The history of Andhra country (1000 AD - 1500 AD)

by Yashoda Devi | 1933 | 138,355 words

This book recounts the History of the Andhra Pradesh Country from 1000 to 1500 A.D. including many dynasties (for example. the Reddis of Korukonda and the Eruva Chola of Rajahmundry)....

Gonka II was the greatest of the Velanandu Chodas. He was a warrior of the first rank and consequently his political achievements were remarkable. Marching from success to> success Gonka extended the kingdom on all its bounds and it attained its largest exteut under his beneficient rule. Gonka is said to have ruled over the country from Setu to R. Narmadaand from Kalahasti to Mahendragiri. And certainly, as attested by his inscriptions and those of his successors, Gonka’s extended kingdom touched Mahendragiri on the north east, the ocean on the east, Srisailam on the Jwest and Nellore and Kalahasti on the south. Gonka’s continued royalty to the Imperial Cholas, the events of the antecedent two reigns, his training as general and administrator under his father from A.D. 1128 contributed not less than his inherent capacities and political wisdom to the glory of the reign. Gonka vanquished all his enemies within and without the kingdom including the great Chalukyas of Kalyani. He associated his son Choda TI in the governance of the kingdom from A.D. 1130 onwards and was succeeded by him in A.D. 1161—62. Gonka left to his successor a strong, extended and consolidated kingdom His reign lasted for a period of twenty-four to twenty-five years.

Growth and Extend of the Kingdom:—Of all the Velanandu rulers, Gonka II issued the greatest number of inscriptions which range from A.D. 1128 to 1161-62. Even while still an associate ruler with Choda I, Gonka assumed regal titles and his Prasasti included the epithets- Vengivishyaslhodasa sahasravanivallabha and Trisatottara shatasravaninatha. The extent of the Velanandu kingdom at the accesion of Gonka in A.D. 1137 is attested by the provenance of inscriptions at Guntur, Nadendla, and Draksharama. In A.D. 1137 Gonka appears to have been a friend of Karnatas and by A.D. 1140, his minister Kantana had victories over Siddhibeta of the Telugu Cholas and Lakshmanaand Govinda of the Chalukyas. But these successes do not seem to have resulted in adding fresh territories to the kingdom. In A D. 1143 Gonka is said to have vanquished the "Gauda, the hata and Kataka. He was on friendly terms with the Telugu Cholas and Haihayas in AD. 1147 and claims to have conquered the kings of Lata, Marata and Kuntala and plundered their wealth. From the location of Gonka’s inscription at Kalahasti dated A.D. 1145 and from the Draksharama epigraph (A.D. 1150) which mentions Gonka’s victory over the Chalukyas on the Godavari and that the kings between Srisailam and Mahendragiri were all subordinate to him, it is evident that the Velanandu kingdom reached its widest limits by A.D. 1150. Gonka’s victories over the Kalingan armies and his rule over the country between the Setu and Narmada with the help of his sword in A.D. 1156 are mentioned in a record from Draksharama. Towards the close of his reign, Gonka was on friendly relation with the Chagi rulers. His placing of golden pinnacles on the temples of Srisailam and Puruskothama, which probably took place after his successes in Karnata, Andhra, Kalinga and Kuntala, must have happened by A.D. 1156 if not 1150 A.D. The Pithapur pillar epigraph says that the kings between the mountains of Kalahari and Mahendrachola were all servants of Gonka.

Gonka’s political relations

Gonka was previously known as Velanandi Gonka, Velananti Gonkaraja, Kulottunga choda Gangeya Gonkaraja, Kulottunga Chodagonka, Velananti Kulottunga Choda Gonkaraja, Gonka, Gokana, Velananti Kulottunga Choda Gonka, Gonkaiyan, Kulottunga sola gonka rajon, Kulottunga choda gangeyaraja, Kulottunga rajendra choda gonka, and Kulottunga choda gangeya raya Velananti gonka. Gonka in "his political career came into conflict with the major powers in south India and defeated them and imposed his yoke on smaller powers. In this he was resisted by excellent armies manned by brilliant generals including prince Choda II, several feudatory chiefs and their armies.

Gonka and the Eastern Chalukyas

Gonka II had the biruda-chalukyarajyabhavanamulas-thambha in his Prasasti which is only a remmicence of the past subordination of his predecessors to the Vengi Chalukyas. But it does not mean Gonka’s subordination to the Chalukyas «of Vengi.

