The history of Andhra country (1000 AD - 1500 AD)

by Yashoda Devi | 1933 | 138,355 words

This book recounts the History of the Andhra Pradesh Country from 1000 to 1500 A.D. including many dynasties (for example. the Reddis of Korukonda and the Eruva Chola of Rajahmundry)....

Son of Gonka and Sabbambika, Choda II ascended the Velanaudu throne in A.D. 1163 and ruled for a period of seventeen years. A distinguished warrior and administrator, throughout his reign, Choda retained the extent of the kingdom undirainished and made farther addition to it on all sides. Building on the foundations of his three great predecessors Choda had a peaceful and prosperous reign. His victorious military expeditions brought in their train extension of territory followed up by consolidation. Like Gonka II, he i=> said to have ruled over the country between the Setu and the Narmada. His kingdom was bounded on the foursides by the Eastern ocean, the KaJahasti hill, the Mahendrachala and Srisailam. Unlike his predecessors Choda assumed imperialistic titles, like sarvalokasraya. He vanquished the Gangas, the Chalukyas, Kalachuryas of Kalyani and the Kakatiyas. Choda continued diplomatic marriage alliances with the local subordinate powers like the Haihayas and the Kondapadumatis. But unfortunately he was the last of the great Velanandus to rule over the entire Andhra land, for from the succeeding reign onwards, the kingdom was on the downward trend with enemies on all sides, Choda left to his son and successor Gonka III an undiminished and consolidated kingdom.

Growth and the Extent of the Kingdom:

Like his father’s, Choda’s inscriptions are numerous and the only C.P, grant of the dynasty belongs to his reign. Keyurabahucharita the only literary source of the dynasty sheds plenty of light on the political history of this reign in particular. Choda’s earliest inscription dated A.D. 1142 is from Draksharama. From that date Choda, as conjoint ruler-with Gonka played none the less an important role in the affairs of the kingdom. His assumption of jthe scfcptre indepen-dantly in A.D. 1163 was signalled by his inscriptions at Bhattiprolu, Srikakulam and Draksharama. In that year, Choda II is said to be a vairimadebhasimha fin the battlefield and to have conquered the kings of Tnkalin'ga, Kuntala and Magadha. By A.D. 1165 he conquered Kolanu and Kona Kingdoms and styled himself a Durjayakulaprakara and ruler of Andhra 16000. By A.D. 1169 Choda claims to be ruling over the country between the Setu and the Narmada. The location of Choda’s inscription at Tripurantakam dated A.D. 1170 marks the western bound of the kingdom. In A.D. 1171 Choda assumed the title chalukyarajyabhavanamulasthambha. By A.D. 1175 he is said to have vanquished Kelanu Bhima ruling over the entire Vengikingdom of which the foremost country is stated to be Velanandu vishaya. In some records Choda bore the title Chatussatssitigramavamvallabha and is said to have brought under him the sea girt earth. The places—Srikurmam, Kurudurti, Krottacherla, Tripurantakam, Kottidoan, Boggaram and Elamanchili—where minister Kommana made gifts indicate the extent of Choda’s kingdom. A record at Ghantasala dated A.D. 117 6 praises the prosperity of the country of Velanandu i e Velanandu and the greatness of its ruler.

Choda’s political relations

Choda II was variously known as Rajendra Chodayaraja, Velananti Rajendra choda, Rajendra choda, Velananti Kulottunga chola, Rajendra choda raju, Kulottunga rajendra, chodaraju, Kulottunga Velananti Rajendra chodayaraja, Kulottunga rejendra chola, mamma chola Virarajendra chodi kumara, Rajendra Kulottunga chodaraja, Velananti choda, Choda deva, Rajendra chodikumara, Chods, and Kulottunga Chodauadevamaharaja. Trained under Gonka II, Choda was loyal to the Cholas. Towards the close of his reign from A.D. 1176 he associated his son Gonka III in the governance of the kingdom. In hisPrasasti - the epithets—

Pratapalankesvara, dayagajasingha, sahasottunga, ripuma--dastambha and chalamartiganda at test his valour. He was a mahasenapati. Here it may be noted that as Gonka’s reign lasted till A.D 1162 and that of Choda began by A.D. 1163, there was no interrugnam from A.I>. 1157 to 1163 as was supposed by some writers. The only reverse he suffered was about A.D. 1180 in Kalachuri hands. Choda owed his political successes to his excellent armies and great generals and' feudatory chiefs and their armies.

