Middle Chola Temples

by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam | 1975 | 141,178 words

This volume of Chola Temples covers Rajaraja I to Kulottunga I in the timeframe A.D. 985-1070. The Cholas of Southern India left a remarkable stamp in the history of Indian architecture and sculpture. Besides that, the Chola dynasty was a successful ruling dynasty even conquering overseas regions....

Gifts (other than Icons) and Donations

(A) Rajaraja I

There are perhaps few lithic records in recorded history so fascinating as the one found in nine sections engraved on the north wall and four sections on the west wall of the central shrine, which the inscription itself terms as Rajaraja’s edict. It opens with a Sanskrit sloka followed by the Tamil part. After listing out his conquests, it goes on to mention the date after which this and all the other grants relating to this temple were incised on the walls and pillars of the temple. On the twentieth day of the twenty-sixth year of his reign, Ko-Rajakesarivarman alias Rajarajadeva ordered that the gifts made by himself, his elder sister Kundavaiyar, his queens, and other donors should be engraved on the stone walls of the temple. It is in fact from this inscription that we get to know that Rajaraja himself built this temple and called it the temple of the Isvara of Rajaraja. Then it mentions a list of gold images, gold vessels and ornaments studded with precious stones which the king himself presented to the temple and to the image of Dakshina Meru Vitankar, on various dates, the earliest date being in his twenty-third year and the last being on his twenty-ninth year. We gather that part of the gifts which the king made between his twenty-third and twenty-ninth years were taken from the treasures which he seized after defeating the Chera king and the Pandyas in Malai Nadu; after he assumed the titles of Sivapadasekhara and Rajaraja, he made a gift of a number of gold trumpets and after his triumphant return from the victory over Satyasraya, the Western Chalukya king, he made a gift of a number of gold flowers. In calligraphy, historical content and the fascinating details of jewellery and ornaments listed out in it, this record stands out as a gem of epigraphy (SII, II, i).

The gifts made by Rajaraja I may be divided into three categories:

  1. metal images of deities,
  2. gold ornaments and vessels,
  3. and jewellery.

We have dealt with the gifts of icons in the earlier sections.

Besides those, he made a gift of ornaments and vessels numbering thirty-two and weighing 22,257 kalanjus.

From the bhandaram (treasures) captured by him after defeating the Chera king (Seraman) and the Pandyas in Malai Nadu, Rajaraja I gave on the 319th day of his twenty-sixth year to the Paramasvamin (the Supreme Lord) of the Sri Rajaraja-Isvaram temple, a number of gold chinhas (emblems) which were weighed by the stone called Adavallan and details of these gifts were engraved on stone.

These two groups of gifts, which total 22,256 and 5,705 kalanjus respectively, relate to those given to the Lord of Raja-raj esvaram in the twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth years, the latter being from the treasures which he seized after having defeated the Ghera king. These are enumerated in the first part of the inscription.

In the second part, there is specific mention that it confines itself only to those gifts given from the twenty-third to the twenty-ninth years of his reign, excluding those gifts of the twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth years which had already been engraved on the adjacent stones, ahead of this part of the inscription, on the east of the upper tier (jagatippadai).

The gifts listed here can again be divided into three parts,

(i) those given out of the treasures secured after the defeat of the Cheras, valued at 67 kalanjus of gold,

(ii) those offered after he was bestowed the illustrious titles of Sivapadasekhara (he whose forehead is always at the feet of Siva) and Sri Rajaraja (the illustrious king of kings), valued at 2,937 kalanjus of gold,

(iii) gifts made from his own treasures, amounting to 2075 kalanju,

(iv) gifts given to the Lord after he returned from his victory over Satyasraya, which he showered as flowers at the sacred feet (sri pada pushpa) of the God by way of thanksgiving (with the flowers of gold, listed in the inscription) amounting to 264 kalanjus,

and (v) one more category of gifts given not to the Lord of the Rajarajesvaram but to the processional deity, known by the name of Dakshina Meru Vitankar, also set up by Rajaraja.