Gonka and the Imperial Cholas

Emperor Kulottunga IT (A.D. 1133-H50) had a peaceful: and prosperous reign. His latest regnal year is the sixteenth or the seventeenth (A.D. 1150). “Some four years before this date, he associated his son Rajaraja II in the actual conduct of the administration and in the inscriptions of Parakesari. Rajaraja, his regnal years are counted from some date after the 6th April in A.D. 1146. Of the reign of Rajaraja II, many inscriptions have been preserved which contain a number of prasastis which attest the extent of his kingdom and disclose the names and positions of a number of feudatories. Judging from the silence of these inscriptions on the military transactions of the reign, one may infer that, like the reign of Kulottunga II, that of Rajaraja II was generally peaceful.

“The extent of the empire under Rajaraja’s rule is borne out by the provenance of his inscriptions. In the Telugu country Rajaraja’s suzerainty is clearly attested by a fair number of stone inscriptions found through out the Vengi country up to Draksharama, though it is clear that the feudatory chiefs of Velanandu were _becoming more and more independent and over bearing. As a matter of fact from the close of the reign of Kulottunga I when as we have seen great disaster befell the Chola empire and its extent became greatly circumscribed by the successor of the Hoysalas and the Western Chalukyas, the most remarkable phenomenon within the-empire was the steady growth in the power and influence of local dynasties. The hold of the central administration over the outlying parts of the empire had always been less firm than in the districts nearer the capital but by the end of Rajaraja’s rule the administrative system was betraying signs of weakness even at its centre. The monarchy is no longer the vigorous autocracy that it was, ever active in the pursuit of war and glory, in the maintenance of order and the promotion of costly and essential enterprises of public utility. The inscriptions give clear indications of the increasing helplessness of the king in the face of the growing turbulance of his vassals who while acknowledging the nominal suzerainty of their lord play a more prommant part than the suzerain or his government in the conduct of the affairs of the area under their control. The strength of the centralised beaurocratic administration so laboriously planned and built up by Rajaraja I and his successors was gone.”

Gonka was loyal subordinate of Kulottunga II and Rajaraja II. He began his independent rule by first paying homage to emperor Kulottunga. Gonka’s loyalty to the Chola throne is evidenced by his numerous inscriptions dated in the regnal years of the Chola emperors, ranging from the 17th year of VikramaChola to the 17th year of Rajaraja II.Barring the Nidubrole^inscription which falls in the reign of Choda I the earliest inscription of the reign dated in Chola regnal years is from Draksharama dated in the 5th year of' Chodi chakravartin and AD. 1137—the first year of Gonka’s independent rule. Here Chodi chakravartin is Kulottunga II. The continuity of the acknowledgement of Chola »suzerainty on the part of Gonka is attested by the fcVelanandu inscriptions at Draksharama in A.Dv 3 159 all dated Hn the 7th year of Kulottunga Choda. 'Two records of Draksharama of A.D. 1161 also are dated in the 9th year of the emperor Kulottunga. choda deva. From A D. 1163 onwards, Gonka’s inscriptions from the home province are dated in Chola regnal years. An inscription from Bapatla is dated in the 11th year of Kulottunga Chola Gonka’s record, thereof AD. 1164 and the 12th year of Tribhuvana chakravartin Kulottunga choda deva gives the location of Bapatla as Prempalli situated in. Kammanandu, a sub-division of Uttama Choda Velanandu. This specification of the location of Bapatla is a proof of the-continuance of the Chola influence in the Velanandu kingdom.. Gonka’s only record from Kalahasti, the southern boundary of the kingdom is dated in the 13th year of Tribhuvana chakravartin Kulottunga choda deva. Dated in the 15th year of Kulottunga, two of Gonka's records are from Bapatla and Konidena. Gonka’s inscription from Draksharama dated 1168 and in the reign of Vishnuvardhanamaharaja corresponding to the 16th year of Kulottunga II. This series of Gonka’s inscriptions found in different parts of the kingdom including Kalahasti and Draksharama, and dated in Kulottunga’s regnal years throughout the latter’s reign and some in Tamil area sufficient to show his loyalty to the emperor- Besides, the fact that Ghantasala was called Chola vandya pura in A.D 1139 after the title of the Chola princes appointed to rule over the Pandya country as viceroys indicates the permanent results of the restoration of the Chola power in Velanandu kingdom after the Chola and Velanandu victories over the Chalukyas of Kalyani.

