The history of Andhra country (1000 AD - 1500 AD)

by Yashoda Devi | 1933 | 138,355 words

This book recounts the History of the Andhra Pradesh Country from 1000 to 1500 A.D. including many dynasties (for example. the Reddis of Korukonda and the Eruva Chola of Rajahmundry)....

Part 2 - Choda I (A.D. 1109—1136—37)

Son of Gonka by Sabbambika Choda I ascended the Velanandu Choda throne of Tsandavole in A.D. 1109 and ruled for 28 years. From his records he is variously known as Kulottunga Rajendra Chodaraja, Velananti Choda, Velanandi Rajendra Choda, Rajendra Choda Deva, Rajendra Chola Gangiyaraya Cholian alias Rajendra Chola Gangayarajan, and king Chodi. Assisted in the governance of the country as crown prince and general under Gonka I Choda by the time of his accession gained experience in statesmanship He was the ruler of Vengi 16000 conferred on him by Kulottunga I. In the face of adverse circumstances Choda I extended and consolidated the kingdom to the utmost of his capacity. By A D. 1120, his rule extended up to Draksharama and by 1130 up to Kalahasti in the Chittoor district. Choda I recognised chola suzerainty throughout his reign but for a short while when he had to acknowledge Western Chalukyas supremacy. He passed on a well estended and consolidated kingdom to his son and successor Gonka II.

Extent and Extension of the Kingdom

Choda I’s inscriptions are greater in number and give more information than these of Gonka I. The extension ot his kingdom is clear from the provenence of his records. His earliest record from Kuramanchi dated A.D. 1108-9 which was the last year of Gonka I. A record of his dated A.D. 1120 and C.V. 45 in the reign of Tribhuvanamalla is from Draksharamais of singular importance indicating the extension of the kingdom thus far in the east as well as recognition by Choda I of the supremacy of Choda I. His record from Bapatla dated A.D 1130 and C.V. 5-a mistake for 55 indicates the penetration of Vikramaditya into the heart of the Velanandu kingdom and the continuity of allegiance of Choda I to Vikramaditya. No doubt the Velanandu power at this stage was eclipsed by the domination of Vikramaditya VI. Three records of A.D. 1130 and the 12th year of Vikrama Chola come from Kalahasti. These attest the extension of the kingdom in the southern direction and Choda’s recognition of Chola supremacy in part of his kingdom even when he had to acknowledge Chalukyan yoke in his home province. In the records from Amritalur and Cubodu, dated AD. 1132 do not give the regnal year. The latest inscriptions of Choda are dated A.D. 1136; the one from Nidubrole dated in the 17th regnal year of Tribhnvanam Chakravarti Vikrama choda deva and the one from Bapatla in the 3rd year of Tribhnvanam chakravarti Kulottunga choda deva Kulothunga 11.

Choda’s political relations

As the last and the first records of Gonka I and Choda I respectively are dated A.D. 1118. There was no interval between the two reigns as has been supposed by some writers.In his records as welt as those of his successors, Choda is spoken of as a great warrior and destroyer of enemies. In extending the kingdom and defending it from enemies, Choda came into touch with contemporary powers-major and minor-records of his son Gonka are found all over the kingdom from A.D. 1128 issued in his own name. Probably Gonka shared the burden of the kingdom with his father Choda I from that year a measure intended to strengthen the kingdom. The feudatories in the kingdom must have helped Chodas in fighting his-enemies.

Choda and the Eastern Chalukyas

Choda bore the Velanandu prasasti identical with that of Gonka I. But the epithet Chalukya rajyabhavana mulastha-mbha has been omitted in it. A record of prince Gonka at Snsailam dated A.D. 1732 mentions it. By Choda’s time the title had lost its significance as the Chalukyan kingdom was a thing of the past after it came under the Cholas. This accounts for the absence of the title from Choda’s prasasti.

