pandya Professor suggests, “can it be that his troops assisted Rajendra in bis Pandyan war?” Besides Rajendra led a campaign against the Sambuvarayas—some of whom bearing the title virarakshasa—held sway in the region of North Arcot. And one of Rajendra’s titles is “the very Rama to the prosperous northern Lanka celebrated for its Virarakshasas As Tikkana saysthat Tikka undertook expeditions against Sambhuraja and hostile mandalikas before he established himself at Kanchipura” it is quite possible that in the wars he co-operated with Rajendra in the restoration of Chola power. It is thus seen that the measures of Rajendra met with a considerable measure of success and that for some years between A.D. 1238 and 1250 the Chola power once more held its own sway against its enemies and feudatories; thanks of the loyalty and co-ooperation of the Telugu Chodas of Nellore.” Rajendra did not conquer Kanchi. The latest chola inscription at Kanchi are dated in the 29th year of Rajaraja III (A.D. 1245) and none of Rajendra’s records are found there. But there are two records Kanchipura of Ganapati of the Kakatiyas, with dated A.D. 1249 recording grants by his ministher Samantabhuja.

From this date onwards, the Telugu Cholas and the Kakatiyas were allies, e.g. Manumasiddhi and Ganapati.

“Some year later when Jatavarman Sundarapandya killed Gandagopala i.e. Tikka, in battle and conquered the Telugu choda kingdom, he became master of Kanchipuram and Nellore and put Ganapati to flight. We may therefore suppose that Kanchipuram had for some years become part of the Telugu Choda kingdom under Tikka, that he held it in nominal subjection to Rajaraja III in the beginning and to Ganapati later on until the city was captured by the Pandyan invader. The Choias thus did not long keep thetr hold on Kanchi for which Kulottuga III had fought successfully in the latter part of his reign with the rise of Kopperunjmga into independence, the Chola king must have found it difficult to maintain his power in Kanchi and acquiesed in the virtual annextion of the City to the Telugu Choda kingdom.”

According to Ketana Choda Tikka ruled over the Dravidamandalikas; and established choda on his throne. This carroborates similar statements of Tikkana. Thus when Rajaraja III was weak, and the Chola kingdom was invaded by Somesvara, Kopperunjinga and Maravarman Sundara Pandya, Tikka I defended the country, opposed the enemy and drove them successfully. By his services, Tikka endeared himself to the chola monarch “though he took advantage of the Chola sovereign to push on his conquests as far as South Arcot and to occupy Conjeevaram.”

Tikka and the Hoysalas

The Western chalukyas and the Kalachuris of Kalyani had decayed by the close of the 12th century A.D., and were replaced by the Hoysalas who were destined to fill a large role in contemporary South India till about the middle of the 14th century A.D Tikka’s contemporary Hoysala rulers were Narasimha II (till A.D. 1238-39) and Virasomesvara (A.D. 1234-35-1253). Tikka came into conflict with Hoysalas on behalf of the Choias on account of the differences between the cholas and the Hoysalas on their Pandyan policy and won some important military victories over them.

Tikka I occupied Kanchi by A D. 1231. The ambitions of Hoysala Narasimha brought him into conflict with Tikka. The clashes between Tikka and Narasimha were frequent and took a serious turn by about A.D. 1240. For Tikka led two successful expeditions of conquest into to the Hoysala territories by that year in which Somesvara’s counter expedition against the the Telugu cholas took place. Tikka’s first expedition into the Hoysala kingdom was undertaken and accomplished by A.D. 1231—the first of his occupation of Kanchi. For in his record at little Conjeevaram dated A.D. 1231 and the 15th year of Rajaraja III. Tikka Gandagopala is described as “a Catachymic fire to the ocean i.e. Kalyanapuri (the capital of the Chalukyas—and the supreme lord of Vikramasimhapuri.”. Thus Tikk vanquished the Hoysalas and destroyed Kalyanapuri i.e. Kalyani, His attack on Kalyam in the entire Hoysala kingdom attests its importance, not only as the capital of the Western Chalukyas and the Kalachuns in former times, but its singular supreme position under the Hoysala. The fact of Kalyana being referred in particular in stating that Tikka, lord of Vikramasimhapuri attached it, may even suggest that it was more important than the capital Dwarasamudra, in this period. This success over the Hoysalas must have greatly enhanced the prestige and power of Tikka I.

