Buddhist records of the Western world (Xuanzang)

by Samuel Beal | 1884 | 224,928 words | ISBN-10: 8120811070

This is the English translation of the travel records of Xuanzang (or, Hiuen Tsiang): a Chinese Buddhist monk who traveled to India during the seventh century. This book recounts his documents his visit to India and neighboring countries, and reflects the condition of those countries during his time, including temples, culture, traditions and fest...

Chapter 2 - Country of Mo-kie-t’o (Magadha), part 2

To the east of the Bodhi tree, crossing the Nairañjanā (Ni-len-shan-na) river, in the middle of a wood, is a stūpa. To the north of this is a pool. This is the spot where a perfume elephant (Gandhahastī)[1] waited on his mother. Formerly when Tathāgata was practising discipline as a Bodhisattva, he was born as the offspring of a perfume-elephant, and lived in the mountains of the north. Wandering forth, he came to the border of this pool. His mother being blind, he gathered for her the sweet lotus roots, and drew pure water for her use, and cherished her with devotion and filial care. At this time there was a man who had changed his home,[2] who wandered here and there in the wood without knowing his way, and in his distress raised piteous cries. The elephant-cub heard him and pitied him; leading him on, he showed him his way to the road. The man having got back, forthwith went to the king and said, "I know of a wood[3] in which a perfume-elephant lives and roams. It is a very valuable animal. You had better go and take it."

The king, assenting to his words, went with his soldiers to capture it, the man leading the way. Then pointing to the elephant to show it to the king, immediately both his arms fell off as if cut by a sword. The king, though he saw this miracle, yet captured the elephant-cub, and bound it with cords, and returned to his palace. The young elephant having been bound (in order to tame it), for a long time would neither eat nor drink. The stable-keeper stated the matter to the king, who, on his part, came to see for himself, and asking the elephant the reason.[4] "Lo!" he answered and said, "my mother is blind, and now for days together is without food or drink, and here I am bound in a dreary dungeon. How can I take my food with relish!" The king, pitying his feelings and resolution, therefore ordered him to be set free.

By the side of this (pool) is a stūpa, before which is built a stone pillar. In this place the Buddha Kaśyapa (Kia-she-po) long ago sat in meditation. By its side are traces where the four past Buddhas sat down and walked.

To the east of this spot, crossing the Mo-ho[5] (Mahī) river, we come to a great forest in which is a stone pillar. This is the place where a heretic entered a condition of ecstasy and made a wicked vow. In old days there was a heretic called Udra-Rāmaputtra (U-teou-lan-tseu). In mind he soared above the vapoury clouds, whilst he left his body among the wilds and marshes. Here in this sacred forest, restraining his spirit, he left his traces.[6] Having acquired the five supernatural faculties,[7] he reached the highest condition of Dhyāna, and the king of Magadha greatly respected him. Each day at noon he invited him to his palace to eat. Udra-Rāmaputtra, mounting through space, walking in the air, came and went without hindrance.

The king of Magadha, expecting the moment of his arrival, kept watch for him, and, on his coming, respectfully placed for him his seat. The king being about to go forth on a tour, wished to put this affair in charge of some one during his absence, but he found no one in his inner palace whom he could select, capable of undertaking his commands.[8] But (amongst his attendants) there was a little pet girl of modest appearance and well-mannered, so that in the whole palace none of his followers (wise folk) was able to excel her.[9] The king of Magadha summoned this one, and said to her, "I am going some distance on a tour of observation, and I desire to put you in charge of an important business; you must, on your part, give all your mind to do thoroughly as I direct in the matter. It relates to that celebrated Rishi Udra-Rāmaputtra, whom I have for a long time treated with reverence and respect. Now when he comes here at the appointed time to dine, do you pay him the same attention that I do." Having left these instructions, the king forthwith gave notice of his absence (non-attendance)

The little girl, according to her instructions, waited in expectation as usual. The great Rishi having come, she received him, and placed a seat for him. Udra-Rāmaputtra having touched the young female, felt within him the impure risings of earthly passion (of the world of desire), and so he lost his spiritual capabilities. Having finished his meal, he spoke of going, but he was unable to rise in the air. Then feeling ashamed, he prevaricated, and addressing the maiden said, "I am able, as the result of the discipline I practise, to enter Samādhi, and then, my mind at rest, I can ascend into the air, and come and go without a moment's delay. I have heard long ago, however, that the people of the country desire to see me. In agreement with the rule of the olden time, our utmost aim should be to benefit all that lives. How shall I regard only my own benefit and forget to benefit others? I desire, therefore, on this occasion, to go through the gate and walk on the ground, to bring happiness and profit to all those who see me going."

The royal maiden hearing this, straightway spread the news far and wide. Then the people began with all their hearts to water and sweep the roads, and thousands upon thousands awaited to see him come. Udra-Rāma-puttra, stepping from the royal palace, proceeded on foot to that religious forest. Then sitting down in silence, he entered Samādhi. Then his mind, quickly escaping outside, was yet limited within the boundaries of the forest.[10] And now (as it wandered through the woods) the birds began to scream and flutter about, and as it approached the pond, the fishes began to jump and splash, till at last his feelings being wrought up, and his mind becoming confused, he lost his spiritual capabilities. Giving up his attempt at ecstasy,[11] he was filled with anger and resentment, and he made this wicked vow "May I hereafter be born as a fierce and wicked beast, with the body of a fox and the wings of a bird, that I may seize and devour living creatures. May my body be 3000 li long, and the outspread of my wings each way 1500 li; then rushing into the forest, I will devour the birds, and entering the rivers, I will eat the fish."