Choda I and the Imperial Cholas

The imperial Chola emperors in this period were Kulottunga up to 1120 A.D. Vikramachola from A.D. 1120 to 1135 and his son Kulottunga III from A.D. 3135 to 1150 A.D. To quote Professor Sastn “The (Chola) empire still retain at its greatest extent in his (Kulottunga I) forty fifth regnal year or there abouts...the presence of Kulottunga’s inscriptions in Nandalur (Cuddapah) called Kulottungasolachadurvedi mangalam and in Tripurantakam (Kurnool) as also in the Mysore country up to the 45th year proves that the rule of Kulottunga was successfully maintained in these quarters. The hold over Vengi was quite firm and had rendered possible a successful invasion of the territory of its northern neighbour, Kalinga.”

Vikrama Chola, the Viceroy of Vengi (A.D. 1092-93-1118) left Vengi for the Chola country in A.D. 1118 Vvhen “the troubles that they had long been gathering against Kulottunga in the north came to a head.” The Pithapur pillar inscription of Mallapadeva dated A.D. 1202 makes the definite statement that when Vikramachola went to rule the country the land of Vengi at once fell into a state of anarchy.” Consequent on the Western Chalukyan encroachments and occupation of Vengi Kulottunga I towards the close of his reign lost the northern half of Vengi, if not the whole of it to Vikramaditya VI. Soon after Vikramaditya’s death Vikramachola in A.D. 1126 re-established his supremacy in the southern half, if not whole of the Vengi country. This is evidenced by the prevalence of inscriptions of the period in Vengi. On the whole, Vikrama Chola’s reign appears to have been one of peace and his efforts to recover the lost ground not with success in the north Vengi. It was to the credit of Vikramachola that he restored Chola supremacy in Vengi

The reign of Kulottunga II, son and successor of Vikrama Chola appears to have been one of peace, good government and prosperity. The extent of the empire was maintained as it was at the close of Vikrama Chola’s reign, and the Chellur plates show if anything that the restoration of Chola suzerainty in the north after its temporary eel apse by the spread of the Western Chalukya rule was complete and stable.”Kulottunga’s inscriptions, therefore, are more numerous in the Telugu country than those of Vikramachola’s reign.

Choda I, continued the loyalty of Gonka I to the Cholas. •His records prior to A.D. 1120 the record of which yearmentions Tribhuvanamalla do not refer to his Choda suzerain. But during the years from A.D. 1108 to 1120 his loyalty to Kulottunga I and his viceroy Vikrama Choda must have been sincere, as he was the adopted son of Kulottunga entrusted with the xulership of Vengi 16000 and Choda in Gonka’s reign assisted the Cholas in their wars. So, it appears Choda was ^even more attached than Gonka to Kulottunga and perhaps this intimacy of relationship between Choda and Kulottunga enabled the former to issue records in his own name without dating them in the regnal years, of Kulottunga as a sign of formal recognition of Chola overlordship. Thus there was the substance of suzerainty on the part of Kulottunga and subordination on the part of Chola I. Choda must have helped Vikrama during the second Chola invasion of Kalinga which took place about A.D. 1110. “According to inscription the Chola army crossed the Vengi territory, destroyed the elephant corps that was set by the enemy to oppose its march, spread fire across the enemy country of Kalingam, killed in the fight many powerful leaders of the Kalinga army whose heads rolled on the battlefield, pecked by kites and in the end subdued the seven Kahngas.” This march of Chola armies through Vengi speaks for Choda’s loyalty to the Chola throne.

For a decade from A.D. 1120 in Vikrama Chola’s reign Choda I had to recognise the suzerainty of the Chalukyas of Kalyam as evidenced from the two records dated in Chalukya Vikrama era from Draksharama and Baptla respectively. “Thus towards the close of Kulottunga’s reign and in the early years of Vikrama Chola, these chiefs found themselves constrained, as has been seem already to acknowledge the suzerainty of the Western Chalukyas.” Choda’s inscription dated 1132 and the 17th year of Tnbhuvana chakravartm Vikrama Chodadeva”show that he and his kingdom accepted Chola suzerainty and enjoyed imperial protection once again. Thus, Choda I, though not at the beginning of his reign, towards the close of it definitely and formally recognised Chola supremacy by dating his record from the province in the regnal year of the emperor, probably as a counter measure for past submission to Tribhuvanamalla. This is a positive departure from forced subordination to willing allegiance on the part of Choda I.