Obviously encouraged by his successes in A.D 1231, after an interval of eight years in A.D. 1237 Tikka I led another expedition against the Hoysals, more fateful in its results. For a record from Jambai in South Arcot district, with date A.D. 1239 and the 23rd year of Rajaraja III “says that in Chittirai of that year—Nayanar Gandagopalar was pleased to go out (for fight?), having stabbed Vallaladevan, proceeeded to (?) Senbai. The inscription stops with the mention of Senbai. But that need not puzzle us as to the result of the fight which was obviously a victory for the Telugu cholas as the events of the expedition would show—namely killing of the Hoysala ruler. On chronological grounds, Valla!a deva, the victim of Tikka I, cannot be identified with Bailala II or Ballala III of the Hoysalas. “As the dynasty itself came to be called Ballala after the glorious reign of Ballala II, we can take Vallaladeva to refer to a Hoysala king who could be no other than Narasimha II. We may take the last date of this king to be A.D. 1238-39.” The course of the expedition must have been as follows—In A.D. 1239 Chittirai, Tikka Gandagopala started out, proceeded to the Hoysala kingdom, met strong opposition in the Hoysala armies under Narashimha IX i.e. Vallaladeva meaning Lord of Vallala i.e. Ballala i.e. Hoysalas. In the fight, the Hoysalas vanquished and their ruler lost his life. The site of the battle is not known. After this victory, Tikka I proceeded to Senbal i.e. Jambai, where he must have won further victories over his enemies, the details of which are not mentioned in the record. This expedition of Tikka brought on its heels the Hoysala expedition of the Telugu chola. kingdom of Nellore.

In August A.D. 1240, Somesvara, the son of Narasimha II, led an expedition aginst Tikka I. The causes leading to this expedition are mentioned above. “It is the fall of his father at the hands of Tikka that should have been the immediate cause of Somesvara’s expedition against the Chief.” In this defensive war Tikka I proved victorious, vanquished Somesvara and Hoysala armies which is attested in clear terms by contemporary literature and inscriptions. Tikkana says that Tikka defeated Karanataka Somesa i.e. Haysala Virasomesvara. Ketana also says that Tikka ended the pride of the king of Marnata i.e. Somesvara. In withstanding the Hoysalas, Tikka was fighting on behalf of Rajaraja III whose enemy Somesvara was. The Nandalur inscription of A.D. 1257 mentions that King Tikka of Nellore captured Kanchi and defeated Somesvara at Champapuri. This Champapuri is probably Jambai i.e. Senbai of records of an earlier date in Tamil. The identification of Somesvara with Chalukya Somesvara IV of Kalyam (A.D. 1187) is untenable on chronological data. The Nandalur inscription supplies the place of the battle between Somesvara and Tikka Thus the Hoysala expedition into the Telugu Chola kingdom was a failure.

When Lakumaya invaded Kurumalur, Tikka captured his horses in the battle. As has been suggested, Lakumaya vanquished by Tikka “may have been a Kanerese general at Ourumalur. Therefore the Nellore chief too a very prominent part in the Chola-Hoysala struggle and had carried on his activities over the extensive area from the Godavari to the south Pennar.” Tikka’s General was Siddhi and Singhana was the general of Somesvara. With the support of the Cholas behind him, Tikka was successful in offensive and defensive warfare against the Hoysalas. His achievements in this sphere were remarkable for he destroyed Kalyanar, vanquished Narasimha I in A.D. 1231, killed him in A.D. 1239, vanquished Somesvara at Champapuri in A.D. 1240, defeated General Lakumaya—date not known, and captured his horses. Thus the relations between Tikka and the Hoysalas form an important phase of the history of South India of the period.