And finally apart from those given out of his own treasure, he gave one diadem (tiruppattam) made of gold taken from the treasures which he seized after having defeated the Chera king and the Pandyas in Malai Nadu, weighing 981¾ kalanjus (sera-manaiyum pandiyanaiyum malai nattu erindu konda kondu seydu kudutta tiruppattam onru pon...).

And to all these, we should add the gold element of the kalasam for the great temple, that he made over on the 275th day of his twenty-sixth year, which consisted of one copper water-pot (kudam) to be placed on the copper pinnacle (stupi tadi) of the srivimana. Its copper constituent weighed 3,083 palams and the gold gilding which was in the shape of plates (weighed 2926½ kalanjus. When we add together all the gifts in the shape of gold images, ornaments, vessels and so forth, made by Rajaraja I, we get a staggering figure of 38,604 kalanjus in round figures.

In addition to the above, a number of ornaments were gifted to the temple, which were made partly of gold and jewels from the temple treasury, and partly of pearls which the king had presented to the temple before the twenty-ninth year of his reign. A number of corals were also secured by the temple treasury out of the booty which the king had seized after conquering the Ghera king and the Pandyas in Malai Nadu. With these, one diadem and nine girdles were made for the use of the image of Rajaraje-svara, the principal deity of the temple. The details of these jewels are given in an inscription “engraved on stone on the jagatippadai and on the upapithattu kandappadai of the koyil of Chand-esvara”. Besides these gifts, 30 more ornaments, made partly of gold and jewels from the temple treasury and partly of pearls, which Rajaraja I had given to the temple up to his twenty-ninth year, were gifted (SII, II, 59 and 3).

In the enumeration, the gifts are divided into various groups:

(i) one diadem, weighing 1,197 kalanjus (value lost) and nine sacred girdles weighing 643 kalanjus and valued at 2,730 kasus make one group;

(ii) a second group of six girdles, weighing 325 kalanjus and valued at 460 kasus;

(iii) bracelets numbering 16, made of pearls constituted a third group, weighing 155 kalanjus and having 5,770 pearls, valued at 403 kasus;

(iv) five pearl ornaments called srichhandas gifted to the Lord make up yet another group; they contained 38,844 pearls, weighed 158 kalanjus and were valued at 209 kasus. And finally three more items were gifted, viz., a crown (sri-mudi), a garland and an umbrella (tirupurak-kudai).

Thus in all, a crown, a diadem, 15 girdles, 16 bracelets, five srichhandas, a garland and a parasol were gifted to the temple (SIII, II, 59 and 3). Excluding the diadem (whose value is lost), these items had a total value of 4072 kasus (adding up 86 kasus for the crown, 18 kasus for the garland, 71¾ kasus for the parasol, 2735 kasus for the nine girdles, 403 kasus for the 16 bracelets, 550 kasus for another six girdles and 209 kasus for the five srichhandas).

Out of the treasures seized from the Cheras and the Pandyas and out of his own treasures, Rajaraja I presented further jewels and ornaments to the Lord. They include necklaces, armlets, bracelets, rings and sandals (footwear) made of wood and covered with gold plates and set with jewels.

An interesting aspect is that there were four rings, which had all the nine gems (navaratnam) set in them, viz.,

  1. diamond,
  2. sapphire,
  3. pearl,
  4. topaz,
  5. cinnamon stone,
  6. coral,
  7. emerald,
  8. lapis lazuli
  9. and ruby.

This complete complement of gems is found recorded only in the inscription in Rajarajesvaram (SII, II, 93). These items are described as bejewelled ornaments (rattinattintiru-abharanangal).[1]

We get the names of all the nine gems in Tamil. They are:

  1. vairam (diamond),
  2. nilam (sapphire),
  3. muttu (pearls),
  4. pushparaga or pushyaraga (topaz ),
  5. gomedakam (cinnamon stone),
  6. pavalam (coral),
  7. maragatam (emerald),
  8. vaiduryam (lapis lazuli)
  9. and manikkam (ruby).

There are special types of rubies called sattan and ilaisungi (presumably named after some of their characteristics), inferior rubies called kuruvindam, and superior rubies like halam, komalam and halahalam: again, there are plain diamonds, kuppi diamonds and crystal (palingu or palikku) diamonds.

