The history of Andhra country (1000 AD - 1500 AD)

by Yashoda Devi | 1933 | 138,355 words

This book recounts the History of the Andhra Pradesh Country from 1000 to 1500 A.D. including many dynasties (for example. the Reddis of Korukonda and the Eruva Chola of Rajahmundry)....

Part 4 - Ambadeva A.D. (1273-1335)

Ambadeva, the greatest of the Kayasthas issued the largest number of records. He threw off allegiance to the Kakatiyas and was an independant ruler unlike his predecssors. He won many victories and was a conspicuous figure in the South India of his times. His successors were weak men, the kingdom fell a prey to the Kakatiya arms and was ruled by its governors.

His Kingdom

Ambadeva inherited a vast kingdom and extended it which is proved by his records. His earliest record is from Kotlur dated A.D. 1274 mentioning Gangayasahini, the prince of Kakatiyapuram. Ambadeva’s Attirala inscription dated A.D. 1287 mentions the capital Vallurupattana, and the divisions of the kingdom Eruva, Pottapinadu, Mulikinadu, Ghandikota, Renadu, Penadadi, Pedakallu and Sakili. The next record dated A.D. 1288 at Tripurantakam records gifts by Ambaya Reddi. Six of Ambadeva’s records dated A.D 1290 are at Poli (Pllampet taluq). Gundluru Tripurantakam, Nilagangavaram, Obalam, Sivapuram and indicate the extent of his kingdom. Some of them enumerate Atnbadeva’s exploits. The record from Tripurantakam dated A.D. 1291 gives him titles—mentioning him as the taker of the head of Eruvamallideva, capturer of' the forces of Mallikarjuna, vanquisher of Katavaraya and a friend of the Pandya and Yadava (Devagiri) kings. Another record of the year is from Gudlur (Pullampet Taluq) giving its location in Merpakkainadu a district of Adhirajendrachodamandalam. Ambadeva’s record from Domalagunda near Gandiganamala, with date A.D. 1293 records some grant for his prosperity. The Peddadandalur record of A.D. 1294 gives a long list of Ambadeva’s titles Another record there of A.D. 1297 gives Ambadeva’s titles, though his name is lost in it. Two of Ambadeva’s records of A.D. 1298 are at Cuddapah and one of theses mentions him ruling from Gandikota. Another record of the year is from Devagudi. In the Peddanapadu inscription of A.D. 1300, Ambadeva is mentioned as ruling from Gandikota. Ambadeva’s Lepaka inscription is dated A.D 1302. Three recordss from Lepaka, Kadapayapalle and Varnikunta—all dated A.D 1304 mention Tnpurarideva, son of Ambadeva, ruling from Pamurupattana his capital The next record is from Cuddapah dated A.D. 1305. The last of Ambadeva’s record is from Tripurantadevaraju and Lokinayaningaru, son of Chelinayani Kommanayadu. The latter is described as the Champion of Rudra, the right arm of Telungubhupala, lord of the town of Revunur and worshipper of the feet of Kallesvara. Of the records of Ambadeva with no dates or dates doubtful, the record from Lepaka mentions Gangadeva, son of Sarvadhikari Irumadideva who made a merchant of Nell ore make grants for the success of Ambadeva.

Ambadeva’s Political Relations

Ambadeva’s records are found in a continuous series from A.D. 1272 to 1305. His capitals were Valluru and Gandikota Manorathapura. He is mentioned as mahamandalesvara Gandapendara Ambadeva Maharaja and Ambadevaraju in records His son Tripurari and some other Kayastha princes were associated in the governance of tne kingdom.