Gonka’s loyalty to Rajaraja II is clear from his records from A.D. 1149 onwards. His record from Bapatla is dated in the 4th regnal year of Rajaraja II. Two inscriptions also at Bapatla, bear the date A.D. 1151 and the 6th year of Tri-bhuvana chakravartm Rajarajadeva Gonka’s inscription of A D. 1152 is also defeated in Rajaraja’s reign corresponding to his 7th year. His records at Bapatla dated in A.D..1154 and the 9th year of Rajaraja, and A.D. 1155 which corresponds to the 10th year of the emperor are found. The Snkakulam inscription bears the date A.D 1155 and the 5th year of Rajaraja is a mistake for the 10th year of the emperor Rajaraia. Another of Gonka’s records from Bapatla is dated in the 1 ith year of Rajaraja and A.D. 1 156. Gonka’s last inscription is at Zonnatali in which “the (l)7th regnal year of a certain king (is) fairly visible in the 3rd line.” The king here is the Chalukya Chola emperor Rajaraja II whole 17th year corresponds to A.D 1162.

Gonka calls himself a subordinate of sarvalokasraya rajendra choda maharaja. This Rajendra Choda is either Kulottunga II or Rajaraja II mentioned with his Chalukyan epithets. A Vishnuvardhana maharaja who is identical with Kulottunga or Rajaraja II figures as the suzerain of Gonka II from an undated record at Draksharama. Following the example of his predecessors Gonka supported the Chola emperors in their wars. He rendered substantial service to Kulottunga in fighting the Western Chalukyas. The reoccurrance of the verse recording Gonka’s victory over the Chalukyas in a record dated s 1072 (A.D 1150) “with the expression chodasina substituted for bahasiona a change calculated to confirm the view that this verse records an important victory for the Cholas and their friends against the Western Chalnkyas some time about A.D. 1133, Gonka II therefore must be taken to have played a prominent part in reversing the tide of Western Chalukyas’ success in Vengi which began towards the close of the reign of Kulottunga I.

Gonka and the Western Chalukyas

Gonka’s contemporary rulers at Kalyani were Somesvara III, Permajagade kamalla II and Taila III. Somesvara's rule lasted till A.D. 1138-39 the 13th year of his reign.® So Jagadakamalla’s succession took place either at the end of A.D. 1138 or beginning of A.D. 1139 and his reign lasted up to A.D. 1149—the 12th year of his reign. He bore the title Pratapachakravartin. In his reign the Hoy sal as proved aggressive and were repulsed by the Sindas, the subordinates of the Western Chalukyas. Some of the feudatories of Jagadakamalla were Dandanayaka Sovideva governing Panugal 500 (A D. 1148-1149) mahamarvdalesvara Virapandya ruling Nolembavadi 32000 (“A.D. 1148-49) and Vijaya Pandya holding Nolambavadi 32000 under Bijiala. King Nurmadi Taila had the birudas—Trailokya malla and Chalukya chakravartin. He ascended the throne in A.D. 1150 and the latest date for him was A.D. 1161 when he was ruling from Jayantipura. Some time during his reign, the Chalukyan power received a blow from Prola of the Kakatiyas-In A.D. i 162 Kalchuri Bijjala, the commander-in-chief and the most powerful man in the kingdom usurped the throne. So, Taila’s reign ended in A.D. 1162 and he was dead by A.D. 1163—the date of the Ammakonda inscription of Rudradeva which refers to Taila’s death.

None of Gonka’s inscriptions are dated in the C.V. era or the regnal years of the Chalukyas. On the other hand, soon after his accession Gonka with the prop of his Chola overlords won a decisive victory over the Chalukyas, thus retrieving the honour of the Velanandu Chodas who had suffered a defeat in Chalukyan hands in the previous reign and this victory put an end to all signs of Chalukyan yoke in Vengi. Gonka’s Nadendla inscription dated A.D. 1I37 mentions his fight with the vast armies of the Gaudas and the Kuntalas and! vietory over the latter. The Kuntalas are the Chalukyas of Kalyani and the record does not mention the locality where the engagement between Gonka and the Chalukyan armies took place, nor does it give any details ^ajbout the battle and the personnel of the Chalukyan armies. But the date shovvs that Gonka’s victory was achieved within the first year of bis accession or even during the last year of Choda’s reign. In 1140 Gonka is said to have vanquished Lakshmana and Govinda and styled himself as the conqueror of the world. Gonka in this battle is compared to Vajra (i.e. vajrayudha) and Lakshmana and Govinda to the best among mountains.Lakshmana and Govinda are identical with the famous Chalukyan generals Lakshmana dandanayaka and Govinda dandarasa and from the record mentioning this it is evident that it was considered an important victory for the Velanandus. Naturally by A.D. 1140 the Cholas and Gonka were supreme in Vengi. In a record of A.D. 1142 from Draksharama,Gonka claims to have defeated with the sword in his hand the lord of Kuntala who must be identified with Somesvara III. This victory also finds mention in another undated inscriptionalso from Draksharama, where in Somesvara is mentioned as Kuntalapati. All these details furnished by the above records of the battle between Gonka and the Chalukyas are described briefly in a single verse in two inscriptions from Draksharama one dated 1150 and the other undated: which also give additional details of the battle regarding the locality where it took place, the presence of Somesvara on the battlefield and that the victory caused surprise to Gonka’s lord, the son of Vikrama Choda i.e. Kulottunga II. The verse is rendered by Professor Sastri thus “Having in the battle of the Godavari and in the presence of the Kuntalavallabha put to flight his army with the sword (in his hand) shining like the glances of the goddess of heroism and having conquered Govinda davadhipa along with Lakshmana dandanatha, he attained the highest splendour of heroism besides (capturing) quantities of gold, horses (Khotaka = ghotaka) and camels.