Choda’s first record after the accession of Kulottunga II to the Chola throne is from Baptla dated in the 3rd regnal year of Tribhuvana chakravartm Kulottunga chola deva (A.D. 1136) This speaks for Choda’s recognition of the new Chola emperor as his overlord.

Choda I and the Western Chalukyas:—Choda’s Western Chalukya contemporaries were Vikramaditya VI up to A.D. 1126 and his son and successor Somesvara III, (A.D) 1126-27-1138). From the date of his apomtment, Vikrama-ditya VI ruled without a rival till his death after which he was succeeded by his son Somesvara III. Vikramaditya ever remembered his failure in the first war against Kulot-tunga and in A.D. 1084 he complained that the ‘hostile Chola does not come to the battle field.’ In fact Vikramaditya’s plan was to take advantage of the proceedings against the kingdom of Vengi and its vassal states.” His efforts were not successful till the time of Vikrama Chola’s viceroyalty The wars against the Kolamu chief and Kalinga were perhaps at least in part, due to the intrigues of Vikramaditya.” And so perhaps the Second Kalmgan war against north Kalinga

The slow but gradual Chalukya incursions into Telugu country go back to the time of Somesvara I (A.D. 1044-1068) entitled Trailokyamalla. This is evidenced by the titles borne by some of the feudatory families One of the titles of the Janjanuri and Pandraju families was Trailokyamalla bhujabala bhima. The Cheraku family had the Birudar-Trailokyamalla. Valluru in Cuddapah district was known as Trailokyavallabha-puram said to have been built at the orders of Trailokya-malla. Some of the feudatory chiefs in Vengi bore the names Trailokyamalla and Tribemvanamalla. Besides, the Telugu Chodas of Cuddappah were subordinate to the Western Chalukyas.

The earliest of the Western Chalukya records in Vengi is dated in the 5th year of C.V. era at Draksharama.Vikramaditya’s ministers, generals, and subordinate rulers in Vengi issued grants dated in C.V. era. Two records are dated - in the 33rd year and two were in the 34th year of C.V era at Drakharama. But the majority of Chalukya records in Vengi are dated between the years 45 and 48 of the same era.

In A.D. 1098 and the 23rd year of C.V. era Vikramaditya's minister Diggarasa made a grant at Anumakonda With the departure of Vikrama Chola from Vengi, efforts of Vikramaditya met with some success in Vengi. “That Vikramaditya’s rule did extend in this period over practically the whole of the Telugu country becomes clear from the provenence of his inscriptions.” Prola of the Kakatiyas owed allegiance to Vikramaditya as seen from his Annmakonda inscription dated in the 42nd year of C.V. era. From an epigraph in Guntur district, Vikramaditya appears to have been reigning there. Anantapala, a general of Vikramaditya and his nephew Govmda figure prominently in the political history of the Telugu country in this period. According to an inscription from Kommuru in Guntur district, Anantapala was ruling Vengi 14000. Anantapala was holding positions of importance under Vikramaditya VI from A.D. 1100. He was known as Maha-pradhana Banasa Veggade, Dandanayaka and Mahasamanta-dhipati. He ruled over Belvole 300, Puligere 300, Banavase 12,000, and the 7½ lakh country. In A.D. 1120, Peddamakaderi, wife of Anantapala made gifts at Draksharama. Dandanayaka Govmdarasa, who was managing some taxes under Anantapala in A.D. 1192—3 was subsequently promoted to the offices of mahadandanayaka, mahasamantadhipati and mahapradhani in A.D 1114-1115 and was governing Banabase 1200 in A.D 1117-1118. A Govmdarasa bearing the titles varaha-lanchana, Kundurpuravaradhisvara, alampuramjangam figures as a donor in a record from Pudur near Gadval (Nizam’s dominions) dated in the reign of Tnbhuvanamalla and the 12th year of C.V. era. If he is identical with Govmdarasa mentioned above, this record gives us details of his early career. Govmdarasa has already been identified with Govmda-raja of Abbar inscriptions and the nephew of Anantapala. By A.D. 1126-1127 Dandanayaka Govindarasa was ruling Konda-palli 300 district as seen from a record from Tripurantakam dated in C.V. era. 51. Two writers were inclined to identify Kondapalli with Nelakindapalle in Warangal district and put forward the view that Govinda ruled there on the basis as Prola’s enemies were all in the vicinity of Warangal, Govmda also an enemy of Prola, must have ruled in the neighbourhood of Warangal with capital at Nelakandapalle. But this is far fetched. In A.D. 1118 Anantapalle was ruling Vengi 14000, and the record mentioning Govinda as the ruler of Kondapalle enumerates also his victories and Vengi-Govmda claims to Jiave burnt Vengi. Bengipura, defeated a prince at Jananathapura and conquered Gonka. After all the successes, Govmda: must have established himself at Kudapalle in Kistna district which commanded a position of importance from geographical and strategical point of view in Vengi throughout the middle ages in south Indian history. Quite often, Kondapalle was the headquarters of a district, as it was of 300 district at this time So Kondapalle 300 of Govmda was Kondapalle and not Nelakondapalle. In another record from Tnpurantakam dated C.V. 51 (A.D. 1126-1127). “Anantapala is said to have defeated the Chola army, pursued n as far as Kanchi, and plundered that celebrated city and thus Assam the title Cholakatakachurukara.”