Tikka and the Yadavas

The Yadava dynasty of Devagiri lasted till the close of the first quarter of the 13th century A.D. In inscriptions and literature the Yadavas are frequently referred to as the Sennas. The Yadava contemporaries of Tikka were Jaitugi or Jaitrapala (A.D. 1191-1210), Singhana (A.D. 1210-1247) and Kandhara or Kanhara or Krishna (A.D. 1247-1260).

Tikka I came into conflict with the Yadavas and won a victory over them. For a record of his says that he crushed the pride of the Senna king. This gains support from the statement of Ketana that Tikka purged the pride of the feudatories (Namcutas) of the Sevuna and Kataka rulers, and that Pmnabhaskara, the seventh son of his minister Siddhi, vanquished the Sevanas. In detail it is thus—Bacha—entitled Gandhavarana approached the ocean i.e. of the fearful Sevunaslika fire, drowned it like Agastya and dried it like King.Raghu—so the people speak about him.

This conflict between Tikka and the Yadavas must have taken place in A.D, 1240—the date of the Hoysala invasion of the Telugu Chola kingdom. Probably Yadava Singhana with his armies accompanied Somesvara in his expedition; was opposed by Tikka I and his armies. Singhana was vanquished, his armies v/ere routed and in this Pinnabacka had a significant role. The samantas of the Serunas defeated by Tikka may refer to the local Yadavas princes e.g. Madhava, Saranga etc. ruling Nellore as the feudatories of the Telugu cholas and the kakatiyas.

Tikka I and the Velanandu Choda

Till the close of the 12th century A.D., the Telugu chodas and the Velanandu chodas were on terms of alliance both owing allegiance to the Chola emperors. Tikka’s contemporary at Tsandavole was Prithvisvara. No friendship lasted between the two rulers. The ambition of Tikka to extend his power made him take advantage of the decaying state of the Velanandu kingdom under Prithvisvara.

Tikka led an expedition into the Velanandu kingdom and killed Prithvisvara in the battle that ensued. For poet Tikkana says that while still young, Choda Tikka played the game of ball with the head of Prithvisvara. This even is also referred to in the Conjeevaram epigraph of Tikka dated in the 15th year of Rajaraja III i.e. A.D. 1231 describing Gandagopala as the sole hero of the world who cut off the head of Prithvisvara. This is corroborated by Kekata’s statement, that Tikka forcibly cut off the head of Prithvisvara. Tikka’s Velanandu exepedition must have occurred in A.D. 1210 as Prithvisvara is not heard of after that year. Where this fateful battle was fought is not known. The failure of the Velanandus resulted in the death of their king, the last of the line and end of their kingom. But like his Hoysala expeditions, Tikka’s Velanandu expedition was a brilliant success, for he killed the last of the Velanandu chodas and thus wrung the death knell of the Velanandu kingdom, and this victory is recorded with pride in records and literature of the Telugu chodas. Prince Ballaya chola, claiming to have killed Prithvisvara must have participated in Tikka’s expedition. But this expedition does not seem to have resulted in the annexation of territories for soon after—about A.D. 1212—Gauapati undertook the conquest of the Velanandu country.

Tikka and the Yadavarayas

The Yadavarayas were ruling over parts of North Arcot, Chittoor, and Chingleput districts. The Yadavaraya rulers contemporary with Tikka were—Tirukalattideva Yadavaraya (A.D. 1155-1246; and Viranarasingadeva Yadvaraya (A.D. 1209-1263). The names of some of the Yadavarayas e.g. Viranarasinga, are same as those of some of the Hoysala rulers e.g. Narasimha II. And Viranarasinga and Narasimha II were contemporaries.