Choda II and the Chalukyas of Vengi

The Chalukyas of Yengi ceased to exist long before Choda’s reign. His bearing of the titles—elevator of the Chalukyarajya, chalukya vajya bhavana mulasthambha, sarvalokasraya and maharaja led to the opinion that “the last traces of Eastern Chalukya otherwise called Chola Chalukya supremacy completely disappeared from the Velanandu country by this time and the Velanandu chief aspired to be its representative.”But as will be shown below Chalukya Chola supremacy continued throughout Choda’s reign and his assumption of the titles does not mean the end of his loyalty to the Cholas.

Choda and Imperial Cholas

Choda’s contemporaries on the imperial Chola throne were Rajaraja II Rajadhiraja II and Kulottunga III. “The latest certain regnal year cited in Rajaraja’s inscriptions is 26. A record from Tiruvorriyur seems to give the twenty-seventh year, though the first figure in this date is not free from doubt Another inscription from Konidena gives 28, but the sakatan is missing. The end of Rajaraja’s reign would therefore fall about A.D, 1173. The inscriptions of his successor Rajadhiraja II date the commencement of his reign from some day in the month of March A.D. 1163: it is clear from one of these that Rajadhiraja was not the son of Rajaraja, bat like Rajaraja himself, a grandson of Vikramachola and that he was chosen by Rajaraja to succeed him on the Chola throne as there was no one in the direct line suitable for the purpose. “Thus Rajadhiraja, a grandson of Vikramachola by ■ a daughter was chosen as heir apparent,by Rajaraja II and ruled as co-regent for about eight years. From about A D 1169 to 1177, Raja-dhiraja was busy conducting the civil war in the Pandyan kingdom As for the extent ‘that under Rajadhiraja the Chola empire continued to retain the same proportions as under Rajaraja II may be inferred from the provenance of his inscriptions which are found in Nellore and Kalahasti and Wandaliur.”His reign extended up to A.D. 1179 to 1182 according as A.D. 1162 or 1166 is adopted for the commencement of his reign.

Kulottunga III had come to be recognised as the sovereign prior to the death of Rajadhiraja, as his rule began between the 6th and 8th July 1178 AD. Accepting his identification with Kumara Kulottunga, it appears that '‘he was not of the direct line of the Imperial Cholas any more than his predecessor.” His inscriptions “very often exhibit besides the prasastis, some descriptive titles of the monarch which are a great help in the identification of his inscriptions and the study of the history of the reign.”

To quote Professor Sastri, “the incidents thus recorded in Kulottunga’s inscriptions cannot be understood without a resume of the political changes that were taking place outside the Chola kingdom. Towards the close of the life of Rajaraja II, the Velanandu kings felt themselves equal to the task of asserting and maintaining their independence against Their Chalukya Chola suzerains This was the period when the Kakatiyas were coming up in the north, while in the west the Chalukyas having suffered a defeat from Kakatiya Prola, were thrown into the shade by the usurpation of Bijjala. The consequent weakness of the Western Chalukya kingdom gave the occasion for the Hoysalas to rise to the rank of an independent power, at the same time Telugu Chodas and the Velanandu rulers, who had till then been either subordinate to the Chalukyas or had lived in fear of them and therefore in subordinate alliance with the Cholas breathed more freely and soon began to entertain plans of aggrandisement. It is remarkable that no inscriptions of Rajadhiraja II have been found in Nellore or the Circars. And it appears that Gonka II at the close of the reign and suzertainly his son Rajendra Choda assumed the titles and insignia of independent status. In fact with the close of Rajaraja’s reign we have come to interval in the history of the Telugu country in which the Chola power was withdrawn and the Kakatiya power had not yet taken its place—a period of about a generation in which many minor dynasties like the Kotas the Chagis and Konas and others divide the country and owe no allegiance to a common power.”