Here Gonka is said in clear terms to have fought a battle on the banks of the Godavari put to flight the army of the king of Kuntala and to have defeated two of his commanders Lakshmanadandanatha and Govinda and camels. “As pointed out in another context the reoccurrence of the verse with the expression chodasina substituted for bahasina and the fact that the victory pleased Kulottunga II confirm the view that this verse records an important victory for the Cholas and their friends against the Chalukyas. In the light of this decisive victory of the Cholas and the Velanandus over the Chalukyas, it has to be admitted as pointed out by Professor Sastri that the reign of Somesvara III was not so tranquil as it was supposed by Dr. Fleet. Gonka’s achievement is also mentioned in an inscription from Draksharama dated A.D. 1147. The references in the inscriptions of other dynasties—as for instance Bantaraju of the Malayas calling himself a restorer of the Chalukyas in A.D. 1145, probably refer to the Chalukyan sway in Vengi in the reign of Choda I, than mean a restoration by A.D. 1143. The restoration of the Velanandu sway was complete by A.D. 1147 which means a fresh victory for the Velanandus over the Chalukyas.

For the rest of Gonka’s reign we do not hear of any hostilities between him and the Chalukyan emperors—Jagadekamalle II and Taila III. The Victories of general Gonka a relative of Gonka II over the Kanneta army at Krochcheruvu do not either belong to Gonka’s reign or refer to the Chalukyas of Kalyani and consequently the statement to that effect is of no value.

Gonka II and Kalinga:—Anantavarman Choda Ganga, Kamarnava and Raghava were the Eastern Ganga contemporaries of Gonka. As Anantavarman’s reign lasted upto A.D. 1148, his son Kamarnaya must have succeeded to the throne in that year, though his appointment took place in AD. 1142. Kamarnava was also known as Anantavarman and Anantavarman Madhu Kamarnava and also as Jatesvaradeva. He ruled for ten years till A.D. 1158. But as his latest known date is A.D. 1155 which in the 10th year of the king “Kamannava died very probably in saka year 1078—A.D. 1156 and was succeeded by his step brother Raghava.” He ruled for a period of fifteen years.

Gonka II came into conflict with the Gangas in extending" the bounds of his kingdom into Kalinga. Gonka seems to have advanced as far as Cuttack in A.D, 1137 and inflicted a defeat on Anantavarman for his inscription of that year mentions his victories over Kataka and that his uncle Panda was praised in the Courts of all kings but omits Cuttack. As attested by his inscriptions, Gonka’s expeditions into Kalinga continued. Gonka claims to have won victories over the lord of Kataka i.e. Anantavarman by A.D. 1143—the date of the Nadendla inscription. He is said to have vanquished the lord of Kalinga and kept golden vessels on the temples of sri sailam and Puri. From the Draksharama inscriptions dated 1150 A.D. and 1154, it is clear that as a result of his successes into Kalinga, Gonka claims to have ruled over the country between the Setu and the Narmada, and that the kings between Srisailam and Mahendragiri were all subordinate to him.