At least twelve different classifications in pearls were known to the Cholas:

  1. round pearls;
  2. roundish pearls;
  3. polished pearls;
  4. small pearls;
  5. nimbolam;
  6. pavittam;
  7. ambumudu;
  8. crude pearls;
  9. twin pearls;
  10. sappati;
  11. sakkattu;
  12. and pearls of brilliant water and red water, and others.

In all, this batch of gifts consists of 55 pieces—six necklaces, three composite necklaces, one tali (marriage badge), three armlets, one padakkam, six pearl bangles, two bracelets, two coral bracelets, one girdle, two pearl uruttus, two coral uruttus, one diamond uruttu, two sonaka-chidukkin-kudu{GL_NOTE: 83464:}, five jewelled rings, four navaratna rings, one prishtakandigai, one srichhandam, three pairs of sandals and six others whose descriptions are lost. The value of these items (excluding 13, whose values are lost) comes to 4,390 kasus.

In his dainty little book on the Jewellery of India, Francis Brunei, an ardent admirer of Indian Culture and Art, observes:

“India’s fabulous heritage in the field of Jewellery is unparalleled anywhere else, for not only has it at least 5,000 years of unbroken tradition behind it, but also because it has given to its jewels the highest meanings in associating the most precious metals and the purest gems with a vision of the universe, nature and life, and the cosmic energies permeating the whole creation in works of beauty,”

and adds aptly that

“..nowhere else have jewels had a greater place, or have been more associated with divinity, blessing and protection, power and glory, success and prosperity.”

Kings and nobles in all ages have revelled in jewellery. The author points out that flowers and garlands of all patterns and colours have been the first jewels within the reach of the humblest ones. Another notable feature of Indian culture was that even the highest in the land gave away the best of every thing—even of jewels—to their patron deities. Hence it is that the temples became the most valuable custodians of the precious objects of art—and for this very reason also became the target of attack during periods of political convulsions.

We may next take up the gifts of silver made by Rajaraja I to this temple. As Venkayya says, “it is worthy of note that there is only one inscription of the temple (SII, II, 91) which mentions presents made of silver. Most of the other inscriptions record gifts of gold”. The Government Epigraphist humorously remarks: “It looks as if the king had more gold and precious stones at his disposal than silver”.

This inscription contains a list of silver utensils which are said to have borne the names of Sivapadasekharan and Sri Rajarajan and derived from the three sources, viz.,

  1. the king’s own treasure,
  2. the booty seized in the war against the Ghera king and the Pandyas in Malai Nadu,
  3. and the silver seized in the same campaign.

The inscription is damaged at different portions and thus prevents a full enlistment of all the silver utensils and aids for worship (tirupparikkalangal). Silver items, like gold items, were measured (weighed) by the unit of weight (for precious metals and stones) called the Adavallan. In all, a total of 155 silver items (vessels and utensils) were given to the Lord. There are seven more items which are not decipherable, apart from a number of items which have been lost to us as the inscription is much damaged at six places. These 155 items of silver weigh a total of 48,400 kalanjus. A The inscription gives a complete list of these items with the weight of each including that of gold wherever it is an added element.

(B) Kundavai

Having set up the four icons mentioned in the earlier section, she proceeded to endow them as also the images of the two Vitan-kars set up by her brother, with ornaments and jewels, whose number, value and variety stagger the imagination of the reader. She gave to

(1) the image of her mother, 20 ear-rings (valued at six kasus, and a string of beads for the marriage badge ( vadam),

(2) the god Dakshina Meru Vitankar an ornament consisting of a single string on which were strung 35 old pearls, two corals, two lapis lazuli, one talimbam, one padugan and one kokkuvay, equal in value to 11 kasus, and

(3) the goddess Uma Paramesvari, the Consort oh Daksliina Meru Vitankar, an ornament consisting of a single string on which were strung thirty-five old pearls, viz., roundish pearls, polished pearls and small pearls, two corals, two lapis lazuli, one talimbam, one padugan, and one kokkuvay, valued at 12 kasus.