Ambadeva’s Kakatiya contemporaries were Rudrama and Prataparudra. He was loyal to them daring the major part of his reign though proved a rebel towards the close of it. Like Tripurantaka, Ambadeva held an important place in the Kakatiya kingdom. Prince Gangaya Sahini, whose relationship to Ambadeva is not known, was the prince of Kakatiyapura and general of Rudrama. Arbadeva’s record from Sivapuramdated A.D. 1290 mentions him as a subordinates of the Kakatiyas. His many victories mentioned in his records of this year, it has been said are achieved by him on behalf of Rudrama. But none of his records indicate his loyalty to Prataparudra. On the country, he seems to have encouraged rebellions against the Kakatiyas. For, from the records of the period a rebellion is seen at the beginning of the reign of Prataparudra. Manmaganda gopala of the Telugu Cholas of Nellore rebelled with the help of Ambadeva and Adidamma, a general of Prataparudra suppressed the revolt. Again about A.D. 1304-5, Ambadeva and Tripuranaka, rose in rebellion against Prataparudra, when he was engaged otherwise. Prataparudra sent his armies under the generals—Sonaya, Gajasahini Machaya, and Gundaya to Gandikota. The Kayasthas oppose the enemy, lost the battle and the Kakatiyas were victorious adda acquired many titles. As a consequence, Kakatiya sway was restored andSomaya was appointed to rule over it. Local tradition bears eloquent testimony to this. Mack Ms say that certain Odde kings occupied Mulikinadu country in the south, and Prataparudra conquered them, and his subordinate Gandapendara Tripurari governed Mulikinadu and in s 1190 granted a village in Sakilinadu, to god at Siddhavatam, as seen from a record to the south of Atlur. On title in it is—Oddaraya Disthapanavairi i e. Pratapa conquered the Odda king. And when Tripurari rose against King Pratapa, the latter defeated him and the descendants of Mallaraju and Sevuna kings and appointed Juttayalenka as the Governor of Mulikinadu The Kaifiyat of Vallum also mentions the Atlur inscription of s 1190, Prataparudra’s invasion of these parts, the conquest of' the Odda chiefs and the capture of the fort by resort to strategam; and that Prataparudra’s role continued till s 1232. In these accounts, the date S 1190 is wrong. One Ms Says that Prataparudra desirous of putting down the power of Tripurarideva, who had established himself strongly in the fort of Gandikota, and was acting in an independent attitude, invaded these parts with an army and conquered Brahmarakshasa Gundapendara Tripurantaka Mallaraju and the rest of Odde Chiegs allied with him. Jattayalenka was appointed to rule over Gandikota and Mulikanadu. But inscriptions show that Juttayalenka was ruling in A.D. 1314 and not earlier. But the records of Somaya and other feudatories of the Kakatiyas were found in a continuous series from about A.D. 1308 in the Kayastha territories. This gave rise to the conclusion that Ambadeva died in the battle in A.D. 1304. But Ambadeva’s records of A.D. 1305 and 1335 disprove this surmise. Though it is definite that he was vanquished and ruled thereafter as a feudatory of the Kakatiyas. The Kaifiyat of Ravulakallusays that while Prataparudra was ruling this region, his subordinate Ambadevaadministred these tracts; and his minister Gangayasahini settled a boundary dispute. Besides, the Kaifiyat of Mangampalle also says that while Prataparudra was ruling at warangal, his subordinate Ambadeva invaded these parts, defeated the Odda kings, took their capital Vallur, established himself there and adopted the boar symbol of the Kakatiyas. Probably Ambadeva owed allegiance to Juttayalenka Gonka Reddi, the Governor of Muliknadu etc from A.D 1314.

Ambadeva and the Telugu Cholas

Ambadeva’s Capital Yalluru, a century before—in A.D. 1192 was the capital of the Telugu cholas of Nellore and the Chief town of Maharajapadi 7000 ruled by Bhujabalavira Nellasiddha I (A.D. 1187-1214)—Ambadeva was an enemy of the Eruvacholas, his contemporaries being Mallideva Ganga tmallideva or Atlugangadeva and Gangayadeva. A title of Ambadeva is Eruva mallideva nitalagondugandu i.e. taker of' the head of Eruva Mallideva. The title occurs in the Tripurantakam inscription of A.D. 1291. Earlier still, his Attirala inscription dated A.D. 1287 mentions the epithet—Eruva Bundeva parasainya Kodanda gandu, the meaning of which is not clear. The conflict between Ambadeva and the Eruvacholas was over by A.D. 1287. Mallideva is identical with Manmilideva. The lengend on the coins of Ambadeva is Eruvadisapatta the scatterer in several directions of the army of Eruvaraja. This must refer to same conflict noted above and Eruvaraja refers to Mallideva. This was an important victory for Ambadeva and so is recorded in his inscriptions and on coins. Kesavadeva, Somiganga is probably identical with Allugangadeva, father of Gangayadeva CM of the Eruva Cholas. Ambadeva claims to have vanquished Mallikarajuna who was an enemy of Brahmins and gods, thus crushed his pride and honour and captured his forces. This Mallikarajuiiais a Eruvachola, for thePeddadandalur inscription dated A.D. 1294 of Ambadeva mentions the title vairivira Eruva Kallikarjuna instead of the usual form Vairivira Mallikarjuna. The victories over Alluganga a and Mallikarjuna no doubt formed part of the campaign which was accomplished by A.D.1287. Somideva is probably identical with king Somideva. figuring in a record at Gundlur dated A.D. 1284.