Thus from these references ranging from AD. 1143 to 1154, it is evident that Gonka defeated Anantavarman and his feudatories in some decisive battle in Kalinga after A.D. 1132 and before A.D. 1143, though no details about the locality, date and events of the battle are available. But the results of the Velanandu victory are obvious from Gonka’s installation of golden pots on the temple of Puri and the statement that the kings between Srisailam and Mahendragiri and Kalahasti and Mahendrachala paid obeisance to him Thus Gonka’s victories into Kalinga extended as far as Mahendragiri, and this position of his in Kalinga, Gonka seems to have retained for the rest of his reign without much difficulty for the successors of Anantavarma were no greater than Anantavarma over whom Gonka had victories.

Gonka and the Kakatiyas:—The Kakatiyas were a rising power in Telingana, destined to rule over the entire Andhra-desa, ultimately subduing the Velanandu Chodas and the Telugu Cholas. The first historical person of the dynasty was Prola. His son and successor was Beta entitled mahamandalesvara and Tribhuvanamalla.® He governed part of the Andhra dominions with capital at Anumakonda, as a feudatory of Vikramaditya VI. His son and successor was Prola II. So long Vikramaditya lived, Prola owed allegiance to the Chalukyas and his Anumakonda inscription is dated in the 42nd year of C.V. era. (A.D. 1117). Some of Prola’s enemies who suffered reverses in his hands were Govinda dandesa of the Chalukyas, and Gunda of Mantrakuta. Prola vanquished Jagyadeva, a Santara Chief and feudatory of the Chalukyas and also Taila III. He took Taila III prisoner but later set him at liberty. Prola’s successor Rudradeva had a fairly long reign. Thus Gonka’s contemporary Kakatiya rulers were Prola II and Rudradeva.

Gonka’s records mention the Andhras and their lord As the Velanendu chodas were Andhras ruling over Andhra or Vengu the mention of Andhras in their records must refer to some other Andhra dynasty. In the absence of evidence to the contrary the Andhras of the Velanandu records probably refer to the Kakatiyas. His Nidubrolu epigraph does not mention Andhra among other kingdoms conquered by Gonka and on the other hand says that uncle Panda was praised in the Court of the Andhra Lord, along with in the Courts of other kings This indicates perhaps that Gonka and Prola II did not come into conflict with each other by that year—A.D. 1132

From the inscriptions of Gonka and his successor, it appears that Gonka II had a victory over the lord of Andhra and his son Choda II bore the epithet Kakatiprolanirdahana. As the last date for Prola is A.D. 1158 and the earliest for Choda II as independent ruler was A.D. 1163, this achievement of Choda II must have taken place in A.D. 1158, when he was the crown prince in Gonka’s reign. There are reasons to suppose that Gonka II and Choda had to face the Kakatiyas not in offensive but defensive warfare. For there Is a record of Rudra of the Kanatiyas, dated A.D. 1158 at Draksharama and none of Velanandu inscriptions in Kakatiya dominions. So most probably in A.D. 1158, Prola and prince Rudra as the head of the Kakatiya armies invaded the Velanandu kingdom and advanced as far as Draksharama where their progress was stayed by the Velanandu armies headed Gonka and prince Choda. The decisive battle between the two powers must have taken place at Draksharama for Kakatiya inscriptions are at Draksharama and not beyond and the two Velanandu inscriptions recording Velanandu victories over the Kakatiyas are also at Draksharama No details of the battle are forthcoming except that Velanandu Choda killed Kakatiya Prola II. This was an important achievement for the Velanandus, which is evidenced by the assumption of the title—Kakatiprolanirdshana by Choda II; but a failure for the Kakatiyas, as their king lost his life in the engagement. But this was only the beginning of the Kakatiya invasions into the Telgu country which were to continue in Rudradeva’s reign. Inspite of this victory of Gonka over the Kakatiyas, from this time onwords Velanandu Kingdom had to be on guard to face the Kakatiya invasions after being freed from the fear of the Chalukyas. For the rest of Gonka’s Teign, there were no more battles with the Kakatiyas for probably feeling the power of Gonka, Rudradeva did not come on the Velanandu kingdom.

Gonka and the Hoysalas

The Hoysalas were rising into prominance by AD 1061-62 in the Mysore territory. In that year Vikramaditya was ruling in west Mysore as a subordinate of the Western Gangas and bv AD 1178 he was ruling Gangavadi 96000, as a feudatory of Vikramaditya VI. His successor was his grandson Ballala I who was also a Tribhuvanamalla, ruler of Gangavadi, Nolambavadi and Banavasi” His successor Vishnubardhana alies Bittiga also a Tribhuvanamalla, made Dorasamudra his capital. In A.D. 1136 he is said to have led an expedition into the Telugu country. He was succeeded by his son Narasimba I in A.D. 1141 who reigned till A.D. 1170 He bore the title Vishnuvardhana and by A.D. 1146 he was practically independent though in theory he was a subordinate of Jagadekamalla II.