In addition, for decorating the sacred hall (tiruvarangu) which the goddess Uma Paramesvari, the Consort of the Lord Dakshina Meru Vitankar, and the goddess Uma Paramesvari, the Consort of Tanjai Vitankar, occupied while on procession during the sacred festival (tint vilaa), she gave 3,500 kalanjus of gold, which was a quarter superior in fineness to the gold standard called dandayani and 1,500 kalanjus of gold which was one degree inferior to that standard, making a total of 5,000 kalanjus of gold.

Further, for the sacred food (tint temple garlands (tiruppallittamam), oil for the sacred lamps and other expenses (alivu) required when the goddess Uma Paramesvari, the Consort of Dakshina Meru Vitankar and the goddess Uma Paramesvari, the Consort of Tanjai Vitankar were carried in procession, she deposited money with various village bodies, on interest in kind, i.e. paddy at the rate of three kurunis per kasu per year (which worked out to i 2 |%) to be delivered into the treasury of the temple of Rajarajesvaram, measured by the standard unit of volumetric measure for grains known as the Adavallan.

To meet the requirements of the image of Ponmaligait Tunjiva Devar, she made the following arrangements:

(1) one set of arrangements, similar to the above one, under which paddy as interest in kind at the rate of three kurunis per kasu per year on money (kasu) deposited with them, was to be measured into the sacred treasury, and for this purpose, she deposited with the local body of Gandaraditta chaturvediman-galam a sum of 520 kasus bearing an annual interest of 130 kalams of paddy.

(2) In addition, she enumerated a list of items connected with the daily worship of this image, for which a total of 51 kasus per year was needed. And this amount was to be met by the interest on certain deposits of cash she made with the various villages[3] which was to be paid into the sacred treasury in cash at the rate of one-eighth of an akkam (one twelfth of a kasu) per month per kasu as interest.

(3) In addition, for keeping ten twilight lamps burning for this deity, she deposited with Pirantakan Achchan Adigal 32 kasus for purchasing 96 sheep (at the rate of three sheep for one kasu) whose milk was to be converted to ghee and used for keeping the lights burning and for this purpose this donee was to give one ulakku of ghee every day.

An almost identical arrangement was made by Kundavai for the worship to be offered to the image of her mother Vanavan Mahadevi, set up by her. This was in three parts:

(1) For the general expenses of worship, she deposited 520 kasus with the village of Kundavai-nallur, fetching 130 kalams of paddy as interest per annum;

(2) The cash required for the purchase of sacred cloth, curtains, towels, canopies and other items was to be deposited in the sacred treasury, being the interest on a capital of 488 kasus deposited by Kundavai with the assembly of Sri Parantakachaturvedimangalam; and

(3) She deposited with Pattattalan Kaliyan Paradan (Bliaratan 32 kasus for the purchase of sheep for ten twilight lamps to be maintained before the image of her mother.

What elaborate arrangements!

Yet another inscription (SII, II, 2) gives further information on the contribution of Kundavai; it consists of three distinct parts. The first part (comprising paras 1 to 12) mentions that on the 310th day of the twenty-fifth year of Rajaraja I, Kundavai, the queen of Vallavaraiyar Vandyadevar and elder sister of Rajaraja I, presented eleven gold vessels to the “goddess Uma Paramesvari, who is the Consort of our Lord Adavallar”; the second part enumerates similar gifts of gold vessels and ornaments which were made by her between the twenty-fifth and twenty-ninth years of Rajaraja I “to goddess Uma Paramesvari who is the Consort of our Lord Adavallar Dakshina Meru Vitankar’ (paras 14 to 42). The last portion (paras 44 to 59) lists out the gifts to the goddess Uma Paramesvari, “who is the Consort of our Lord Tanjai Vitankar”. A third inscription, relating to Kundavai’s contribution to the temple (SII, II, 7) covers her gifts to the images set up by her in the Rajarajesvaram temple, till the third regnal year of her nephew, Rajendra I. It mentions 13 more ornaments of gold and jewels, given by her to “Uma Paramesvari, who is the Consort of our Lord Dakshina Meru Vitankar” until the 3 rd year of the reign of Kopparakesarivarman alias Rajendradeva. The descriptions of these ornaments are very elaborate.