Choda’s loyalty to the Chola emperors is attested by his numerous records dated in emperor’s regnal years. The earliest of the senes is from Draksharama dated A.D. 1140 and the 4th year of Rajaraja II. Another from the same locality is dated in the 7th year of the emperor. One of Choda’s records from Bapatla is dated 1156 and the 11th year of Tnbhuvana-chakravartm Rajarajadeva II. An epigraph af Draksharma is dated A.D. 1158 and the 13th year of Rajaraja.

In A D 1163 the initial year of Choda’s independent rule all the inscriptions from Draksharama and the one from Bhat-tiprelu are dated in the 18th year of Tnbhuvanachakravartm Rajaraja II. Thus like Gonka, Choda began his rule by doing homage to the Chola throne. His loyalty continued till the end of Rajaraja’s reign. For, three records from Draksharama, and one from Penumuli all of Choda are dated A.D 1165 and the 20th year of Rajaraja. Choda’s inscription from Kondamunjalur is dated A.D 1166 and the 21st year of the emperor. His Draksharama inscription is dated 1169 A.D. and in Rajaraja’s reign. From the c.p. grant dated AD. 1169 and the 23rd year of Rajaraja, it is clear that Choda was a vassal and general of Rajaraja and received from him the Andhra country comprised with in the eastern ocean, Kalahasti, Mahendra and Snsailam with all the insignia of a feudatory chief This is obviously a formal confirmation on Rajaraja’s part of Choda’s rulership over the Andhra and reminds us of the conferment of Andhra land with bounds specified by Kulottunga I on Choda I. Choda II’s Appikatla inscription is dated A.D. 1182 and the 26th year of Rajaraja and the Komdeva epigraph in the 28th year of Rajaraja II and A.D. 1183 Besides, many other records with dates lost, are issued in Rajaraja’s reign. Thus Choda’s inscriptions dated in Rajaraja’s years range from the 4th to the 28th year.

In A.D. 1176 Gonka was a commander of Vijayaraja. The 4th year of Sarvalokasraya Vishnuvardhana and A.D. 1177 are known from a record at Draksharama. Vijayaraja and Vishnuvardhana may refer to Rajadhiraja II mentioned thus by his Eastern Chalukya titles. Setting aside the indefinite references to the Chola monarcha, none of Chola emperors and their regnal years occur in Velanandu records—after A.D. 1173 or 1177 till A.D. 1180—the last year of Choda, was due perhaps to the assumption by Choda of an attitude that no regular and formal recognition of Chola authority was necessary after the renevval of the confirmation of his kingdom by Rajaraja in A.D. 1169, and the lack of interest in the affairs of Vengi affairs in the reigns of Rajadhiraja and Kulottunga III.

Choda and the Western Chalukyas: King Jagadekamalla III succeeded Taila III in A.D 1163 “Some of his titles besides the usuual prasasti were Chalukya Chakreswara, Pratapa Chakravarti, and Chalukya Chakravarti. He is mentioned as Bhuvallabharaja Permadideva and Tribhuvana Malla Permadi-raja, Among his feudatories was Vijayapandya of Uchchanji ruling over Nolambavadi 32000. Probably Jagadekamalle’s rule continued throughout the Kalachurya regime” it is possible he continued to rule with his brother Somesvara IV” after A.D. 1154.