King Tikka is often confused with Tirukalattideva Yadavaraya. This shows that some of the names of the Telugu cholas of Nellore e.g. Tirukalatti to 1941, and the Yadmaraya are common e.g. Tirukalatti. Both Tikka and Tirukalatti,as seen above, were contemporaries. Tikka I and the Yadavarayas maintained friendly relations among themselves commenced by alliances of marriage. For Lakshminidevi, daughter of Vikranarsinju was married to Allutikka. Telugu chola and son-in-law of king Tikka I and also as (A.D. 1249-1272).

The Yadavarayas like the Telugu cholas owed allegiance to the Chola emperors. And Tikka and the Yadavarayas acted together in fighting their enemies. A record of the reign of Kulottunga III at ChepalapalJe mentioning M.P.C. Errasiddharasa and Rajamalladeva alias Bhujabalasiddharasa supports the prevalence of friendly relations between Tikka and the Yadavarayas. The continuation of allied relations is attested by the epigraph at Melpadi, dated in the 8th year of Rajaraja III mentioning Puddiyarasan, the uncle (mama) of Siraimitta Perumal alias Siyagandadevariyadeva kula madus, daughter of Siyanganda and p.c. Marasar’s daughter figure in a record at Kalahasti. The latter was the queen of Ghattiyaraya Yadavaraya. In every respect—extent and resources of their kingdom etc. the Telugu cholas of Nellore were more powerful than the Yadavarayas. Consequently the statemet that “possibly the Yadavarayas were provincial governors and the Telugu cholas of Nellore were rulers of chiefships subject to the authority of the Yadavarayas.” is baseless.

Tikka I and the Samburaravan and the Kedavarayas

The Sambuvarayas and the Kadavarayas were of Pallava lineage and ruled in the region of North and South Arcots. Tikka came into conflict with the contemporary rulers in the kingdoms of Sambuvarayas and Kadavarayas and won victories over them.

Tikkana says that Tikka defeated Sambhuraja and other enemies. Here Sambhuraja refers to obviously a ruler of the Sambhuvaraya lineage contemporaneous with Tikka and other enemies include the Kadavarayas, the Yadavarayas, the Pandyas and so forth. Tikka’s Conjeevaram epigraph of A.D. 1231 and the 15th year of Rajaraja III says that he captured the wealth of the self willed princes, shook the southern quarter, killed the kings of the south and took Kanchi. In this the kines of the South probbaly refer to the Sambuvarayas and the Kadavarayas besides others. Tikka’s victories over the Sambuvarayas were won by A.D. 1231 and Sambhuraja mentioned by Tikkanas and vanquished by Tikka and Sambuvaraya implied in the mention of the kings of the south killed by Tikka, are probably two persons of the line who opposed Tikka, Ketana says that Tikka ruled over the Dravidamandalikas—the petty rulers of Dravid to Tamilland, evidently among whom were included the Sambuvarayas and Uhe Kadavarayas. The statement shows that Tikka’s expedition into the Tamil land and the Sambuvaraya kingdom included in it, resulted in the conquest and the subjugation of the rulers. Tikkana clearly says that Tikka disturbed the group of enemies including Sambhuraja and ruled Kanchipura. These facts agree with those in the Conjeevaram epigraph (A.D. 1231).

Of the Kadavarayas, the greatest was Kopperunjinga entitled avanya vanodbhava Rajasimha, Khadyamalla and Maharajasimha. Kopperunjinga was a formidable enemy the rulers of the day and his kingdom was extensive lying to to the south of Kanchi. As the cholas took the title Tribhuvanachakravarti, Koppsrunjmge assumed the epithet—Sakalabhuvanachakravartin. Tikka came into conflict with the Kadavarayas and vanquished Kopperunjinga