When he had made this vow his heart grew gradually at rest, and by earnest endeavours he resumed his former state of ecstasy. Not long after this he died, and was born in the first of the Bhuvāni heavens,[12] where his years would be 80,000 kalpas. Tathāgata left this record of him: "The years of his life in that heaven being ended, then he will reap the fruit of his old vow and possess this ignoble body. From the streams of the evil ways of birth he may not yet expect to emerge."[13]

To the east of Mahī river we enter a great wild forest, and going 100 li or so, we come to the Ki'u-ki'u-cha-po-to-shan (Kukkuṭapādagiri, the Cock's-foot Mountain). It is also called Kiu-liu-po-to-shan (Gurupādāḥ giri[14]). The sides of this mountain are high and rugged, the valleys and gorges are impenetrable. Tumultuous torrents rush down its sides, thick forests envelope the valleys, whilst tangled shrubs grow along its cavernous heights. Soaring upwards into the air are three sharp peaks; their tops are surrounded by the vapours of heaven, and their shapes lost in the clouds. Behind these bills the venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa dwells wrapped in a condition of Nirvāṇa. People do not dare to utter his name, and therefore they speak of the "Guru-pādāḥ" (the venerable teacher.)[15] Mahā-Kāśyapa was a śrāvaka and a disciple (or a Srāvaka disciple) perfectly possessed of the six supernatural faculties and the eight enfranchisements[16] (ashtau vimokṣas).[17] Tathāgata, his work of conversion being done, and just on the point of attaining Nirvāṇa, addressed Kāśyapa and said, "Through many[18] kalpas I have undergone (diligently borne) painful penances for the sake of all that lives, seeking the highest form of religion. What I have all along prayed for (desired) I have now obtained to the full. Now, as I am desirous to die (enter Mahānirvāṇa), I lay on you the charge of the Dharma Piṭaka. Keep and disseminate (this doctrine) without loss or diminution. The golden-tissued Kaṣāya robe given me by my foster-mother (mother's sister)[19] I bid you keep and deliver to Maitreya (T'se-ohi) when he has completed the condition of Buddha.[20] All those who engage in the profession of my bequeathed law, whether they be Bhikṣus, Bhikṣunīs, Upāsakas, or Upāsikas, must first (i.e., before this be accomplished) cross over and escape the stream of transmigration."

Kāśyapa having received this commission to undertake to preserve the true law, summoned an assembly[21] (council or convocation). This done, he continued twenty years (in charge of the order), and then, in disgust at the impermanence of the world, and desiring to die, he went towards Cock's-foot Mountain. Ascending the north side of the mountain, he proceeded along the winding path, and came to the south-west ridge. Here the crags and precipices prevented him going on. Forcing his way through the tangled brushwood, he struck the rock with his staff, and thus opened away. He then passed on, having divided the rock, and ascended till he was again stopped by the rocks interlacing one another. He again opened a passage through, and came out on the mountain peak on the north-east side. Then having emerged from the defiles, he proceeded to the middle point of the three peaks. There he took the Kaṣāya garment (chīvara) of Buddha, and as he stood he expressed an ardent vow. On this the three peaks covered him over; this is the reason why now these three rise up into the air. In future ages, when Maitreya shall have come and declared the three-fold law,[22] finding the countless persons opposed to him by pride, he will lead them to this mountain, and coming to the place where Kāśyapa is, in a moment (the snapping of the finger) Maitreya will cause it to open of itself, and all those people, having seen Kāśyapa, will only be more proud and obstinate. Then Kāśyapa, delivering the robe, and having paid profound reverence, will ascend into the air and exhibit all sorts of spiritual changes, emitting fire and vapour from his body. Then he will enter Nirvāṇa. At this time the people, witnessing these miracles, will dismiss their pride, and opening their minds, will obtain the fruit (of holiness). Now, therefore, on the top of the mountain is a stūpa built. On quiet evenings those looking from a distance see sometimes a bright light as it were of a torch; but if they ascend the mountain there is nothing to be observed.[23]

Going to the north-east of the Cock's-foot Mountain about 100 li, we come to the mountain called Buddhavana (Fo-to-fa-na), with its peaks and cliffs lofty and precipitous. Among its steep mountain cliffs is a stone chamber where Buddha once descending stayed; by its side is a large stone where śakra (Shih), king of Devas, and Brahma-rāja (Fan-wang) pounded some ox-head (gośīrṣa)[24] sandal-wood, and anointed Tathāgata with the same. The scent (of this) is still to be perceived on the stone. Here also five hundred Arhats secretly dwell[25] in a spiritual manner, and here those who are influenced by religious desire to meet with them sometimes see them, on one occasion under the form of Samaṇeras just entering the village to beg food, at other times as withdrawing (to their cells), on some occasions manifesting traces of their spiritual power in ways difficult to describe in detail.

Going about 30 li to the east, amongst wild valleys of the Buddhavana (Fo-to-fa-na) mountain, we come to the wood called Yaṣṭivana (Ye-sse-chi).[26] The bamboos that grow here are large; they cover the hill and extend through the valley. In former days there was a Brāhmaṇ, who hearing that the body of śākya Buddha (Shih-kia-fo) was sixteen feet in height, was perplexed with doubt and would not credit it. Then taking a bamboo sixteen feet long, he desired to measure the height of Buddha; the body constantly overtopped the bamboo and exceeded the sixteen feet. So going on increasing, he could not find the right measurement. He then threw the bamboo on the ground and departed; but because of this it stood upright and took root.

In the midst of this wood is a stūpa which was built by Aśoka-rāja. Here Tathāgata displayed for seven days great spiritual wonders (miracles) for the sake of the Devas, and preached the mysterious and excellent law.

In the forest of the staff (Yaṣṭivana) not long since there was an Upāsaka named Jayasena (She-ye-si-na), a Kṣattriya of Western India. He was exceedingly simple-minded and moderate. He amused himself amid the forests and hills, dwelling in a sort of fairyland whilst his mind wandered amid the limits of truth (true limits). He had deeply studied the mysteries both of orthodox and other treatises (inside and outside books). His language and observations were pure, and his arguments elevated; his presence was quiet and dignified. The śramaṇas, Brāhmaṇas, heretics of different schools, the king of the country, the great ministers and householders, and persons of rank came together to visit him and personally to ask him questions. His pupils occupied sixteen apartments;[27] and although nearly seventy years of age, he read with them diligently and without cessation, and applied their minds only to the study of Buddhist sūtras, rejecting all other engagements. Thus night and day he gave up body and mind to this pursuit alone.