The Kalachuris of Kalyani, who ruled for a period of 27 years claimed some connection with the Kalachuris or Haihayas of central India. The founder was Krishna: a descendant of his was Kannamadeva who had two sons—Bijjaladeva and Raja. Raja had four sons Ammugi, Sanklvarma, Kannara and Jayama. Permadi, son of Jayama, as feudatory of Somesvara III ruled Tardavadi i.e. the country about Bijapur. His son was Bijjala who began the unsurpation in A.D. 1155 which was complete by A.D. 1162. Bijjala started an era dating from Dhatu A.D. 1157 and assumed the titles—Kalachuryam-jabhujabalachakravarti Tribhuvana malladeva. In A.D. 1162, he assumed the full imperialistic prasasti. Samastabhuvana-sraya, sriprithvivallabha, maharajadhiraja, parameswara and paramabhattaraka. His younger Mailugideva ruled a part of his kingdom. Sovideva, Sankamadeva, Ahavanmlla and Sipghana, sons of Bijjala, succeeded to the throne one, after another. Tir A.D. 1167 Bijjala abdicated in favour of Sovideva pr Somesyara. Some of his epithets were Rajadhiraja, Rajamartanda,. Bhujabalamalla, Kayamurari, Kalacharyachakravarti and Kala-churya bhujabala Chakravarti. Among his feudatories were Viragonkarasa of Bana race and his son Vira Kalarasa. Sankamadeva succeeded Sovideva in A.D. 1177 and his prasasti has the titles—Kalachuryachakravarti, kalachurya-bhujabala chakravarti and Nissankamalla, One of his feudatories was Viragonkarasa. The kingdom seems to have experienced some trouble in Sankama’s reign. Kavana or Kavanayya, a descendant of Bankarasa of Baluhara in Sagari country, was a great minister with 72 officials under him.l He bore the titles-Gandapendara and Gandaragova and his younger brother was Mahadeva Dandanayaka. Kavana is said to have proved himself the “upraiser of the sovereignty of the Kalachuryas. Apparently he put down certain of the feudatories and probably also some of the more troublesome independent neighbours among whom must be classed the ruler of Velnanda cholaya, Hoysala and Kaikana countries.” Sankara appears to have ruled till the end of A.D. 1180 and was succeeded in A.D. 1181 by Ahavamalla.

Choda, inscriptions show came into conflict with the Chalukyas and the Kalachuris of Kalyani. Soon after he began his independent rule, Choda, led a military expedition into the Chalukyan kingdom and inflicted a defeat on its king. Jagadekamalla or Kelachuri Bijala taking advantage of the political confusion in the capital—Kalyani. For his record dated A.D. 1163 says that he conquered the lord of Kuntala and taken his country and that when Choda used to start on military expedition, the lord of Kuntala along with others used to fear the sounds and make obeisance to him. Here Kuntala refers to the Chalukyas or Kalachuris and. Kuntala lord refers to either Jagadikamalla IH or Bijjala. Probably Choda H had the support of his overlord Rajaraja H in A.D. 1163 in leading this expedition into Kuntala as the record mentioning this Victory of a Choda is dated in Rajaraja’s regnal year By A.D. 1179 Choda was ruling over the entire Andhra—from Setu to Narmada Choda, thus in his relations with the rulers of Kalyani, went a step further than Gonka II: for the latter ended Chalukyan rule in Vengi and Choda II advanced his power into the Chalukyan kingdom. He seems to have maintained this position of his till*almost the close of his reign as no records after A.D. 1163 make any references to the Kuntala and its lords.

But about A.D. 1180, Choda appears to have suffered a defeat in the Kalachurya hands. For, from the Honnali inscription of A.D. 1180 Kavana, a minister of Sankamadeva, claims, victory over the ruler of Velnada Choleya who is -undoubtedly Choda II of Velanandus. This appears to have been a crushing defeat for the Velanandus which must have •cost them the loss of the benefits of the victories in the beginning of the reign. Perhaps this accounts for the silence of the Velanandu records on this incident. Obviously it was a brilliant victory for the Kalachuryas—one of those on the basis of which Kavana styled himself the upraiser of the sovengnty of the Kalachuryas. The causes which brought about this conflict are not known. Most probably along with the Hoysalas and others, Choda II was giving constant trouble to the Kalachuryas especially after Bijjala’s abdication in A.D. 1167 by leading frequent attacks into the Kuntala country and hence proved a “troublesome independent neighbour.” And on one such occasion, about A.D. 1180 he suffered a set back in the hands of Kavana of the Kalachuns.

