Later Chola Temples

by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam | 1979 | 143,852 words

This volume of Chola Temples covers Kulottunga I to Rajendra III in the timeframe A.D. 1070-1280. The Cholas of Southern India left a remarkable stamp in the history of Indian architecture and sculpture. Besides that, the Chola dynasty was a successful ruling dynasty even conquering overseas regions....

1. 2nd year: Tiruvakkarai, South Arcot dist. Building of a hundred-pillared mandapa (wrongly referred to as thousand-pillared) in the Chandra-moulisvara temple, called Gandar Suriyan, by Ammaiyappan Gandar Suriyan Sambhuvarayan alias Pandiya-nadu-kondan (ARE 190 of 1904),

2, 3rd year: Tirumananjeri, Tanjavur dist. Arasukkadiyan Tiruniiakandan Sera-man-tolan of Kiranur constructed of stone the temple ofTiru-Edirkol-padi udaiyar in Kurukkai nadu; also a gift for a night-lamp (ARE 27 of 1914).

3. 3rd year: Tiruvennai naliur, South Arcot dist. The gopura-vasal of the temple of Atkonda-devar was erected by Kudal Mohan Alappirandan alias Kadavarayan (ARE 477 of 1921); the king's name (of Vira Rajendra) is cited in an inscription (ARE 479 of 1921).

4. 3rd year: Velur, South Arcot dist. A Vishnu temple of Kulottungasola Vinnagar at Velur is referred to; at the instance of Viliavaraiyar, a gift of lands from three villages was clubbed together and named Kulottungasola naliur, made tax-free devadana and gifted to the temple (ARE 114 of 1919).

5. 5th year: Tadavur, Salem dist. Gift of land by Kulottungasola Vanakovaraiyar for worship, repairs and festivals in the temple of Tiru Ekambam Udayar at Tadavur in Mel Gangapadi nadu in Arrur-kurram, part of Maladu alias Jananatha valanadu (ARE 461 of 1913).

6. 5th year: (3) 50th day, Chidambaram, South Arcot dist. Gift of land to (the icon) Ammangai Alvar alias Periya Nachchiyar, daughter of Kulot-tunga deva (I) ‘who abolished the tolls' (ARE 121 of 1888; SII, IV, 226).

7. 6th year: Sembanarkoyil, Tanjavur dist. At the request of Chakravartin Akkur nadalvan, the devaradiyar together with the niyayattar of the temple of Tiruch chempon palli udaiyar gave an undertaking that they would continue to celebrate festivals in honour of Ter-uru-velar Udaiyar whose image with those of Nayanmars had been removed to the Tiruvidaikkali Pillaiyar temple owing to bad times (in the 11th year of Rajadhiraja II (?)) and that they would reconstruct the gateway called Tappada Vediyan tiruvasalt the north wall and the car-stand (ter mu kudam) destroyed by cyclone (ARE 171 of 1925).

8. 6th year: Kugaiyur, South Arcot dist. Kugudaiyan Iranan Ponparappinan, who had the kani of Kugaiyur, set up the image of Pon-parappina Isvaram udaiyar and constructed the stone temple of Sri Kailasam Udaiyar, the ardhamandapa, the smpana mandapa, the nritta rnndapa and two prakaras with gapurams. He made a gift of land for offerings and constructed a tank with provision for its upkeep (ARE 93 of 1918).

9. 8th year: Tiruppanandal, Tanjavur dist. Gift of land for offerings to the Nayanmai images set up in the temple by a certain Kungiliyak-kalayanayanar (ARE 48 of 1914).

10. 10th year: (123rd day) Tiruch-chengattan-gudi, Tanjavur dist. Gift of land to Rajendrasola Achariyan, perhaps the temple architect (ARE 70 of 1913).

11. 11th year: Arakandanallur, South Arcot dist. Gift of three lamps to the Lord, and of land to the image of the Goddess set up by the donor, Kiliyur Maiaiyaman Attimallan alias Edirilisola Vanakula rayan (ARE/ 390ofl902;SII, VII, 1022).

12. 11th year: Tiruvorriyur, Chingleput dist. Gifts of (a) twelve buffaloes for a lamp \ and a lamp-stand shaped like the donor Tiruvarangam udaiyan alias Dharma-paripalan Rajadhiraja Malaiyaraiyan, and (b) twelve buffaloes for a lamp, a similar lamp-stand and a silver bugle (kalam) to the Goddess, Aludaiya Nachchiyar. The lampstands were named Dhanma-paripala's after the donor (ARE 114 of 1912).