Ambadeva came into contact with the Telugu Cholas of' Nellore, his contemporaries being Tikka II (A.D. 1265-1281), Manmagandagopala (A.D. 1281-1299), Viragandagopala (A.D. 1292-1302) and Rajagandagopala alias Ranganathan (A.D. 1299-1325). He claims to have established at Nellore Manmagandagopala who had been of late deprived of his kingdom. In A.D. 1294. Ambadeva is mentioned as the friend of Manmagandagopala. This achievement of Ambadeva need not be doubted for want of his records in the Nellore areas; and it does not imply his rule in parts of the Nellore district. Between A.D. 1296 and 1298, Manmagandagopala rebelled against the Kakatiya supremacy, with the support of Ambadeva and was vanquished by general Adidemma, who claims to have invaded and defeated a Telugu Chola ruler.Further Prataparudra Claims to have cut off the head of Manmagandagopala in A.D. 1294, whom Ambadeva claims t have established on throne in A D. 1291-92. As inscriptio show that Manmagandagopala lived upto A.D. 1299 Prataps rudra’s claim cannot be given full credence.

Ambadeva and other Rulers

Ambadeva conquered Sripati Ganapati and assumed th title Rayasahasramalla. His Nilagangavaram inscription date A.D. 1292 mentions that Ambadeva captured the regal fortun of Gundala Ganadhipa who was a comet to the Malva king,' who the Malava king is we do not know. But Ganadhip is probably Sripati Ganapati and Gurindala is perhaj: Gurindasthala i.e. Gundala. It has been surmised that th legend Rayasamu in his coins is probably a contraction of th title Rayasahasramalla, which is not satisfactory. This victor of Ambadeva was won by A.D. 1287—the date of the Attiral inscription mentioning the title—Rayasahasramalla.

Ambadeva had the title—Paschimadamodarasamyadiaspatt? i.e. scatter of the army of Damodara, the lord of the Wes?. This Damodaras was a Western Ganga and not a Kadamba?. As the victory was claimed by Gangayasahini and his brother-in-law Ambayyadeva, obviously Ambadeva inherited the title.

Ambadeva came into conflict with a Kadavaraya and vanquished him. Evidently this Kadavaraya is Kopperunjing? (A.D 1247-1278) of the Pallavas. In the records of Jatavarma? Sundara Pandya II, a Kadavaraya is referred to and is said to have driven Manmgandagopala from Nellore, and occupied his kingdom. No doubt this Kodavaraya and the one who was an enemy of Rudrama and mentioned in Amayadeva’s record refer to one person, Kopperunjinga Ambadeva’s victory over Kadavaraya resulted in the restoration of Gandagopala to his throne at Nellore. The date of the victory must have been before A.D. 1278, the last date for Kopperunjinga. An Ambadeva’s Tripurantakam inscription of A.D. 1291-92 says that Ambadeva worsted Katavaraya ‘probably refer to his exploit early in life’ as the date of the record falls beyond the period of Kopperunjinga.

Ambadeva maintained freindly relations with the Yadavas of Devagiri. The contemporary rulers were Mahadeva (A.D. 1271-1309) and his nephew Ramachandradeva (1271-1309). Record of the period show that some wars were fought between the Yadavas, the Pandayas and the Kakatiyas. In these Ambadeva fought on the side of the Yadavas and the Pandyas against the Kakatiyas. His Tripurantakam inscription of A.D. 1291 mentions that he was on fremdly terms with the kings of Devagiri. The king here refers to Ramach andra.

The Pandyan emperors contemporaneous with Ambadeva were—Jatavarman Sundara Pandya II and Maravarman Kulasekhara Pandya. Ambadeva’s Tripurantakam epigraph (A.D. 1291) says that he was on friendly terms with the Pandya i.e. Jatavaraman Sundara Pandya II. Numerous inscriptions of Sundarapandya II are in Cuddapah district especially at Attirala and Lepaka, and Ambadeva must have assisted him in his wars against the Kakatiyas.

Ambadeva bore the epithets—Poddiya damlaka (?), Tondananakakanchisarasvatimanosribhandarachurakara, and Kalukadapuravaradhisvara in his Attirala inscription of A.D. 1287. Of them the second part of the first title may be corrected as Damana and the title means that he vanquished some Odda i.e. Kalingan armies, the meaning of the second epithet is not clear, though on the whole it comes to that Ambadeva looted the wealth of Tonda, the ruler of Kanchi. Kalukadapura is probably identical with Palakkada, the ancient Pallava capital in Nellore district. Jagatapiraya i e. lord of Jagatapi i.e. Gooty, is another title of Ambadeva mentioned in his Peddapandalur inscription of A.D. 1294. So he must have taken Gutti by that year.

Ambadeva was a popular ruler which is born out by the many villages and tanks named after him throughout the kingdom. His alliance with the Yadavas, the Pandyas and the Telugu cholas alienated the sympathies of the Kakatiyas towards the Kayasthas. Ambadeva consequently lost his independence and acknowledged the suzerainty of the Kakatiyas, as the records of the kakatiya governors in the.province would show.

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