Middle Chola Temples

by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam | 1975 | 141,178 words

This volume of Chola Temples covers Rajaraja I to Kulottunga I in the timeframe A.D. 985-1070. The Cholas of Southern India left a remarkable stamp in the history of Indian architecture and sculpture. Besides that, the Chola dynasty was a successful ruling dynasty even conquering overseas regions....

Temples in Tadi-maalingi (Jananathapuram)

The region in the present day Mysore state falling to the south and east of the river Tungabhadra came under the Chola hegemony even before the turn of the tenth century a.d. and continued to be under their control for more than a hundred years.

The erstwhile kingdom of Gangavadi with Talakkadu as the capital was rechristened Mudigondasola mandalam, after a name of Rajendra I, covering portions of the present day Salem district, the entire Mysore district, a sizable portion of the Bangalore district and the peripheral regions to the north and west of the latter two districts.

The capital of Gangavadi lay stretched on both sides of the Kaveri; the region on the southern bank of the river was called Ten-karai Idai nadu, and Mayilangai (Mavilangai?), now corrupted to Maalingi, was the southern quarters of the capital city of Talaikkadu, which was on the north bank. Tadi Maalingi is now a village in Tirumukkudlu-Narasipur taluk, in Mysore district.

Janardana (Ravikula-manikka-vinnagar) temple

There are a large number of temples at Talaikkadu and Tadi Maalingi, the ancient capital city of the Gangas, but we are mainly concerned with the Janardana temple at Tadi Maalingi dedicated to Vishnu; in the ancient days it was known as Ravikula-Manikka Vinnagar. In this temple, there are a few inscriptions belonging to the Middle and Later Chola periods (EC, MY, TN, 31 to 36). The earliest of them relates to the days of Rajaraja I, but the year is obliterated (EC, MY, TN, 35). It reveals the name of this temple, namely Ravikula-Manikka-Vinnagar.

The relevant portion reads as follows:

“Svasti Sri tirumagal pola....udaiyar
sri Rajarajadevarkku yandu i...pandi ten
karai idainattu mayilangai Gamundan Vasava
Gamundan Sama Gamundan S....ngakonyanusa
Gamundan ullitta.. iv-vanaivom Periya
Kundavai Alvar
Bhandarattil ninrum iwur
Iravikulamanikka Vinnagar Alvarukku...”

Another record dated in the 10th year of Rajendra I (a.d. 1022) gives the new name of Jananathapuram for this place.

From yet another record relating to the period of the Maha-mandalesvara Vira Ganga, the capturer of Talakkadu, Gangavadi, Nolambavadi, Banavase, Panugal, Halasige and Beluvala, under Hoysala Vira Ballala deva, we gather that one Chibbila Heggade made a grant to provide for the illuminations in the temple of the god Janardana of Maalingi 31 ). From a fragmentary inscription (Ibid. 36 ) we gather that Idainadu was also called Periya nadu and was part of Madhurantaka (sola Valanadu?) (Ibid. 36 ).

Thus, a temple for Vishnu was built at this place which bore the name of Jananathapura, after a surname of Rajaraja I. The temple itself got the name of Ravikula-Manikka-Vinnagar after a surname of Rajaraja I. We saw that at Dadapuram, in South Arcot district, Kundavai, the sister of Rajaraja I, built among others a temple for Siva, named Ravikula-Manikkesvaram, named after her brother, Rajaraja I. It is interesting to note the association of Kundavai with this temple also (PI 406).

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