The total value of all the 13 pieces of jewellery and ornaments adds up to 11,820 /casus in all. It may be noticed that all these pieces relate to one image set up by her.

Kundavai’s gifts to the icons set up by her and others (SII, II, 8) in the temple of temples were unceasing. A further record relates to similar gifts of a number of ornaments of gold and jewels which were presented by her until the third year of the reign of Rajendra I, the donees here also being the images which she had set up herself. This inscription which is in three sections of nine lines each ends in the middle with the statement that the inscription is continued at the bottom of the south wall of the portico, which unfortunately is built in. From the published part of the inscription we have the list of gifts given to the Consort of Dakshina Meru Vitankar and the Consort of Tanjai Vitankar. These are: five pieces of gold ornaments, comprising a girdle, two foot-rings (anklets?) and two sri-pada-sayalam, gifted to Uma Paramesvari, the Consort of Dakshina Meru Vitankar, adding up to a total value of 6,200; 15 items of ornaments of gold consisting of a crown, ear-rings, pendants, sayalam, necklace and others, weighing in all about 391 kalanjus, whose value is not given; and two items of jewellery made up of a makuta and a garland, the former valued at 700 kasus.

(C) Rajendra I

During Rajendra I’s time gifts were made to the following deities:

1. Lord of Rajarajesvaram
2. Kiratarjuniya devar
3. Pichchadevar
4. Maha Meru Vitankar
5. Kalyanasundarar and His Consort
6. Chandesvara devar
7. Dakshina Meru Vitankar

Until the sixth year of Rajendra I, Guru Isana Siva Pandita, Udaya Divakaran Tillaiyaliyar (alias Rajaraja Muvendavelar), a minister (adhikarin) and a native of Kanchi-vayil and the Valangai Parambadaigalitar, each deposited 180, 13 and 252 kasus respectively with the temple, as represented by Chandesvara devar. These amounts were given out on interest to the assembly of Nedumanal alias Madanamanjari chaturvedimangalam. These amounts were supplemented by 805 kasus given out of the sacred treasury of the Lord, thus making a total of 1250 kasus. Towards interest on 1070 kasus, the said assembly was to measure with the Adavallan marakkal, 267 kalams, one tuni and a padakku of paddy into the large treasury of the Lord at Tanjavur and towards interest on the remaining amount of 180 kasus, the assembly was to pay every year into the treasury 22 I kasus.

The amounts (paddy and cash) thus received as interest were to be utilised as follows:

(i) out of 22½ kasus (which was the interest on the deposit of 180 kasus by Guru Isana Siva Pandita), 56¼ kalanjus of camphor (karpuram) was to be bought.

(ii) the interest of paddy on the 13 kasus deposited by the minister was to be used for the sacred food and other requirements of the image of Kiratarjuniya Devar set up by him; and

(iii) the interest of paddy on the amounts deposited by the army regiment and the sacred treasury was to be used for the sacred food and other requirements of the image of Pichcha-devar, whose maintenance and worship was made the responsibility of this particular regiment by the king. It will be seen later that a similar arrangement was made for the other deities of the temple by royal order (SII, II, 9).

A further amount of 94 kasus was deposited with the assembly of Irumbudal, alias Manikulachchulamani chaturvediman-galam (present day Alangudi in Tanjavur dist.), a brahmadeya in Avur kurrarn in Nittavinoda valanadu in or before the tenth year of Rajendra I; the interest in paddy on this amount was to be utilised for food and other expenses of the image of Kiratar-juna Devar, referred to earlier (SII, II, 10).

The same assembly accepted 506 kasus from the funds made available by the Sirudanattu Panimakkal (the servants of the small treasury) and paid annually as interest three kurunis of paddy per year per kasu for the sacred food and other expenses required for the image of Maha Meru Vitankar and His Consort which had been set up by Rajaraja I (SII, II, io).

The assembly of Arumolideva chaturvedimangalam in Purangarambai nadu of Arumolideva valanadu accepted (from Ghandesvara devar) on interest a deposit of 294, which the Niyayam Simndanattu panimakkal, who were attached to the images of Maha Meru Vitankar and his Consort had deposited for the services to the two deities, whose expenditure was to be met from the interest at the usual money rate (SII, II, 11).