13. 11th year: Tittagudi, South Arcot dist. Gift of kadip-pattam to the image of Visvesvara by the mandalika, Rajaraja Vangara Muttaraiyan (ARE 18ofl903;SII, VIII, 288).

14. 12th year: Tiruvadatturai, South Arcot dist. List, with weights, of ornaments worn by the Lord, Tiruvaratturai udaiya nayanar, as examined by Rajaraja Vangara Muttaraiyan, the trustees of the temple and the sabha of the village (ARE 210 of 1929).

15. 12th year: (125th day) Chidambaram, South Arcot dist. Sendamangalam udaiyan Araiyan Edirilisolan alias Irungolan founded the temple called Uttama Solisvaram at Parakesari nallur, a hamlet of Perum-parrappuliyur (Chidambaram). Gift of land to this temple and its servants. Inscribed on the Vikrama solan tirumaligai of the Nataraja temple (ARE 309 of 1913).

16. 13th year: Sulamangam, Tanjavur dist. The Perunguri mahasabhai of the village made arrangements to build a second prakara to the temple, to make a flowergarden and a street around it (ARE 563 of 1921).

17. 15th year: Tirup palaivanam, Chingleput dist. Assignment of funds for the construction of the stone temple of Tirup palaivanam udaiyar undertaken by Podi vadugan alias Jayangondasola Kidarattaraiyan (ARE 313 of 1929).

18. 16th year: Maruttuvakkudi, Tanjavur dist. Gift to two Jain temples, Chedikula manikkap perumpalli and Gangakula sundarap perumpalli at Sivapadasekhara-nallur (ARE 392 of 1907).

19. 16th year: Tirukkadaiyur, Tanjavur dist. Gift of land by the sabha for tiruppadi~ marru to the image of Rajaraja Isvara set up by Araiyan Rajaraja-devan alias Vanadaraiyan for the merit of the king (ARE 42 of 1906).

20. 17th year: Tiruvennainallur, South Arcot dist. Gift of land by Kudal Elisai-mohan Manavalap-perumal Val-nilaikandan Kadavarayan (father of Pallava Kopperunjingan and builder of the capital, fort and temple at Sendamangalam) (ARE 313 of 1902; SII, VII, 942).

21. 18th year: Udaiyarkoyil, Tanjavur dist. Land-gift to a person who successfully substituted a stone sri-pitha in the temple of Tirukkala udaiya Perumal in place ofthe existing brickwork. (ARE4Q8of 1902; SII, VII, 1041).

22. 19th year: Papanasam, Tanjavur dist. Gift of land at Kundavai nallur to the temple of Visvesvara built at Nallur by Ara-amudan Madevan alias Vikramasola Brahma marayan (ARE 467 of 1922).

23. 20th year: Kilur, South Arcot dist. Construction of a mandapa by a sandhi-vigrahi of Ponparappinan Magadaip Perumal (ARE 291 of 1902; SII, VII, 920.

24. 20th year: (350th day) Talainayar, Tanjavur dist. The wife of Solakularan Mangaladhirayar consecrated the temple of Kurramporuttisvara-standing on the rock and gave money for cloth for the Lord Parvad-bhagar. (ARE 140 of 1927).

25. 21st year: (270th day) Achyutamangalam, Tanjavur dist. Formadon of a new, widened street round the Somanathadeva temple (ARE 407 and 408 of 1925).

26. 22nd year: Kambayanallur, Salem dist. Vidukadalagiya Perumal, son of Rajaraja Adigan, Lord of Tagadai, built a stone temple at Siruk-kottai (Nagaiyampalli) on the banks of the Pennar and called it after his own name (see the Secdon on Laddigam as well as the book of that name by B. Venkataraman, Orient Longman) (ARE 8 of 1920; E.I., VI, pp. 332-334).

27. 22nd year: Tiruch-chengattangudi, Tanjavur dist. Construction of the third prakara of the temple and a street around it (ARE 72 of 1913).

28. 24th year: Achehapuram, Tanjavur dist. Gift of lands purchased from the inhabitants of Nallur alias Nigarilisola-puram to the shrine of Pan-padaikka Aduvar in the temple of Tirup-peru-manam udaiyar by Pirudi Gangaraiyan of Purakkudi (ARE 532 of 1918).

29. 24th year: Tiruvarur, Tanjavur dist. Redistribution of the temple lands ‘by the order of the Lord Himself in the 24th year of “JVam Tolan Tribhu-vana Viradeva”—God is believed to have addressed the king thus, the earliest reference to this title (ARE 554 of 1904).