It is a custom in India to make little stūpas of powdered scent made into a paste; their height is about six or seven inches, and they place inside them some written extract from a sūtra; this they call a dharma-śarira[28] (fa-shi-li). When the number of these has become large, they then build a great stūpa, and collect all the others within it, and continually offer to it religious offerings. This then was the occupation of Jaya-sena (Ching-kian); with his mouth he declared the excellent law, and led and encouraged his students, whilst with his hand he constructed these stūpas. Thus he acquired the highest and most excellent religious merit. In the evening, again, he would walk up and down worshipping and repeating his prayers, or silently sit down in meditation. For eating or sleeping he had little time, and relaxed none of his discipline night or day. Even after he was an hundred years old his mind and body were in full activity. During thirty years he had made seven kotis of these dharma-śarīra stūpas, and for every koti that he made he built a great stūpa and placed them in it. When full, he presented his religious offerings and invited the priests; whilst they, on their part, offered him their congratulations.[29] On these occasions a divine light shone around and spiritual wonders (miracles) exhibited themselves; and from that time forth the miraculous light has continued to be seen.

South-west of the Yaṣṭivana[30] about 10 li or so, on the south side of a great mountain, are two warm springs;[31] the water is very hot. In old days, Tathāgata caused this water to appear, and washed himself therein. The pure flow of these waters still lasts without diminution. Men far and near flock here to bathe, after which those who have suffered from disease or chronic affections are often healed. By the side of the springs is a stūpa, to mark the place where Tathāgata walked for exercise.

To the south-east of the Yaṣṭivana about six or seven li we come to a great mountain. Before a cross-ridge[32] of this mountain is a stūpa. Here in old days Tathāgata explained the law during the three months of rain for the benefit of men and Devas. Then Bimbisāra-rāja (Pin-pi-so-lo) wished to come to hear the law. He cut away the mountain, and piled up the stones to make steps in order to ascend. The width is about twenty paces and the length 3 or 4 li.[33]

To the north of the great mountain 3 or 4 li is a solitary hill. Formerly the Rishi Vyāsa[34] (Kwang-po) lived here in solitude. By excavating the side of the mountain he formed a house. Some portions of the foundations are still visible. His disciples still hand down his teaching, and the celebrity of his bequeathed doctrine still remains.

To the north-east of the solitary hill 4 or 5 li there is a small hill, also standing alone. In the side of this hill (has been excavated) a stone chamber. In length and breadth[35] it is enough to seat 1000 persons or so. In this place Tathāgata, when living in the world, repeated the law for three months. Above the stone chamber is a great and remarkable rock, on which śakra, king of Devas, and Brahma-rāja pounded some ox-head sandal-wood, and with the dust sprinkled the body of Tathāgata. The surface of the stone still emits the scent of the perfume.

At the south-west angle of the stone house there is a lofty cavern which the Indians call the palace of the Aśuras ('O-su-lo). Formerly there was a good-natured fellow who was deeply versed in the use of magic formulae. He engaged with some companions, fourteen altogether, to covenant with one another to enter this lofty cavern. After going about 30 or 40 li, suddenly the whole place waslighted up with great brilliancy, and they saw a walled city before them, with towers and look-outs all of silver and gold and lapis-lazuli (lieu-li). The men having advanced to it, there were some young maidens who stationed themselves at the gates, and with joyful laughing faces greeted them and paid them reverence. Going on a little farther they came to the inner city-gates, where there were two slave-girls holding each of them a golden vessel full of flowers and scents. Advancing with these, they waited the approach of the visitors, and then said, "You must first bathe yourselves in yonder tank, and then anoint yourselves with the perfumes and crown yourselves with the flowers, and then you may enter the city. Do not hasten to enter yet; only that master of magic can come in at once." Then the other thirteen men went down at once to bathe. Having entered the tank, they all at once became confused, and forgot all that had taken place, and were (found) sitting in the middle of a rice field distant from this due north, over a level country about 30 or 40 li.

By the side of the stone house there is a wooden way (a road made with timber)[36] about 10 paces wide and about 4 or 5 li. Formerly Bimbisāra-rāja, when about to go to the place where Buddha was, cut out a passage through the rock, opened up the valleys, levelled the precipices, and led a way across the river-courses, built up walls of stone, and bored through the opposing crags, and made ladders up the heights to reach the place where Buddha was located.

From this spot proceeding eastward through the mountains about 60 li, we arrive at the city Kuśāgāra-pura (Kiu-she-kie-lo-pu-lo), or "the royal city of best grass (lucky grass)." This is the central point of the kingdom of Magadha.[37] Here the former kings of the country fixed their capital. It produces much of the most excellent, scented, fortunate grass, and therefore it is called "the city of the superior grass." High mountains surround it on each side, and form as it were its external walls.[38] On the west it is approached through a narrow pass, on the north there is a passage through the mountains. The town is extended from east to west and narrow from north to south. It is about 150 li in circuit. The remaining foundations of the wall of the inner city are about 30 li in circuit. The trees called Kie-ni-kia (Kanakas) border all the roads, their flowers exhale a delicious perfume, and their colour is of a bright golden hue. In the spring months the forests are all of a golden colour.

Outside the north gate of the palace city is a stūpa. Here Devadatta (Ti-p'o-to-lo) and Ajātaśatru-rāja (Wi-sing-yun), having agreed together as friends, liberated the drunken elephant for the purpose of killing Tathāgata. But Tathāgata miraculously caused five lions to proceed from his finger-ends; on this the drunken elephant was subdued and stood still before him.[39]

To the north-east of this spot is a stūpa. This is where śāriputra (She-li-tseu) heard Aśvajita ('O-shi-p'o-shi) the Bhikṣu declare the law, and by that means reached the fruit (of an Arhat). At first śāriputra was a layman; he was a man of distinguished ability and refinement, and was highly esteemed by those of his own time. At this time, with other students, he accepted the traditional teaching as delivered to him. On one occasion, being about to enter the great city of Rājagṛha, the Bhikṣu Aśvajita (Ma-shing) was also just going his round of begging. Then śāriputra, seeing him at a distance, addressed his disciples, saying, "Yonder man who comes, so full of dignity and nobleness, if he has not reached the fruit of sanctity (Arhatship), how is he thus composed and quiet? Let us stop awhile and observe him as he approaches." Now as Aśvajita Bhikṣu had reached the condition of an Arhat, his mind was self-possessed, his face composed and of an agreeable refinement; thus, holding his religious staff, he came along with a dignified air. Then śāriputra said, "Venerable sir! are yon at ease and happy? Pray, who is your master, and what the system you profess, that you are so gladsome and contented?"