Tikkana says that Tikka disturbed or defeated the group of enemies, ruled Kanchipura, disturbed Chedimandala and took tribute from Kalavapati chedi mandala, corresponding to South Arcot district was included in the dominion of Kopperunjinga, who is referred to by the term Kalavapati i.e. lord of Kalava i.e Kadavaya. The Kadavaraya rulers or even Kopperunjinga himself may have suffered reverses and some even lost their lives in the hands of Tikka and accepted his suzerainty by A.D. 1231 for in his record of the year at Conjeevaram, Tikka claims to have vanquished some rulers vanquished some princes all in the south, and it is not improbable that the Kadavarayas were included among these Tulers or princes. But Tikkana’s references and Ketana’s statement that Tikkana ruled over the Dravidamandalikas obviously including Kopperunjinga and his kingdom, evidently refer to Tikka’s expedition into the Pallava territories, with Kanchi as his base after A.D.1231. In A.D.1243 Kopgerunjmga revolted against Rajaraja III and was subdued by Tikka Gandagopala “for inscriptions of subsequent fyears prove him to have acknowledged as his over lord at least in some parts of chola render the great Telugu chola chief Tikka entitled Gandagopala while other parts were ruled by Sengani chiefs.” Consequent on the subjugation, Kopperunjinga had to pay tribute to Tikka, as attested by Tikkana.

Tikka and the Pandyas

The Pandyan empire was a great power in the South India of the times, and its rulers contemporary with Tikka I were—Maravarman Sundara Pandya I (A.D. 1216-1238) and Maravarman Sundara Pandya II (A.D. 1238-1253). These great Pandyan rulers shook the chola empire under Rajaraja III to its foundations. Tikka I came into conflict with the Pandyas vanquished them and even levied tribute from the Pandyan empire. This happened, no doubt when Tikka was fighting on the side of Rajendra against the Pandyas. The dravidamandalikas and the kings of the south—whom Tikkavanquished include possibly the Pandyas also. If so, Tikka must have defeated them by A.D. 1231—the date of the inscription mentioning his victories in the south. Fighting on the side of the Cholas, Tikka, when the Pandyas invaded and occupied Kanchi, drove them, and took Kanchi just about A.D. 1230.

Tikka and the Kakatiyas

Ganapatideva was the Kakatiya contemporary of Tikka I. He was keenly interested in the affairs of Vengi and his expedition into Vengi had a substantial share in bringing about the fall of the Velanandu kingdom of Tsandavole. After his conquest of Velanandu country about A.D. 1210, Ganapati must have passed through the Telugu chola kingdom to go to the south. Tikka and Ganapati do not seem to have come into conflict with each other; and there are no signs of allegiance of the former to the latter. Possibly both were allies and acted together against the enemies. It is suggested, though not with any proof, that Tikka invited Ganapati to undertake the southern expedition, when he lost Kanchi to the Pandyas and defeated the Pandyas with Kakatiya help.

Tikka and the Telugu Pallavas

Odayaraja (A.D. 1216-1234) and Nagadevaraja (A.D. 1235-1254) and Viragandagopala (A.D. 1243-1253) and Abhideva Malideva (A.D. 1217-1269) were the Telugu Pallava rulers contemporary with Tikka I. A record at Bezvada, with date A.D, 1218 mentions Trinayana Pallava Siddhaya. Another record at Mokupalli, dated A.D. 1237 records Siddhaya’s grant of Aduru to thp temple at Mottupalli alias Srimadvelanagara in the reign of Siddhayadeva Maharaja. The two Siddhayasare identical and refer to the Telugu Pallava ruler of that name, and the suggested identity of Siddhaya with Manmasiddha, son of Tikka I, of the Nellore cholas is mistaken.Probably Tikka and Viragandagopala were allies as there is no evidence of any conflicts between them. And Tikka I may not have come into contact with the other Telugu Pallavas.