Choda II and Kalinga: Raghava and Rajaraja were the Ganga contemporaries of Choda II. Rajaraja was the 3rd son of Anantavarman Choda Ganga and his accession was due to that Kamarnava and Raghava died childless. The earliest and latest dates known for him were A.D 1171 and 1190 respectively. Rajaraja was succeeded by Ananga Bhima in A.D. 1190.

Choda’s inscription from Draksharama dated A.D. 1163 mentions his victory over the lord of Trikalinga and that fearing the sounds of Chola starting on expedition he submitted to him. So soon after his accession Choda II seems to have advanced into Kalinga and won a series of victories Over the local rulers. The lord of Kalinga probably refers to Raghava. No details of the expeditidn are known. As the record is dated in the 18th ^ear of Rajaraja, it is likely that Choda II had the Chola support in this Kalinga expedition. The results of the expedition are obvious from the c.p. grant which says that Andhramandala extended lip to Mahendragiri in A.D. 1169. But as Gonka IFs kingdom included Mahendragiri, Choda’s expedition would have been necessitated by the local rebellions in the conquered tracts. This punitive expedition into Kalinga was commanded by Choda’s minister, Kammanapreggada, who according to Manchana, attacked the feudatories of Kataka or Orissa who invaded, at Krottu Choda and defeated them. Among the Kalingan armies, the elephantry and cavary find spe'eial mention in this connection. The battle, however, was the consequence of the rebellion and invasion of the Kalingan armies against Choda II. It must have taken place either in A.D 1163 or definitely before 1169 A.D. The battle at Krottacherla was a decisive victory: for the Velanandus and was followed by Choda’s expedition into Kalinga and consequent subjugation of the territory upto Mahendragiri It may be noted here, that the country from Pithapur to Mahendra was known as Kalinga and was part of Trikalmga. Kommana’s gifts to temples at Snkurmam, Kurudurti, Krotta cherla, Tnpurantakam, Kottidona, Boggaram and Elamanchilli in Kalmgarashtra were intended as thanks offering for his recent victories in Kalinga.

Choda and the Kakatiyas

The occupant of the Kakatiya throne in this period was Rudradeva (A.D. 1158-1199). He vanquished Domma, Mailigi i.e. Mallugi of the Yadavas of Devagin, Bhima and took his capital Vardhamanagiri. He burnt the capital of the Cholas of Kundur, who rebelled against his authority. His conquests resulted in the extension of the Kakatiya kingdom. One of his inscriptions gives the boundaries of his kingdom as follows: Snsailam on the south, Malyavanta on the north, the Chalukyan kingdom on the west and says that all the kings between Kanchi and the Vindhyas sought his protection. Throughout his reign, Rudradeva was troubling the east coast, attempting to spread his power in these regions. He appears to have invaded the east coast in A.D. 1158, 1162 A.D. and afterwards too. One of his records dated A.D. 1186 is at Draksharama.

Choda, in his father’s reign in A.D. 1158, defeated and killed Prola H of the Kakatiyas. In his reign, he came into conflict with Rudradeva not in offensive but defensive warfare. Soon after the death of Gonka II, Rudradeva, perhaps as a measure of retaliation for Prola’s death in enemy hands, invaded the east coast in A.D. 1163. There is no evidence to show that the invasion was a success for the Kakatiyas, and Kakatiya power did not spread in the east coast immediately afterwards. On the otherhand, Choda seems to have met the enemy, defeated and checked Kakatiya advance as the grants to Tripurantaka at Komaragiri, and inscriptions at Tnpurantakam would show. But that was not the end of the matter. Rudra persisted in delivering constant attacks on Choda’s kingdom and consequently on that frontier, the Velanandu armies had to be ever alert ready to confront the Kakatiya in records. Probably this necessity explains the excellent condition of the Velanandu armies in Choda’s reign. Rudra’s Draksharama record dated A.D. 1186 indicates his advance thus far, at the end of the reign of Gonka III, successor of Choda II. The series of inscriptions of Choda at Draksharama show that it was part of the Velanandu kingdom through out his reign and as has been supposed wrongly no part of his kingdom was lost to the Kakatiyas.