Aśvajita answering him said, "Know you not the royal prince, the son of Suddhodana-rāja, who gave up the condition of a Chakravarttin monarch, and from pity to the six kinds of creatures for six years endured penance and reached the condition of Sambodhi, the state of perfect omniscience? This is my master! As to his law, it has respect to a condition including the absence of existence, without nonentity;[40] it is difficult to define; only Buddhas with Buddhas can fathom it; how much less can foolish and blind mortals, such as I, explain its principles. But for your sake I will recite a stanza in praise of the law of Buddha."[41] śāriputra having heard it, obtained forthwith the fruit of Arhatship.

To the north of this place, not far off, there is a very deep ditch, by the side of which is built a stūpa; this is the spot where śrīgupta (She-li-kio-to) wished to destroy Buddha by means of fire concealed in the ditch and poisoned rice. Now śrīgupta (Shing-mi) greatly honoured (believed in) the heretics, and his mind was deeply possessed by false views. All the Brahmachārins said, "The men of the country greatly honour Gautama (Kiao-ta-mo), and in consequence he causes our disciples to be without support. Invite him then to your house to eat, and before the door make a great ditch and fill it with fire, and cover it over slightly with wooden planks to conceal the fire; moreover, poison the food, so that if he escape the fire (fiery ditch), he will take the poison."

śrīgupta, according to his directions, caused the poison to be prepared, and then all the people in the town, knowing the evil and destructive design of śrīgupta against the Lord of the World, entreated Buddha not to go to the house. The Lord said, "Be not distressed; the body of Tathāgata cannot be hurt by such means as these." He therefore accepted the invitation and went. When his foot trod on the threshold of the door the fire in the pit became a tank of pure water with lotus flowers on its surface.

śrīgupta having witnessed this, being filled with shame and fear lest his project should fail, said to his followers, "He has by his magical power escaped the fire; but there is yet the poisoned food!" The Lord having eaten the rice, began to declare the excellent law, on which śrīgupta, having attended to it, himself became a disciple.

To the north-east of this fiery ditch of śrīgupta (Shing- mi), at a bend of the city, is a stūpa; this is where Jīvaka (Shi-fo-kia),[42] the great physician, built a preaching-hall for Buddha. All round the walls he planted flowers and fruit trees. The traces of the foundation-walls and the decayed roots of the trees are still visible. Tathāgata, when he was in the world, often stopped here. By the side of this place are the remains of the house of Jīvaka, and the hollow of an old well also exists there still.

To the north-east of the palace city going 14 or 15 li, we come to the mountain Gṛdhrakūṭa (Ki-li-tho-kiu-ch'a). Touching the southern slope of the northern mountain, it rises as a solitary peak to a great height, on which vultures make their abode. It appears like a high tower on which the azure tints of the sky are reflected, the colours of the mountain and the heaven being commingled.

When Tathāgata had guided the world for some fifty years, he dwelt much in this mountain, and delivered the excellent law in its developed form (kwang).[43] Bimbisāra-rāja, for the purpose of hearing the law, raised a number of men to accompany him from the foot of the mountain to its summit. They levelled the valleys and spanned the precipices, and with the stones made a staircase about ten paces wide and 5 or 6 li long. In the middle of the road there are two small stūpas, one called "Dismounting from the chariot" (Hia-shing), because the king, when he got here, went forward on foot. The other is called "Sending back the crowd" (T'ui-fan), because the king, separating the common folk, would not allow them to proceed with him. The summit of this mountain is long from the east to the west and narrow from north to south. There is a brick vihāra on the borders of a steep precipice at the western end of the mountain. It is high and wide and beautifully constructed. The door opens to the east. Here Tathāgata often stopped in old days and preached the law. There is now a figure of him preaching the law of the same size as life.

To the east of the vihāra is a long stone, on which Tathāgata trod as he walked up and down for exercise. By the side of it is a great stone about fourteen or fifteen feet high and thirty paces round. This is the place where Devadatta[44] flung a stone from a distance to strike Buddha.

South of this, below the precipice, is a stūpa. Here Tathāgata, when alive in old time, delivered the Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra.[45]

To the south of the vihāra, by the side of a mountain cliff, is a great stone house. In this Tathāgata, when dwelling in the world long ago, entered Samādhi.

To the north-west of the stone house and in front of it is a great and extraordinary stone. This is the place where ānanda (O-nan) was frightened by Māra. When the venerable ānanda had entered Samādhi in this place, Māra-rāja, assuming the form of a vulture, in the middle of the night, during the dark portion of the month, took his place on this rock, and flapping his wings and uttering loud screams, tried to frighten the venerable one.[46] ānanda, filled with fear, was at a loss to know what to do; then Tathāgata, by his spiritual power, seeing his state, stretched out his hand to compose him. He pierced the stone wall and patted the head of ānanda, and with his words of great love he spoke to him thus: "You need not fear the assumed form which Māra has taken." ānanda in consequence recovered his composure, and remained with his heart and body at rest and in peace.

Although years and months have elapsed since then, yet the bird traces on the stone and the hole in the rock[47] still remain visible.

By the side of the vihāra there are several stone houses,[48] where śāriputra and other great Arhats entered Samādhi. In front of the stone house of śāriputra is a great well, dry and waterless. The hollow (shaft) still remains.

To the north-east of the vihāra, in the middle of a rocky stream, is a large and flat stone. Here Tathāgata dried his Kaṣāya garment. The traces of the tissue of the robe still remain, as though they were cut out on the rock.

By the side of this, and upon a rock, is a foot-trace of Buddha. Although the "wheel" outline is somewhat obscure, yet it can be distinctly traced.

On the top of the northern mountain is a stūpa. From this point Tathāgata beheld the town of Magadha,[49] and for seven days explained the law.