The same viciory is claimed by Echapa, a subordinate of Anantapala, who is said to have pursued the Chola forces from the Uppinakatte in Vengi to Kanchi and gained for himself the title Cholarajyamrmulana Thus by A.D. 1127 “Vikramaditya’s sway spread practically over the whole of the Telugu country”; and he “had the satisfaction, though belated of carrying to successful end of his policy of breaking the union of Vengi and the Chola thrones.”

Vikramaditya’s successor Somesvara III (A.D 1128- 1137) had the epithets Bhulokamalla and Sarvajnachakravartm. According to Dr. Fleet “his reign seems in fact to have been a tranquil one.” He maintained for sometime the position he inherited from his father in Vengi which is clear from records dated in C.V.era going up to the year 58 and some dated in the regnal years of Bhulokamalla at Draksharama and other places, of the Haihayas of Paland recognised Bhulokamalla’s suzerailty in an inscription dated A.D. 1129 coming from Gurizale (Palnad taluq). Kallayasahdm he was in the service of Lakshmanadandanayaka, a Western Chalukya general in Vengi is heard of from a record at Draksharama bearing the date A.D. 1132. From another record at Draksharama bearing the date A.D. 1133 and 58th year of C.V. era three Western Chalukya generals Govmdaraja, son of Adimayyanayaka, Lakshmanadandanayaka, son of Makamavva and Lakshmana’s premier Mahapradham Siddhimayyanayaka are known. Of these Adimayya is probably identical with Adityadandanayaka, son of Brammadevanayaka of the time of Tribbuvanamalla Vikramaditya VI and figuring in a record from Draksharama with date A.D. 1122 and C.V. 45. Similarly Makamavva is perhaps Makamba or Makasani, mother of Kamavva and figures in two inscriptions of Tribhuvanamalla with dates 1120, (C.V. 46) and 1127 respectively. Lakshmanaraja is described as “the glorious dandadhipa ruling, the splendid land of Vengi and capable of bearing the entire weight of the world.” In another record from Draksharama dated A.D. 1133 and C V. 53 Siddhiraja dandanayaka and his son mahapradhani Kachimayyadandanayaka are mentioned. After C.V. 58 and AD. 1133 “inscriptions dated in the C.V. era are not so common and galaxy of Bhulokamalla and his dandanayakas also seem fto make their exit.” By the end of the reign of' Somesvara the sway of the Western Chalukyas, having suffered a severe defeat in Chola hands ended.