Choda and the Hoysalas

The Hoysala contemporaries of Choda were Narasimha I (A.D. 1143-1173) and Ballala II. In a record of A.D. 1173, Narasimha I is described as sporting in the company of women of different countries including Andhra, Simhala, Kamata, Lata, Chola, Gauda, Bangala and Malava. About the same time Ballala, coregent with Narasimha I from A.D, 1168, rebelled attempting to set up independent rule and on Narasimha’s death crowned himself at Dorasamudra and was also known as Viraballala and Yadavamarayana. Chola’s reign lasted from A.D. 1173 to 1220 and he had victories over the Chengalvas (A.D. 1173), the Ucnchvangi Pandyas (A.D. 1177), the Kalachuryas (A.D. 1179) and the Savunas in A.D. 119J - “His reign vied in glory with that of his grand father Vishnuvardhana and the Hoysala dynasty came to be later called Ballala after him.”

An inscription of Choda dated 1170 mentions that general Gonka, son of Choda, an officer of Gonka II, and Kattamba, defended the town of Krochcheruvu against the Karnataka cavalry numbering not less than 30,000. Here Karnataka is a reference to the Hoysalas whose king at this time was Narasimha I. Probably in A.D. 1170, the Hoysala armies under the lead of prince Ballala started on an expedition of conquest and proceeded towards the Velanandu kingdom. Their progress was stayed at Krochcheruvu by the Velanandu, armies probably led by Kommana preggada. Few details of the battle are available. The battle must have been fierce, sanguinary, longdrawn and cost enormous losses on both sides. For to defeat the Kamata Cavalry of 30,000, Choda II must have put in the field equally strong and numerous armies. No doubt it was an important victory for the Velanandus. It may be noted here that Kamata does not refer to the Chalukyas or Kalachuris who are referred to as Kuntalas in inscriptions and so the statement that “The fight at Krochcheruvu must have been with the armies of Bijfala and probably in alliance with the Kakatiyas of Hanumakonda who were just then shaking off the Western Chalukya yoke.”is of no value. After this, Choda and the Hoysalas do not seem to have come into conflict with each other which may have been due to that the Hoysalas did not make bold to invade the Velanandu kingdom so long Choda lived. The Andhras in the Hoysala inscription dated A.D. I173 refers to the Kakatiyas and not to the Velanandu Chodas.

Choda and the Telugu Chodas

Some of the Telugu Chola rulers were Siddharasa of Nellore, and Chodaballi and Nanmchoda of Konideva line. According to Manchana, Choda’s minister and general Kommanapraggada ruled over Pakanadu 21000. Pakanadu was formerly ruled over by Chodaballi, father of Nannichoda. Most probably by A.D. 1170 Kommana invaded Pakanadu, killed Nannichoda entitled Tenkanaditya, conquered Pakanadu and ruled over it with the permission of Choda II.

Choda and the Kolamu Chiefs

The Kolamu rajas or Saronaths ruled over the Godavari tract with Kolamu i.e. Sarasipura as capital.From the Sripuram record of A.D. 1165, Choda appears to have conquered Kolamu and killed there his arch enemy Bhima. This is supported by the c.p. grant dated A.D. 1169 which says that Choda killed Bhima of Konnadu (i.e. Kolamu). Another Sinpuram record A.D 1175 mentions that Choda with the strength of his arm conquered Kolamu and killed the powerful enemy Bhima. Lastly the Pithapur Pillar inscription says that Choda dried up the lake i.e. saras and killed Bhima. Besides there is a chatu verse mentioning Rajendra Choda’s defeat of Kolamu Bhima.