The images of Kalyanasundarar and His Consort, which were set up by Trailokya Mahadevi, one of the queens of Rajaraja I, were by royal order made the responsibility of the Nyayangalilar and the latter body deposited for the expenses required by these images, sums which were received as follows:

i) The Keralantaka-vasal-tiru-meykkappar 118 kasus
ii) The Anukkavasal-tiru-meykkappar 8 kasus
iii) The Keralantaka-terinda-parivarattar 35 kasus
iv) The Jananatha-terinda-parivarattar 5 kasus
v) The Singalantaka-terinda-parivarattar 1 kasus
vi) The Parivara-meykkappargal of Tenkarainadu 339 kasus
all making a total of 506 kasus

On this capital, the same assembly was to credit into the temple treasury the interest in cash annually at the usual rate of interest (SII, II, II).

The Pandita-sola-terinja-villaligal, a contingent of the Perundanattu valangai-velaikkara-padaigal, which was a regiment of the Chola army, were attached to the deity of the Raja-rajesvaram temple; they deposited with Chandesvara, who in turn was to give the interest to the assembly of Palliyil, in Nenmali nadu, a subdivision of Arulmolideva valandu, 31 kasus on money interest, for the expenses required for this image. Similarly the Nittavinoda terinda valangai velaikkarar, another contingent of the army, deposited 13 kasus with the same assembly for the same purpose (SII, II, 12).

The Niyayam-uttama-sola-terinda-andalagattalar, who were attached to the image of Chandesvara which had been set up by Perundanam Irayiravan Pallavayan alias Mummadisola Posan alias Uttama Sola Pallavaraiyan deposited 60 kasus with the same assembly for the services to that image to be conducted out of the money interest on the said sum (SII, II, 12).

The Rajavinoda-terinda-valangai-velaikkarar, a contingent of the Niyayam Perundanattu valangai-velaikkara-padaigal, who were attached to the Lord of the Rajarajesvaram temple deposited with the assembly of Perumbalamarudur, a brahmadeya in Puran-garambai nadu for the expenses required for this image, a sum of 310 kasus on money interest. The Chandaparakrama-terinda-valangai-velaikkarar deposited 223 kasus for the same purpose, and the Pandita-Sola-terinda-villaliyar 267 kasus, also for the same purpose. They total 800 kasus (SII, II, 13).

The Niyayam-Sirundanattu-valangai-velaikkara-padaigalilar, who were attached by royal order to the image of Dakshina Meru Vitankar set up by Rajaraja I, had deposited 1000 kasus with the assembly of Kalappal, a brahmadeya in Purangarambai nadu of Arumolideva valanadu for meeting the expenses of services to this image out of the interest (of 125 kasus) (SII, II, 14).

The same army regiment deposited a further sum of 500 kasus, for the same deity’s requirements, with the assembly of Vanganagar, a brahmadeya of Purangarambai nadu, mentioned earlier (SII, II, 15).

Again, the same army regiment deposited 300 kasus for the services to the same deity, with the assembly of Kori, a brahmadeya in the same nadu as above; 37½ kasus was the interest to be paid into the sacred treasury (SII, II, 16).

The same regiment, for the same purpose, for the same deity deposited 800 kasus bearing an annual interest of 100 kasus with the assembly of Arinjigai chaturvedimangalam (SII, II, 17). A similar investment of 500 kasus was made with the assembly of Kundavai chaturvedimangalam (SII, II, 18).

Further, the same regiment, for the same purpose, for the same deity, deposited 500 kasus, bearing an annual interest of 62 ^ kasus, with the assembly of Panaiyur, a brahmadeya in Purangarambai nadu (SII, II, 19).

The icon of Dakshina Meru Vitankar appears to have received massive grants and considerable attention.

(D) By Officers

Gifts (other than icons) made by the officers of Rajaraja I are again numerous.