Choda I was an enemy in the beginning, a subordinate later on and a foe in the end, of the Western Chalukyas. By A.D. 1120 Choda I acknowledged Vikramaditya’s supremacy at Draksharama is in eastern dominion by dating fhis inscriptions in the 45th year of C.V. Era. In this record is found the regular Chalukyan prasastis samastabhuvanasvaya, sriprithvi vallabhava, maharajadhirajaparamesvara, parama bhattaraka, satvasrayakulatilaka, chalukyabharana Tribhuvanamalladeva. This forms the initial stage in the Western Chalukyan occupation of Velanandu territories and Chola suzerainty was eclipsed temporarily. Records of Kulottunga are found in a continuous senes at Draksharama up to 49th year (A.D. 1118-1199; and not afterwards. The efficient Chalukyan armies in Vengi were probably manned by distinguished generals Anantapala, Govmda, Lakshmana, Siddhimayya, Kechimayya, Govmdaraja and others. By AD. i 126 the sway of the Chalukyas penetrated into the heart of the Velanandu kingdom. The Tripurantakam epigraph proclaiming Govinda, a nephew of Anantapala ruling over Kondapalli 300, perhaps marks their highest achievement. Choda I and his armies must have fought hard against the powerful enemy at every stage and could not avert the inevitable. Even his submission to the invader as early as 1120 A.D. at Draksharama could not save the rest of kingdom from the ravages of the enemy. The stages of the expedition into the Velanandu kingdom were briefly indicated in the Tripurantanam inscription mentioning that Govinda burnt Vengi, defeated a prince at Jamunathapura and vanquished Gonka. Vengi is identical with Vengi near Ellore. Jamunathapura is identical with Bezawada. The place where Gonka, no doubt crown prince Gonka was defeated by Govinda is not known. But this defeat proved fatal to the Velanandu power and precipitated the establishment of the Western Chalukya occupation of the Kondapalle 300 district. Govinda’s hold over the district seems to have continued for a few years in the reign of Somesvara III Chod’s record from Bapatla with g 1052 is dated in the 55th year of C.V. era which happens to be the 3rd regnal year of Bhuloka-malla (A.D. 1130). This record is the best indication of Velanandu subordination to the Western Chalukyas.

Thus in the middle of his reign, Choda I had to admit the yoke of Vikramaditya with whose death, came the opportunity to him and his Chola ovorlords to make efforts to shake off the Eastern Chalukya yoke on the part of the former and regain Vengi on the part of the latter. This is noticeable from the fact that Vikrama Choi a's inscriptions in Northern Circars are dated not earlier that his 9th year (A.D. 1127) “and even then they form a very limited number and are confined to the southern parts of the Vengi kingdom in the modern Guntur district.” By A.D. 1132 Choda acknowledges Chola over-lordship by recording Midubrolu inscription in the 17th regnal year of Vikrama Chola. This restoration of Chola suzerainty must have been gradual. Professor Sastri sums it up thus “The steps by which the restoration of Chola supremacy in the north was effected are obscure, but the death of Vikramaditya VI, the effort put forth by Vikrama Chola and the readiness of the Telugu chieftains to prefer the overlordship contributed in varying degrees to the restoration.”

But records do show signs of prevalence of the Western Chalukya power in Palnod and Draksharama about the same period A.D. 1133 and 1134 and the 58th year of C.V. era. But these were the last vestiges of the Western Chalukyan rule in Vengi which was definitely on the downward trend. By shaking off allegiance to the Western Chalukyas, Cfaoda proved worthy of having been the adopted son of Kulottunga I. It was left to Gonka II who suffered a defeat in the hands of Govinda about A.D. 1126, to retrieve the honour of the Velanandu Chodas by inflicting a crushing defeat on Somesvara’s generals and bring about their exit from Vongi, soon after his accession to the throne.