Gonka’s Hoysala contemporaries were Vishnuvardhana and Narasimha I. The references in Gonka’s inscriptions to Karmata and its lord probably is to the Hoysalas, for the -Chalukyas are referred to as the Kuntalas and the Vijayanagar had not yet risen in this period Gonka’s inscription of A.D. 1132 mentions Gonka’s victory over Karnata and that Panda was praised in the court of the king of Karnata. Here the lord of Karnata must be identified with Vishnuvardhana. Probably while fighting the Chalukyas Gonka met their feudatories the Hoysalas and had some successes over them towards the close of Choda’s reign. If the Telugu country invaded by Vishnuvardhana in A.D. 1136 refers to the Velanandu kingdom it may be argued that he undertook this expedition to wreak vengeance for his earlier defeat at Choda's hands. Gonka’s inscriptions are silent about this expedition of the Hoysala king But after A.D. 1136, Gonka seems to have opposed Vishnuvardhana once again during his successful fight with the Chalukyas of Kalyani on the Godavari soon after his accession to the throne. As Somesvara III was present on the battlefield there is no impossibility of Vishnuvardhana, his subordinate, being present there with his armies. After this, no more references to the relationship between Gonka and his Karnata contemporaries are available.

Gonka and the Yadavas

The early Yadavas of Seunadesa date from the 8th century A.D The first among the Yadavas of Devagiri was Mallungi, the father of Bhillama (A.D. 1187-1191). Taking advantage of the unsettled political condition in Karnata and Kuntala, Mallugi and his sons fought the Kalachuri Bijjala and his armies.

The references to Marata and its lord in Velanandu inscriptions undoubtedly refer to the Yadava kingdom and its kings. Unfortunately, for Mallugi, chronology is uncertain. By A.D. 1132, Panda is said to have been praised in the court of the king of Marata and by A.D. 1147 Gonka claims to have won a victory over the Maratas. Most probably, Gonka met Mallugi or his subordinates as feudatories of Somesvara III •during the battle on the Godavari and inflicted a defeat on his.armies.

Gonka and the Telugu Chedas

Gonka’s Telugu Choda contemporaries were Tribhuvanamalla C.M. and his sons Nannichoda and Kannaradeva—of Konidena; and MPC Siddharasa of Pottapi.

The only sign of conflict between Gonka and the Telugu Cholas is from the inscription dated AD. 1140 at Nadenella where Gonka is mentioned as lion to the cheeta i e. Siddhi beta. Probably this refers to Gonka’s victory over the Telugu Choda prince in extending the kingdom early in his reign to the south. After A.D. 1140, for the rest of his reign, Gonka and the Telugu Chodas were on friendly terms which is seen from the record of A D 1146 at Konidena registering a combined grant by Gonka II and Tribhuvanamalla Chodadeva. Besides, an officer of Gonka built the Ballisvara temple at Konidena. These suffice to show Gonka’s influence over the Telugu Cholas and their kingdoms.

Gonka and other dynasties:—The Chagis with c pitalat Gudimctta were coming into prominence in this period. The use of Tyagi godyas, by a subordinate of Gonka II, indicates friendly relations between the Velanandus and the Chagis. Of the Eastern Chalukyas of Pithapur, Vishnuvardhana II was ruling. Probably Gonka came into contact with him while extending his kingdom. Gonka was on friendly terms with Kamaraja of the Haihayas of Palnad for in A.D. 1147 the officers of both kings made a combined gift at Peddakodamagandla

The Mandadi chiefs ruling about Sattenapalle were feudatories of Gonka. They claim lordship over Giripaschima district and Tanirumbariti. Mandadi Matta was a subordinate of Gonka. Of the Ayya family, the four sons of Narayana-Chodi, Bhima II, Pinnachodi and Bramma, served in the army of the king of the Chola country which no doubt refer to the Velanandu country and king Gonka II.

Boddana and Bhimana, of the Telugu Pallavas of Guntur, owed allegiance to Gonka. Komma nayaka, lord of Davulur and of Durjaya lineage, Erapota and Bhima, Mandadi Kommana, lord of Crigandi (varagani) were some of the subordinates of Gonka.

Gonka claims victories over the kings of Lata, and Gauda and the courts in which Panda is praised, include Kerala, Lata, Gauda, Anga, and Nepala.

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