1. Kadan Ganavadi

Among them are those made by one Kadan Ganavadi (Ganapati), a native of Muruganallur in Puliyur nadu, a subdivision of Arulmolideva valanadu, and a pani magan (servant) of the minor treasury (sirudanam)of the Lord Sri Rajaraja devar. He deposited 56 kasus with the perumakkal of the perangadi of Tribhuvanamahadevi, which was situated within the city limits of the capital (of Tanjavur) for meeting the annual expenses on cardamom seeds and big champaka buds, out of the interest of seven kasus. This was for the main deity of the Rajarajesvaram temple.

Similarly, for supplying 2,160 palams of scented roots[4], a principal amount of 30 kasus was received on interest by the members of the assembly of Iramanur, a of Miraikkurram, a subdivision of Vadakarai Rajendrasimha valanadu (SII, II, 24).

2. Rajakesari Kodandaraman

Rajakesari Kondandaraman alias Jayangondasola Kadigai Marayan, a musician from Nattarmangalam in Manni nadu, a subdivision of Rajendrasimha valanadu, deposited 40 kasus of money on interest. With the assembly of Viranarayana chatur-vedimangalam, a taniyur in Rajendrasimha valanadu which accepted this deposit and agreed to pay five kasus to the treasury of the temple to meet the remuneration of ten musicians who beat the tirupparai (sacred drum) to announce certain festivals of the temple (SII, II, 25).

3. Karayil Eduttapadam

Karayil Eduttapadam, a native of Rajakesarinallur in Inga nadu, a subdivision of Arulmolideva valanadu, who was the headman (kilaan) of the said village and the minister who wrote the orders of Sri Rajarajadevar (Tirumandi deposited a sum of 50 kasus with the assembly of Perunangai-mangalam, a brahmadeya in Vennikkurram, a subdivision of Nittavinoda valanadu on interest for the purchase of camphor to burn a perpetual lamp.

From another record, we come to know of the donation of 100 kasus for the feeding of the Sivayogins. The name of the donor is lost. The money was received by the assembly of Perunangai-mangalam, who agreed to pay three kurunis of paddy per kasu per year, to be delivered to the big treasury of the temple.

Two hundred and forty Sivayogins were to be fed on 24 festival days (including the Tiru-Sadaiyam festivals) (SII, II, 28).

4. Adittan Suryan

Adittan (Adityan) Suryan alias Tennavan Muvendavelan who was in charge of the management of the temple of Rajarajes-varam, deposited 78 kasus on interest with the assembly of Perunangai-mangalam, which in turn was to measure every year 19 kalams, one tuni and one padakku of paddy into the treasury. Another sum of 16 kasus was also deposited under the same conditions so as to yield an annual interest of two kasus for burning camphor lamp along with the incense offered to the Lord of the temple and to the image of Dakshina Meru Vitankar. Thus 78 kasus for paddy and 16 kasus for camphor were donated by Adittan Suryan (SII, II, 26).

The same donor gifted in the second year of Rajendra I, four pots made of copper with gold coating, to the temple of Chandes-varar. He also presented copper, zinc (tara) and bell-metal vessels to the image of Pillaiyar Ganapatiyar in the main temple and a number of pieces of jewellery to the Pillaiyar Ganapatiyar of the Parivaralayam (SII, II, 86).

Footnotes and references:


As usual, they were weighed against the stone called Dakshina Meru Vitankan; the standard manner of weighing jewellery was to exclude the threads (saradu), the frames (sattam), and the copper nails (seppani) and include the lac (arakku) and the pinju (?).


A very interesting item of jewellery is the Sonakachchidukkin kudu. Chidukku is a commonly known ornament of the medieval period worn by women, and the term “Sonaka” would seem to have come into Tamil in the following manner: Sonaka<Jonaka<Javanaka<Yavanaka (a Greek or more generally one from the Middle East). So this item could have been modelled on a Greek piece of jewellery. We have at least one instance of an Arab who rose to eminence in the Chola court one who bore the Indian name of Paranjoti (of Savur) (SII, II, 95 and p. 460).


Details of the cash amounts deposited with various villages:

Village Capital Interest
  in kasus in kasus
Viranarayana-chaturvedimangalam 196 24½
Parantaka-chaturvedimangalam 112 14
Sulamangalam 100 12½
Total     408 51



Ilamajjaka (Sanskrit) = khas in Hindustani, a root used for adding fragrance to water.

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