Choda and the Eastern Ganges

Choda’s contemporary ruler on the Gangathrone was Ananta-varman Choda Ganga entitled Trikalingadhipati (A D. 1078-1148). He had a long reign of seventy or seventy two years. The Korni and Vizagapatam C.V. grants of Anantarvarma dated AD. 1112 and 1118 state that he “first replaced the fallen lord of Utkala in the eastern region and then the vaning lord of Vengi in the Western region and propped up their failing fortunes. Perhaps this refers to events in the Second Kalingam war in the northern Kalinga by the Cholas under Vikrama Chola and Choda I and other feudatories of the Cholas in Vengi about A.D 1110. If so, the inscriptions undoubtedly show Anantavarma’s interference into the affairs of Utkala and Vengi but they do not imply that the lords of Utkala and Vengi must have formed friendly subordinate alliances with him, because the Second Kalingam war was a victory for the Cholas. Later events show that probably like Vikramaditya VI, Anantavarman also took advantage of the comparatively weak political situation of Vengi after Vikrama Chola left his viceroyalty in A.D. 1117 and Kulottunga’s death in A.D. 1120. By A.D. 1135, the date of the Srikurmam, epigraph,Anantavarma claims to have conquered and annexed the territory to the north of the Godavari. But earlier still, in A.D. 1128 his campaigns in this direction must have ended, for in tjiat year, he and his queens, visited Draksharama and made gifts to.Bhimesvara. It has been suggested that after the death of Vikramaditya VI, Anantavarman probably took: the country up to the Godavari constituting Southern Kalinga comprising Vizagapatam and East Godavari districts. Just as it is probable that Vikramaditya influenced the Kalingan wars and the consequent rebellion against the Chodas and their feudatories, it is also likely that he encouraged Kalingan expansion into Vengi. Even after Vikramaditya’s death, Anantavarman would have continued bis efforts in the direction and if at all held ephemeral sway over the tract from A.D. 1128 to 1135 or till the end of Choda’s reign when all signs of foreign domination were put to an end by all powerful Gonka II.

Choda came into conflict with Anantavarman in self defence as well as fighting on behalf of the Cholas. As prince Choda, in Gonka’s reign, Choda distinguished himself in the first Kalingan war. As king Choda, he participated in the second Kalingan war (A.D. 1110). By A.D. 1112 probably he had to meet with some Kalingan opposition in his dominions. For Anantavarman in that year claims to have restored the failing fortunes of the waning lord of Vengi in the western region. This lord of Vengi is probably some local chief-probably an Eastern Chalukya of the Vengi or Nidadevole branch-included in Southern Kalinga who perhaps suffered badly fin the 2nd Kalingan war, thus necessitating restoration by the Ganga emperor.

We may note here that the opinion that Kulottunga I, Choda I besides a Kona chief led campaigns into Kalinga as far as Cuttack before A.D. 1118 was based on wrong data namely that Kulottunga had the title-Gangakaveri paryantadharitnpati in A.D. 1116. Volanati Choda conquered Kalingagangakatakam and that Kona Potaraja, a vassal of Rajendra Choda conquered Trikalmgadhinatha, Kulottunga I had the title—Gangakaveri paryantadharitripati at a much earlier fdata i.e. A.D. 1100.Secondly, Choda, who conquered Kalingagangakatakam is not Velanandichoda but a Kondapadumathi ruler bearing the name Manda. Kona Potaraja’s victory must have happened, during the first or second Kalingan wars of the Cholas; and so probably that of Kondapedumati Manda. So all these do not mean a fresh expedition into fKalinga by the Cholas or their sub-ordinates including Choda I.

After AD. 1118 Choda I had to face Anantavarman about A.D. 1128 at Draksharama. By that date and afterwards Choda I and his lord Vikrama Chola were slowly regaining their hold in the tracts north of the Godavari. So perhaps, Anantavarma’s visit to Draksharama marks the beginning as well as the end of his occupation of Vengi. In the light of the fact that by AD. 1135 Choda I and his overlord effectively checked the Western Chalukya power in Vengi. Anantavarma’s claim to have conquered fthe three quarters appears to be some what an exaggeration for if at all, he might have exercised superficial sway over Vengi for a while, but could never have effected a virtual conquest and annexed it to his empire as has been imagined. After A.D. 1135 Choda I was a formidable-enemy of Anantavarman and not a sub-ordinate.

Choda and the Telugu Chodas

The Telugu Chodas in this period were ruling in Nellore and Cnittoor districts. Kamadeva, Chodadeva Maharaja and Ballayachoda, all of the Konidena branch, Batta, M.P.C. Vimaladitya. Kannaradeva alias ^Rajendra Chola Pottappich-cholan of the Pottapi branch were - contemporaries of Choda I Besides there were other Telugu Chola dynasties owing, allegiance to the Western Chalukyas and their feudatories.