To the west of the north gate of the mountain city is the mountain called Pi-pu-lo (Vipula-giri).[50] According to the common report of the country it is said, "On the northern side of the south-western crags of this mountain there were formerly five hundred warm springs; now there are only some ten or so; but some of these are warm and others cold, but none of them hot." These springs have their origin to the south of the Snowy Mountains from the Anavatapta (Wu-jeh-no-c'hi) lake,[51] and flowing underground, burst forth here. The water is very sweet and pure, and the taste is like that of the water of the lake. The streams (from the lake) are five hundred in number (branches), and as they pass by the lesser underground fire-abodes (hells), the power of the flames ascending causes the water to be hot. At the mouths of the various hot springs there are placed carved stones, sometimes shaped like lions, and at other times as the heads of white elephants; sometimes stone conduits are constructed, through which the water flows on high (aqueducts), whilst below there are stone basins, in which the water collects like a pond. Here people of every region come, and from every city, to bathe; those who suffer from any disease are often cured. On the right and left of the warm springs[52] are many stūpas and the remains of vihāras close together. In all these places the four past Buddhas have sat and walked, and the traces of their so doing are still left. These spots being surrounded by mountains and supplied with water, men of conspicuous virtue and wisdom take up their abode here, and there are many hermits who live here also in peace and solitude.

To the west of the hot springs is the Pippala (Pi-po-lo) stone house.[53] When the Lord of the World was alive in olden times, he constantly dwelt here. The deep cavern which is behind the walls of this house is the palace abode of an Asura (or, the Asuras). Many Bhikṣus who practise Samādhi dwell here. Often we may see strange forms, as of Nāgas, serpents, and lions, come forth from it. Those who see these things lose their reason and become dazed. Nevertheless, this wonderful place (excellent land) is one in which holy saints dwell, and occupying the spot consecrated by such sacred traces, they forget the calamities and evils that threaten them.

Not long ago there was a Bhikṣu of a pure and upright life, whose mind was enamoured of solitude and quiet; he desired to practise Samādhi concealed in this house. Some one protested and said, "Go not there! Many calamities happen there, and strange things causing death are frequent. It is difficult to practise Samādhi in such a spot, and there is constant fear of death. You ought to remember what has happened before time, if you would not reap the fruits of after-repentance." The Bhikṣu said, "Not so! My determination is to seek the fruit of Buddha and to conquer the Deva Māra. If these are the dangers of which you speak, what need to name them?" Then he took his pilgrim's staff and proceeded to the house. There he reared an altar and began to recite his magic protective sentences. After the tenth day, a maiden came forth from the cave and addressed the Bhikṣu, saying, "Sir of the coloured robes! you observe the precepts, and, with full purpose, you adopt the refuge (found in Buddha); you aspire after (prepare) wisdom, and practise Samādhi, and to promote in yourself spiritual power, so that you may be an illustrious guide of men, you dwell here and alarm me and my fellows! But how is this in agreement with the doctrine of Tathāgata?" The Bhikṣu said, "I practise a pure life, following the holy teaching (of Buddha). I conceal myself among the mountains and dells to avoid the tumult of life. In suddenly bringing a charge against me, I ask where is my fault?" She replied, "Your reverence! when you recite your prayers, the sound causes fire to burst into (my house) from without, and burns my abode; it afflicts me and my family! I pray you, pity us, and do not say your charmed prayers any more!"

The Bhikṣu said, "I repeat my prayers to defend myself, and not to hurt any living thing. In former days, a religious person (a disciple) occupied this place and practised Samādhi with a view to obtain the holy fruit and to help the miserable;[54] then with unearthly sights he was frightened to death and gave up his life. This was your doing. What have you to say?"

She replied, "Oppressed with a weight of guilt, my wisdom is small indeed; but from this time forth I will bar my house and keep the partition (between it and this chamber). Do you, venerable one, on your part, I pray, repeat no more spiritual formulae."

On this the Bhikṣu prepared himself in Samādhi, and from that time rested in quiet, none hurting him.

On the top of Mount Vipula (Pi-pu-lo) is a stūpa. This is where in old times Tathāgata repeated the law. At the present time naked heretics (Nirgranthas) frequent this place in great numbers; they practise penance night and day without intermission, and from morn till night walk round (the stūpa) and contemplate it with respect.

To the left of the northern gate of the mountain city (Girivjaja, Shan-shing), going east, on the north side of the southern crag (precipice or cliff), going 2 or 3 li, we come to a great stone house in which Devadatta formerly entered Samādhi.

Not far to the east of this stone house, on the top of a flat stone, there are coloured spots like blood. By the side of this rock a stūpa has been built. This is the place where a Bhikṣu practising Samādhi wounded himself and obtained the fruit of holiness.

There was formerly a Bhikṣu who diligently exerted himself in mind and body, and secluded himself in the practice of Samādhi. Years and months elapsed, and he had not obtained the holy fruit. Retiring from the spot, he upbraided himself, and then he added with a sigh, "I despair of obtaining the fruit of Arhatship (freedom from learning). What use to keep this body, the source of impediment from its very character." Having spoken thus, he mounted on this stone and gashed his throat. Forthwith he reached the fruit of an Arhat, and ascended into the air and exhibited spiritual changes; finally, his body was consumed by fire, and he reached Nirvāṇa.[55] Because of his noble resolution they have built (this stūpa) as a memorial. To the east of this place, above a rocky crag, there is a stone stūpa. This is the place where a Bhikṣu practising Samādhi threw himself down and obtained the fruit. Formerly, when Buddha was alive, there was a Bhikṣu who sat quietly in a mountain wild, practising the mode of Samādhi leading to Arhatship. For a long time he had exercised the utmost zeal without result. Night and day he restrained his thoughts, nor ever gave up his quiet composure. Tathāgata, knowing that his senses were fit for the acquirement (of emancipation), went to the place for the purpose of converting him (perfecting him). In a moment[56] he transported himself from the garden of bamboos (Veṇuvana) to this mountainside, and there calling him,[57] stood standing awaiting him.

At this time the Bhikṣu, seeing from a distance the holy congregation, his heart and body ravished with joy, he cast himself down from the mountain. But by his purity of heart and respectful faith for Buddha's teaching before he reached the ground he gained the fruit of Arhatship. The Lord of the World then spoke and said, "You ought to know the opportunity." Immediately he ascended into the air and exhibited spiritual transformation. To show his pure faith they have raised this memorial.