Tlkka’s other Victories

In inscriptions and litrature, Tikka is variously mentioned as Mahamandalesvara Tirukalattideva C.M., Virutirakalattideva C.M., M.P.C., Tirukatti, Chloatirukalattideva, Piliaiyar Gandagopalan, Tikka M.P.C. Gandagopala, M.P.C. Gandagopala Tirukalattideva M.P.C. Manumasiddharasan Tirukalattidevan alias Gandagopala devan, Cholatikka, Nayanar Gandagopalar, Bhujabala chodatikka, Chodadeva Tirukalattideva, Tribhuvana chakravarti Gandagopaladeva, Tirukalattidevaraja, M.P.C. Gandagopala, Tikka Choda Tikka, Chodalatikka, Gandagopala tirukala deva choda, Tikkayadevaraju etc. This list of Tikka’s names precludes the possibility of Tikka or Tirukalatti and M.P.C. Gandagopala Tirukakitti being two different but contemporary persons as has been supposed by one writer. Besides, we may note that the statement that Tikka’s usual signature was Rajagandagopala is wrong.

Some of Tikk’s titles were—Tribhuvana chakravarti, Tribhuvaniraya pendaru, rayagandagopala, aratibhagaderayapendaru, ubhayaraya gandanka, Khandiyaraya, ubhayabalavira, cholas thapana charya, abhinavabhoja and vijtadikkarindra. Tikkana describes Tikka as the ruler of the world, an equal of Kesava, a Rama in battle i.e, Samgrama Sri rama, and an extraordinary ruler. Katana compares Tikka with Krishna.The Kaifiyat of Nandavaram mentions Tirukaladeva M of iSrirangapattanam. If this Tirukala is Tikka I the reference speaks for his influence in the south. Tikka claims to have vanquished the suborninates of Kataka i.e. Cuttack, ruled the lords of Eruva, and worsted the enemy heroes at Amalur. He defeated his proved foes.

Khanderaya (A.D. 1254) was a ruler of the line of the pallavas cuddapah. Tikka’s title Khandiyaraya may mean his conquest of the Pallava ruler, whether he led an expedition into Kalinga is not clear. The Eruvachola ruler in this period was Mallideva C.M. (1250 A.D.). Tikka’s feudatories—Eruvamannilu—probably refer the petty chieftains in the tracts—Eruva. The enemies vanquished at Amalur are not known.

Pota II, Dora III and Ganapati of the Chagis, Keta II and his successors, Rudradeva and his successors of the Kotas, Kusumaraja and Bhimaraja of the Parichchadis, Rudra I of the Natavadis, Madhava of the Yadavas, Siddarasa I and Siddharasa II of the Nagas were contemporaneous with Tikka. Of these, the Yadavas and the Nagas probably owed allegiance to Tikka I who may not have come into contact with the other rulers.

Siddhayaya Tikka the eldest son of Minister Siddhanarya, of the reign of Tikka I was valiant and bore the epithets—rayavesya Bhujenga and Gandhavaruna. Tripurantaka, minister of Tikka has been identified with his namesake, the minister of Vijayagandagopala of the Telugu I allavas. On the death of Tikka, probably the minster took service under Vijayagandagopala. To state that Tikka fought the chola, is wrong.

The records of the reign bring to light Manumasiddha, Errasiddha, Bayya Choda and Tikka; and Allutikka. Of them Manmasiddha of the Dubagunta inscription (A.D. 1214), son Rajendra C.M. was probably a brother of Tikka I. Rajendradeva C.M. is identical with Manmasiddhi II who was also known as Rajendra Manmasiddhi or Rajendra chodaChalukyanarayna Manmasiddbarasa of the Conjeevaram record (A.D. 1218). Bhujabalavira Manmasiddhayadeva

C.M. of Pavvuda epigraph (A.D 1239), and Manmasiddha of records dated A.D. 1240, 1243 at Conjeevaram and Manupur respectively are identical with Manmassiddha III, son and successor of Tikka I. Errasiddha was the grandfather of Tikka I, whose records are found till A.D. 1217. Bayyachoda’s relationship to Tikka is not known. Tikka was probably the son of Tikka I, as the father’s name is given as Tirukalatti or if it refers to Tikka himself, the father’s name is wrong.

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