The Konidena and Pottapi Cholas owed allegiance to the Imperial Cholas like the Velanandu Chodas. But this common bond of the Velanandu and Telugu Cholas did not stand in the way of their mutual hostilities. Under Choda I, the Velanandus came into open conflict with the Telugu Cholas. Choda had the title. Chaulikachakravartikatakaprakaranamankitah in his Chebrole inscription dated A.D. 1115. It means “one whose name was engraved on the walls of the Chola king.” As Choda was a loyal sub-ordinate of the Cholas, his title must have been based on some achievement of his over the Telugu Chodas. Probably he conquered Pottapi Kamadeva who, was ruling about Kurnool in this period. The title recurs in the records of Choda and Gonka in the same form or as Chaulikakshitipati prakaranamankitah.

Choda’s sway extended as far as Kalahasti as attested by his records and those of Gonka and minister—all dated in the 12th regnal year of Vikrama Chola. Kannaradeva alias Rajendrachola Pottapi Chola was ruling about Kalahasti in this period. No doubt Choda must have fought him prior to his occupation of the tract. By A D. 1132 Choda had further victories over the Telugu Chodas. For in a record of A.D. 1132. from Tubadu Kapana, a subordinate of Choda, claims to have defeated a Siddhibeta as seen from the epithet—Siddhibeta vidravana. Beta has been identical with Betabhupala who was the son of Dayabhima I and younger brother of Siddhi. As Battarasa ruled Pottapinadu in A.D. 1121 and seems to have been succeeded by Vimaladitya, son of Siddharasa, Choda’s victory must have occurred by A.D. 1121. Still, it remains to be known why Beta was called Siddhibeta. which generally means Beta, son of Siddhi. The fight of Kapana with Siddhi Beta must have formed part of the Velanandu expedition and expansion into the Telugu Chola territory after A.D. 1115 and before A.D. 1130. The data of his Kalahasti records Thus, Choda in his westward and southward expansion had to struggle with the Telugu Cholas, who were his immediate neighbours on both fronts.

Choda and other kings

Nambiraja of the Parichchadis, a subordinate of Vikramachola and ruling in a portion of the country to the south of the Krishna probably owed allegiance to Choda I. The Ayya family ruling at Kroyyuru in Velanandu country were servile to Choda I. Of the brothers Jilla, Narayana and Suraya, sons of Bhima I by Rachyambika Jilla vanquished. Kannaradeva and was rewarded with dignity of generalship along with a palanquin, umbrella and other emblems and his brother Narayana with lordship over the island and the Gontu villages. Kannaradeva was the Telugu Choda, victory over whom made Choda I the ruler of the Kalahasti tract. Jilla’s victory must have occurred during the Velanandu penetration into the Telugu Chola territory by A.D. 1130. Thus Kapa’s fight with Siddhibeta and Jilla’s conflict with Kannaradeva were important steps in the war between the two powers.

A Vishnu vardhan, probably of the Pithapur branch of the Chalukyas was ruling about Rajahmundry from A.D. 1123.He probably was a subordinate of Choda I and fChoda must have passed through his territories while going to Draksharama and into Southern Kalinga.

Manda or Manmamanda or Erramanda of the Kondapedumatis was a contemporary of Choda I. He was a vassal of Kulottunga Chola. Manda, the grand father of Choderaja was a subordinate of Rajendrachola. The suggestion that Kulottunga and Rajendra refer to Choda I and Gonka II of the Velanandu Chodas, and not to the Chola baseless and’consequently the statement that “Manda or Erramanda was a military officer under Velananti Rajendra Choda who on behalf of his master appears to have fought a battle with the Gangas of Kalinga. is wrong.

A Ganapati maharaja, probably a subordinate of Choda, must have distinguished himself in the wars of the period. He-figures in a record of 1128 A.D. and is different from Kakatiya Ganapati and another Ganapati figuring in a record-of 1161 A.D.

Probably due to his many victories, by A.D. 1136 Choda. assumed the imperialistic title. Sarvorvisvara chakravarti. kataka prakaranamankitah and bhubhrmmaulika chakravarti katakaprakaranamankitah which is a modification of the title—Chaulikachakravartikataka prakara namankita with sarvorvis—vara and bhubhrmmaulika substituted for Chaulika.

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