Going about one li from the north gate of the mountain city we come to the Karaṇḍaveṇuvana (Kia-lan-t'o-chuh-yuen),[58] where now the stone foundation and the brick walls of a vihāra exist. The door faces the east. Tathāgata, when in the world, frequently dwelt here, and preached the law for the guidance and conversion of men and to rescue the people. They have now made a figure of Tathāgata the size of life. In early days there was in this town a great householder (gṛhapati) called Karaṇḍa; at this time he had gained much renown by giving to the heretics a large bamboo garden. Then coming to see Tathāgata and hearing his law, he was animated by a true faith. He then regretted that the multitude of unbelievers should dwell in that place. "And now," he said, "the leader of gods and men has no place in which to lodge." Then the spirits and demons, affected by his faithfulness, drove away the heretics, and addressing them said, "Karaṇḍa, the householder, is going to erect a vihāra here for the Buddha; you must get away quickly, lest calamity befall you!"

The heretics, with hatred in their heart and mortified in spirit, went away; thereupon the householder built this vihāra. When it was finished he went himself to invite Buddha. Thereon Tathāgata received the gift.

To the east of the Karaṇḍaveṇuvana is a stūpa which was built by Ajātaśatru-rāja. After the Nirvāṇa of Tathāgata the kings divided the relics (she-li); the king Ajātaśatru returned then with his share, and from a feeling of extreme reverence built (a stūpa) and offered his religious offerings to it. When Aśoka-rāja (Wu-yau) became a believer, he opened it and took the relics, and in his turn built another stūpa. This building constantly emits miraculous light.

By the side of the stūpa of Ajātaśatru-rāja is another stūpa which encloses the relics of half of the body of ānanda. Formerly, when the saint was about to reach Nirvāṇa, he left the country of Magadha and proceeded to the town of Vaiśālī (Fei-she-li). As these two countries disputed (about him) and began to raise troops, the venerable one, from pity, divided his body into two parts. The king of Magadha, receiving his share, returned and offered to it his religious homage, and immediately prepared in this renowned land, with great honour, to raise a stūpa. By the side of this building is a place where Buddha walked up and down.

Not far from this is a stūpa. This is the place where śāriputra and Mudgalaputra dwelt during the rainy season.

To the south-west of the bamboo garden (Veṇuvana) about 5 or 6 li, on the north side of the southern mountain, is a great bamboo forest. In the middle of it is a large stone house. Here the venerable Kāśyapa with 999 great Arhats, after Tathāgata's Nirvāṇa, called a convocation (for the purpose of settling) the three Piṭakas.[59] Before it is the old foundation-wall. King Ajātaśatru made this hall[60] for the sake of accommodating the great Arhats who assembled to settle the Dharma-piṭaka.

At first, when Mahā Kāśyapa was seated in silent (study) in the desert (mountain forests), suddenly a bright light burst forth, and he perceived the earth shaking. Then he said, "What fortunate change of events is there, that this miracle should occur?" Then exerting his divine sight, he saw the Lord Buddha between the two trees entering Nirvāṇa. Forthwith he ordered his followers to accompany him to the city of Kuśinagara (Ku-shi). On the way they met a Brāhmaṇ holding in his hands a divine flower. Kāśyapa, addressing him, said, "Whence come you? Know you where our great teacher is at present?" The Brāhmaṇ replied and said, "I have but just come from yonder city of Kuśinagara, where I saw your great master just entered into Nirvāṇa. A vast multitude of heavenly beings were around him offering their gifts in worship, and this flower, which I hold, I brought thence."

Kāśyapa having heard these words said to his followers, "The sun of wisdom has quenched his rays. The world is now in darkness. The illustrious guide has left us and gone, and all flesh must fall into calamity."

Then the careless Bhikṣus said one to another with satisfaction, "Tathāgata has gone to rest. This is good for us, for now, if we transgress, who is there to reprove or restrain us?"

Then Kāśyapa, having heard this, was deeply moved and afflicted, and he resolved to assemble (collect) the treasure of the law (Dharma-piṭaka) and bring to punishment the transgressors. Accordingly he proceeded to the two trees, and regarding Buddha, he offered worship.

And now the King of the Law having gone from the world, both men and Devas were left without a guide, and the great Arhats, moreover, were cleaving to (the idea of their) Nirvāṇa. Then the great Kāśyapa reflected thus: "To secure obedience to the teaching of Buddha, we ought to collect the Dharma-piṭaka." On this he ascended Mount Sumeru and sounded the great gong (ghaṇṭā), and spake thus: "Now then, in the town of Rājagṛha there is going to be a religious assembly.[61] Let all those who have obtained the fruit (of arhatship) hasten to the spot."

In connection with the sounding of the gong the direction of Kāśyapa spread far and wide through the great chiliocosm, and all those possessed of spiritual capabilities, hearing the instructions, assembled in convocation. At this time Kāśyapa addressed the assembly and said, "Tathāgata having died (attained to extinction or Nirvāṇa), the world is empty. We ought to collect the Dharma-piṭaka, in token of our gratitude to Buddha. Now then, being about to accomplish this, there should be profound composure (quiet). How can this be done in the midst of such a vast multitude? Those who have acquired the three species of knowledge (trividyā), who have obtained the six supernatural faculties (ṣaḍabhijñās), who have kept the law without failure, whose powers of discrimination (dialectic) are clear, such superior persons as these may stop and form the assembly. Those who are learners with only limited fruit, let such depart to their homes."

On this 999 men were left; but he excluded ānanda, as being yet a learner. Then the great Kāśyapa, calling him, addressed him thus: "You are not yet free from defects; you must leave the holy assembly." He replied, "During many years I have followed Tathāgata as his attendant; every assembly that has been held for considering the law, I have joined; but now, as you are going to hold an assembly after his death (wai), I find myself excluded; the King of the Law having died, I have lost my dependence and helper."

Kāśyapa said, "Do not cherish your sorrow! You were a personal attendant on Buddha indeed, and you therefore heard much and so you loved (much), and therefore you are not free from all the ties that bind (the soul or affections)."

ānanda, with words of submission, retired and came to a desert place, desiring to reach a condition "beyond learning;" he strove for this without intermission, but with no result. At length, wearied out, he desired one day to lie down. Scarcely had his head reached the pillow[62] when lo! he obtained he condition of an Arhat.

He then went to the assembly, and knocking at the door, announced his arrival. Kāśyapa then asked him, saying, "Have you got rid of all ties? In that case exercise your spiritual power and enter without the door being opened!" ānanda, in compliance with the order, entered through the keyhole,[63] and having paid reverence to the priesthood, retired and sat down.