From these references it appears that Bhima of Kolamu gave trouble to Choda II soon after the latter’s accession as his predecessor Bhima did to Choda I. Subsequently Choda inyaded the Kolamu territory by AD. 1165, with a dam or bridge across the water to reach, Bhima, who had evidently taken,, refuse in an island fortress, killed him as his grandfather Choda I killed Kolamu Bhima with the help of Vijkxamachola. The similarity in the names of the two Vela-nnridu Chodas, and the two Kolamu kings, and the similarity in circumstances that brought about similar results made some writers remark that Choda II simply appropriated for himself the achievements of his grandfather Choda I. Choda H s victory is mentioned in later inscriptions, and for the rest of his reign, the Kolamu rajas did not give him any trouble.

Choda and the Kona Haihayas

The Kona Haihayas in Konamandala in this period were Mallideva, son of Rajendra Chola and Manmaphoda, son of Kona Loka. There is no evidence whether they rebelled.soon after Chola’s accession. Probably they did rebel which must have necessitated the Velanandu conquest of the Kona country by A.D. 1164—with in a year of Choda’s accession. His inscription dated A.D. 1165 mentions that his minister Devanapreggada of Amntalur conquered the Kona country. As no recordsof Choda’s initial year A.D. 1163 mention the Kona conquest it must have taken place after A.D. 1163 and in A.D. 1164. In A.D. 1165 Devana Preggada gave lumps to Bhimesvara of Draksharama after sub-siding Kona. This is a thanks offering to Bhimesvara by Devana for having achieved an important victory over the Konas. Nearly a decade after this Kona conquest in A.D. 1174-75, the Velanandus had to subdue the Kona country once again. Probably Kona Lokabhupala rebelled and tried to shake off the Velanandu suzerainty though in vain. Choda’s inscription at Pedamakkena dated 1175 mentions that Prolayanayaka, son of Damana of Intern on the Tungabhadra in Velanandu, destroyed Kona Loka. Thus the second conquest of Kona by Choda II appears to have been thorough as the ruler himself. Loka was killed. So Choda, for the major part of his reign had trouble from the Konas and after A.D. 1175 nothing is heard of any hostilities between the two powers.

Choda and the Kondapadumatis

The Mandadi chiefs ruling the Giripasihima district with capital at Tanirumbariti continued their subordination to the Velanandu Chodas in this period. Prolinayaka and Mallinayaka of this family were subordinate to Choda II.

Of the Kondapadumatis ruling over Shatsahasra, Buddharaja’s son of Manda II was important. One of his epigraphs dated A.D. 1171 is at Trsandavole, the Velanandu capital. Buddharaja’s sister Ankama or Akkama was the wife of Choda II. So it is likely that Choda and Buddha were on friendly terms. This is supported by Choda’s title Durjayakulaprakara i.e. rappart of the Durjaya family found in his record as early as A.D. 1165 from Siripuram and repeated in another from the same place with date A.D. 1175. As the Kondapadumatis were Durjayas the title shows that Choda was friendly with them as well as other Durjayas.

Choda and the Haihayas of Palnad

Choda contracted a diplomatic marriage alliance with the Haikayas of Palnad with capital at Gurizala. Choda’s daughter Mailama was married to Aluguraja of the Haikayas. Anugu’s son by her Halagama succeeded him on the throne at Gunzala.

Choda and other dynasties

Probably Choda was on friendly terms with the Kotas of Amravati. Kota Chodaraja, son of Vinjampotaraju before the title-Kakati—Prolamrdahana. It is likely that he joined prince Choda in defeating the Kakatiyas in the reign of Gonka II. The Eastern Chalukyas at Pithapur represented by Narendra and Mallapa III were subordinate to Choda II.

A Rautaraya seems to have been a feudatory of Choda towards the close of his reign. One Kapanayaka bore the epithet (Veladi) Kulottunga Choda nistaraka. If this Kulo-thunga is Choda II, it may be conceded that Kapa helped Choda II in extending his kingdom.

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