30. 26th year: Tiruvorriyur, Chingleput dist. Gift of a village, Kulappakkam, and gold ornaments including tiruvadu tandu to God Vyakarana-dana Perumal (Siva) by the king, referred to as ‘Ulaguyya vanda nayanar’ (ARE 120ofl912).

31. 27th year: Brahmadesam, North Arcot dist. Adavallan Gangaikondan alias Irungolan gave the village of Irungola-villagam for gopuram, offerings and lamp (ARE 266 of 1915).

32. 27th year: Tadavur, Salem dist. Construction of the temple of Tiruvekambam udaiyar, of stone, using the gold already possessed by the temple and with gifts from the king and the Ilaiya Nambirattiyar (Junior Queen) (ARE458ofl913).

33. 28th year: Perunjeri, Tanjavur dist. Construction in the fifth year of Periyadevar Rajadhirajadevar of the stone-temple of Tiruyagisvaram Udaiyar at Melai-vagai by a merchant of the village, and of the mandapa and the bali-pitha by his son, are referred to. and endowments are made (ARE 37 of 1925).

34. 28th year: Vriddhachalam, South Arcot dist. Gift of a hundred cows for milk by Kudal Elisai-mohan Manavalapperumal alias Val-nilai-kanda Perumai alias Rajaraja Kadavarayan (father of Kopperunjinga—also vide No. 20 above) (ARE 133 of 1900; SII, VII, 146).

35. 29th year: Tirukkalar, Tanjavur dist. Detailed list of temple-jewels by weight and fineness. (SII, III, 211).

36. 29th year: Tirup-pachchur, Ghingleput dist. The merchant-communities of. ten nagarams acquired the village of Kaivandur in Ikkattuk kottam! and gifted it as tax-free devadana to the temple of Tiruppasur for constructing the wall of enclosure called Danmada-valavan-hnimatf/ (ARE 120 of 1930) \

37. 30th year: Kalahasti, Chittoor dist., A.P. Construction of a temple-car for Tirukkalatti Udaiyar. Its purchase price was paid by Rajamalla devar alias Yadavaraya of Karruppundi to the Chittira melip periya nattavar. (ARE 122 of 1922).

38. 32nd year: Arakandanallur, South Arcot dist. Construction of stone of the temple of Opporuvarum illada nayanar at Tiru-araiyani-nallur by a native of the Pandya country (ARE 387 of 1902; SII VII, 1019).

39. 32nd year: Toludur, South Arcot dist. A certain Sediraya Vellan, Chief of Sembai (Jambu), built the stone temple and the mandapa of Madhurantaka Isvaram udaiya nayanar at Perum Toluvur in Ulagur Kurram. He presented the processional images of the God and Goddess also (ARE 400 of 1913).

40. 32nd year: Achchapuram, Tanjavur dist. Gift of land to the shrine of Tiruk-kamak-kottam udaiya Nachchiyar (Amman) constructed in the temple of Tirupperumanam udaiyar by Chandrasekharan Pancha-nadivanan of Nerkunam (ARE 530 of 1918).

41. 34th year: Kudumiyarnalai, Pudukkottai dist. Recapitulates the king’s third conquest of Madurai, mentions the assumption of the title of‘Tribhu-vana viradeva’ and temple-building activities (See “Inscriptions of the Pudukkottai State”, No. Ill; my article in the Journal of Oriental Research, Madras, Vol. No. V, Pt. Ill, 1931.

42. 35th year: (Saka 1134, a.d. 1212-13) Kanchipuram, Ghingleput dist. Siya-ganga built the Anantalvar shrine of stone in the Yaradaraja Perumai temple (ARE 589 of 1919).

43. 35th year: Nangupatti, Pudukkottai dist. Gift of a village to the local temple by Urudaip Perumai alias Edirilisola Kadambarayan for the merit of the king during his stay at Madhurai; mentions the highway ‘Tribhu-vana-viran peruvali'.

44. 35th year: Tiruvannamalai, North Arcot dist. Gilding of the central shrine and gift of three villages on the north bank of the Pennai by Rajaraja devan Pon-parappinan Vanakovaraiyan of Aragalur (ARE 557 of 1902; SII, VIII, 148).

45. 35th year: Tiruvennai nallur, South Arcot dist. Gift of lands in Senji (hamlet to the north of Rajaraja chaturvedimangalam) by Mogandar alias Solinga devan and Alagiya-siyan Sambuvarayan to Goddess Periya Pirattiyar set up by the mother (name lost) of Alagiya Pallavan Kopperunjinga deva in the temple of Vaikunthattu Emperuman (ARE 487 of 1921): a copy was made when the srivimana was pulled down (see ARE 486 of 1921 of the 11th year of Kopperunjinga): the king got re-engraved an older inscription of the 12th year of Rajarajadeva II.