At this time fifteen days of the summer rest (Varṣāvasāna) had elapsed. On this Kāśyapa rising, said, "Consider well and listen! Let ānanda, who ever heard the words of Tathāgata, collect by singing through[64] the Sūtra-piṭaka. Let Upāli (Yeu-po-li), who clearly understands the rules of discipline (Vinaya), and is well known to all who know, collect the Vinaya-piṭaka; and I, Kāśyapa, will collect the Abhidharma-piṭaka." The three months of rain[65] being past, the collection of the Tripiṭaka was finished. As the great Kāśyapa was the president (Sthavira) among the priests, it is called the Sthavira (Chang-tso-pu) convocation.[66]

North-west of the place where the great Kāśyapa held the convocation is a stūpa. This is where ānanda, being forbidden by the priests to take part in the assembly, came and sat down in silence and reached the fruit (position) of an Arhat. After this he joined the assembly.

Going west from this point 20 li or so, is a stūpa built by Aśoka-rāja. This is the spot where the "great assembly" (Mahāsaṅgha) formed their collection of books (or, held their assembly). Those who had not been permitted to join Kāśyapa's assembly, whether learners or those above learning (Arhats), to the number of 100,000 men, came together to this spot and said, "Whilst Tathāgata was alive we all had a common master, but now the King of the Law is dead it is different. We too wish to show our gratitude to Buddha, and we also will hold an assembly for collecting the scriptures." On this the common folk with the holy disciples came to the assembly (all assembled), the foolish and wise alike flocked together and collected the Sūtra-piṭaka, the Vinaya-piṭaka, the Abhidharma-piṭaka, the miscellaneous Piṭaka (Khuddakanikāya),[67] and the Dhāraṇī-piṭaka. Thus they distinguished five Piṭakas. And because in this assembly both common folk and holy personages were mixed together, it was called "the assembly of the great congregation" (Mahāsaṅgha).[68]

To the north of the Veṇuvana Vihāra about 200 paces we come to the Karaṇḍa lake (Karaṇḍahrada). When Tathāgata was in the world he preached often here. The water was pure and clear, and possessed of the eight qualities.[69] After the Nirvāṇa of Buddha it dried up and disappeared.

To the north-west of the Karaṇḍahrada, at a distance of 2 or 3 li, is a stūpa which was built by Aśoka-rāja. It is about 60 feet high; by the side of it is a stone pillar on which is a record engraved relating to the foundation of the stūpa. It is about 50 feet high, and on the top has the figure of an elephant.

To the north-east of the stone pillar, not far,we come to the town of Rājagṛha[70] (Ho-lo-shi-ki-li-hi). The outer walls of this city have been destroyed, and there are no remnants of them left; the inner city (walls),[71] although in a ruined state, still have some elevation from the ground, and are about 20 li in circuit. In the first case, Bimbisāra-rāja established his residence in Kuśāgāra; in this place the houses of the people, being close together, were frequently burned with fire and destroyed. When one house was in flames, it was impossible to prevent the whole neighbourhood sharing in the calamity, and consequently the whole was burned up. Then the people made loud complaints, and were unable to rest quietly in their dwellings. The king said, "By my demerit the lower people are afflicted; what deed of goodness (meritorious virtue) can I do in order to be exempt from such calamities?" His ministers said, "Mahārāja, your virtuous government spreads peace and harmony, your righteous rule causes light and progress. It is by want of due attention on the part of the people that these calamities of fire occur. It is necessary to make a severe law to prevent such occurrences hereafter. If a fire breaks out, the origin must be diligently sought for, and to punish the principal guilty person, let him be driven into the cold forest. Now this cold forest (śītavana) is the place of corpses abandoned (cast out) there. Everyone esteems it an unlucky place, and the people of the land avoid going there and passing through it. Let him be banished there as a cast-out corpse. From dread of this fate, the people will become careful and guard (against the outbreak of fire)." The king said, "It is well; let this announcement be made, and let the people attend to it."

And now it happened that the king's palace was the first to be burned with fire. Then he said to his ministers, "I myself must be banished;" and he gave up the government to his eldest son in his own place. "I wish to maintain the laws of the country (he said); I therefore myself am going into exile."

At this time the king of Vaiśālī hearing that Bimbisāra-rāja was dwelling alone in the "cold forest," raised an army and put it in movement to invade (make a foray) when nothing was ready (to resist him). The lords of the marches (frontiers), hearing of it, built a town,[72] and as the king was the first to inhabit it, it was called "the royal city" (Rājagṛha). Then the ministers and the people all flocked there with their families.

It is also said that Ajātaśatru-rāja first founded this city, and the heir-apparent of Ajātaśatru having come to the throne, he also appointed it to be the capital, and so it continued till the time of Aśoka-rāja, who changed the capital to Pātaliputra, and gave the city of Rājagṛha to the Brāhmaṇs, so that now in the city there are no common folk to be seen, but only Brāhmaṇs to the number of a thousand families.

At the south-west angle of the royal precincts[73] are two small saṅghārāmas; the priests who come and go, and are strangers in the place, lodge here. Here also Buddha, when alive, delivered the law (preached). North-west from this is a stūpa; this is the site of an old village where the householder Jyotiṣka[74] (Ch'u-ti-se-kia) was born.

Outside the south gate of the city, on the left of the road, is a stūpa. Here Tathāgata preached and converted Rāhula (Lo-hu-lo).[75]

Going north from this 30 li or so, we come to Nālanda saṅghārāma.[76] The old accounts of the country say that to the south of this saṅghārāma, in the middle of an āmra ('An-mo-lo) grove, there is a tank. The Nāga of this tank is called Nālanda.[77] By the side of it is built the saṅghārāma, which therefore takes the name (of the Nāga). But the truth is that Tathāgata in old days practised the life of a Bodhisattva here, and became the king of a great country, and established his capital in this land. Moved by pity for living things, he delighted in continually relieving them. In remembrance of this Virtue he was called[78] "charity without intermission;" and the saṅghārāma was called in perpetuation of this name. The site was originally an āmra garden. Five hundred merchants bought it for ten kotis of gold pieces and gave it to Buddha. Buddha preached the law here during three months, and the merchants and others obtained tne fruit of holiness. Not long after the Nirvāṇa of Buddha, a former king of this country named śakrāditya (Shi-kia-lo-'o-t'ie-to) respected and esteemed the (system of the) one Vehicle,[79] and honoured very highly the three treasures.[80] Having selected by augury a lucky spot, he built this saṅghārāma. When he began the work he wounded, in digging, the body of the Nāga. At this time there was a distinguished soothsayer belonging to the heretical sect of the Nirgranthas. He having seen the occurrence, left this record: "This is a very superior site. If you build here a saṅghārāma, it must of necessity become highly renowned. Throughout the five Indies it will be a model. For a period of a thousand years it will flourish still. Students of all degrees will here easily accomplish their studies. But many will spit blood because of this wound given to the Nāga."