46. 35thyear: Tiruvorriyur, Chingleput dist. Gift of land to the temple for maintaining a Vyakarana school and for the worship of ‘Vyakarana-danap-perumal’ referring to the legend of Siva's revelation of the Sutras to Panini) (ARE 202 of 1912).

47. 36th year: Reddipalem, Nellore dist., A.P. Mahamandalika Rajarajapettai Siddharasa endowed a lamp in the shrine of Pandurangam udaiyar for the merit of his elder sister, Bachchala devi, the devi of Madhuran-taka Pottappich-chola Manuma-siddharasa (Nellore Inscriptions, G.86).

48. 36th year: Yerraguntapalem, Chikkevoiu, Nellore dist., A.P. One of the followers of Tirukkalatti deva (son of Manumasiddharasa) gave on behalf of his Lord the village of Takkulam to Kesava Perumal set up in the village (N.I., R.8).

49. 37th year: Tiruppulivanam, Chingleput dist. An understanding of the sabha of Uttaramerur to conduct certain festivals as of old and to light eight lamps as per old endowments—four of the age of Aparajita, one of that of Kannaradeva, two of that of Maduraikonda Parakesari and one of the 14th year of Tribhuvana viradeva’ himself (ARE 396 of 1923; ARE 1924, II, 22).

50. 38th year: Uttaramerur, Chingleput dist. Sundara-varada Perumal temple (Rajendrasola Vinnagar). Construction of the outer prakara wall, the abhisheka mandapa, and other adjuncts made by a lady-servant of the temple (devaradiyal) Ayirattiru-nurruva Manikkam; she and her posterity were to be given a daily gift of rice food-offerings fprasa - dams) (ARE 172 of 1923).

51. 38th year: (239th day) Tiruvorriyur, Chingleput dist. Gift of Kulattur alias Kulottungasolan Kavanur by Durgaiyandi nayakan (Agent of Siddharasan) for the maintenance of the ‘Vyakarana-dana vyakhyana mandapa’ built by him in the temple of Tiruvorriyur (ARE 201 of 1912).

52. 39th year: Tiruvarangulam, Pudukkottai dist. Building of the Brahadambal (Amman) shrine by Kannudaiya Perumal alias Piratti Alvar, queen of Kodungunram udaiyar alias Nishadarajan and daughter of Keralandan alias Nishadharajan of Pon-Amaravati. (ARE 320 of 1914; Pd. 174).

53. 39th year: Tirukkachur, Chingleput dist. Appar image set up (ARE 316 of 1909).

54. 39th year: Tribhuvanam, Tanjavur dist. The building activities of the king described, title of ‘Vira Rajendra deva’ mentioned (ARE 190-192 of 1902).

55. 5th year: Valuvur, Tanjavur dist. Construction in the 5th year of Vira Rajendra deva of the shrine of the goddess by Ekavachakan Ulagukanvidutta Perumal alias Vanakovarayar, Chief of Tunda nadu (ARE 429 of 1912).

56. 5th & 7th years: Achyutamangalam, Tanjavur dist.

a) Saka 1104 (=a.d. 1182): Consecration of Somanatha by Sri-kantha Sambhu, brother of Gosvami Misfa of the Radha country (ARE 402 of 1925);

b) 7th year, 41st day: Sons of Svamidevar mentioned (ARE 403 of 1925);

c) 5th year, 376th day: gift of land in Sivapadasekhara mangalam as iraiyili dtvadana for opening a tirumadai-vilagam, a tank and a flower-garden to the Somanatha temple by Svamidevar (ARE 393 of 1925).

57. 5th & 7th years: Ennayiram, South Arcot dist. A mandapa in front of the main shrine by Ammaiyappan Pandinadu-kondan Kandara Suriyanar alias Rajaraja Sambhuvarayar (also builder of the hundred-pillared mandapa at Tiruvakkarai) (ARE 345 of 1917).

58. 11th year: Kalahasti, Chittoor dist., A.P. Building of the temple of Tiru-manik-kengai-udaiya nayanar, mandapa and flight of steps (ARE 197 of 1903; SII, VIII, 496).

59. 14th year: Agastyakonda, North Arcot dist. The queen of Uttamasola Gangan alias Selva Gangan set up and consecrated an image of Appar (ARE 559 of 1906).

60. Undated: Kanjanur, Tanjavur dist. Fragments of inscriptions refer to (1) Avimuktisvaram udaiyar and (2) the construction of a stone temple (ARE 64 of 1931).

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