His son, Buddhagupta-rāja (Fo-t'o-kio-to), who succeeded him, continued to labour at the excellent undertaking of his father. To the south of this he built another saṅghārāma.

Tathāgatagupta-rāja (Ta-tha-kie-to-kio-lo) vigorously practised the former rules (of his ancestors), and he built east from this another saṅghārāma.

Balāditya-rāja (P'o-lo-'o-tie-lo) succeeded to the empire. On the north-east side he built a saṅghārāma. The work being done, he called together an assembly for congratulation. He respected equally the obscure and the renowned, and invited common folk and men of religion (holiness) without distinction. The priests of all India came together for the distance of 10,000 li. After all were seated and at rest, two priests arrived. They led them up the three-storeyed pavilion. Then they asked them, saying, "The king, when about to call the assembly, first asked men of all degrees (common and holy). From what quarter do your reverences come so late?" They said, "We are from the country of China. Our teacher[81] was sick. Having nourished him, we set out to accept the king's far-off invitation.[82] This is the reason why we have arrived so late."

The assembly hearing this, were filled with astonishment, and proceeded at once to inform the king. The king knowing that they were holy persons, went himself to interrogate them. He mounted the pavilion, but he knew not where they had gone.[83] The king then was affected by a profound faith; he gave up his country and became a recluse. Having done so, he placed himself as the lowest of the priests, but his heart was always uneasy and ill at rest. "Formerly (he said) I was a king, and the highest among the honourable; but now I have become a recluse, I am degraded to the bottom of the priesthood." Forthwith he went to the priests, and said words to the above effect. On this the saṅgha resolved that they who had not received the full orders should be classed according to their natural years of life.[84] This saṅghārāma is the only one in which this law exists.

This king's son, called Vajra (Fa-she-lo), came to the throne in succession, and was possessed of a heart firm in the faith. He again built on the west side of the convent a saṅghārāma.

After this a king of Central India built to the north of this a great saṅghārāma. Moreover, he built round these edifices a high wall with one gate,[85] A long succession of kings continued the work of building, using all the skill of the sculptor, till the whole is truly marvellous to behold. The king[86] said, "In the hall of the monarch who first began the saṅghārāma I will place a figure of Buddha, and I will feed forty priests of the congregation every day to show my gratitude to the founder."

The priests, to the number of several thousands, are men of the highest ability and talent. Their distinction is very great at the present time, and there are many hundreds whose fame has rapidly spread through distant regions. Their conduct is pure and unblamable. They follow in sincerity the precepts of the moral law. The rules of this convent are severe, and all the priests are bound to observe them. The countries of India respect them and follow them. The day is not sufficient for asking and answering profound questions. From morning till night they engage in discussion; the old and the young mutually help one another. Those who cannot discuss questions out of the Tripiṭaka are little esteemed, and are obliged to hide themselves for shame. Learned men from different cities, on this account, who desire to acquire quickly a renown in discussion, come here in multitudes to settle their doubts, and then the streams (of their wisdom) spread far and wide. For this reason some persons usurp the name (of Nālanda students), and in going to and fro receive honour in consequence. If men of other quarters desire to enter and take part in the discussions, the keeper of the gate proposes some hard questions; many are unable to answer, and retire. One must have studied deeply both old and new (books) before getting admission. Those students, therefore, who come here as strangers, have to show their ability by hard discussion; those who fail compared with those who succeed are as seven or eight to ten. The other two or three of moderate talent, when they come to discuss in turn in the assembly, are sure to be humbled, and to forfeit their renown. But with respect to those of conspicuous talent of solid learning, great ability, illustrious virtue, distinguished men, these connect (their high names) with the succession (of celebrities belonging to the college) such as Dharmapāla (Hu-fa)[87] and Chandrapāla (Hu-yueh),[88] who excited by their bequeathed teaching the thoughtless and worldly; Guṇamati (Tih-hwui)[89] and Sthiramati (Kin-hwui),[90] the streams of whose superior teaching spread abroad even now; Prabhamitra (Kwang-yeu),[91] with his clear discourses; Jinamitra (Shing-yeu),[92] with his exalted eloquence; the pattern and fame (sayings and doings) of Jñānachandra (Chi-yueh)[93] reflect his brilliant activity; śigrabuddha (?) (Ming-min), and śīlabhadra (Kiaï-hien),[94] and other eminent men whose names are lost. These illustrious personages, known to all, excelled in their attainments (virtue) all their distinguished predecessors, and passed the bounds of the ancients in their learning. Each of these composed some tens of treatises and commentaries which were widely diffused, and which for their perspicuity are passed down to the present time.

The sacred relics on the four sides of the convent are hundreds in number. For brevity's sake we will recount two or three. On the western side of the saṅghārāma, at no great distance, is a vihāra. Here Tathāgata in old days stopped for three months and largely expounded the excellent law for the good of the Devas.

To the south 100 paces or so is a small stūpa. This is the place where a Bhikṣu from a distant region saw Buddha. Formerly there was a Bhikṣu who came from a distant region. Arriving at this spot, he met the multitude of disciples accompanying Buddha, and was affected inwardly with a feeling of reverence, and so prostrated himself on the ground, at the same time uttering a strong desire that he might obtain the position of a Chakravarttī monarch. Tathāgata having seen him, spoke to his followers thus: "That Bhikṣu ought much to be pitied. The power (character) of his religious merit is deep and distant;[95] his faith is strong. If he were to seek the fruit of Buddha, not long hence he would obtain it; but now that he has earnestly prayed to become a Chakravarttī king, he will in future ages receive this reward: as many grains of dust as there are from the spot where he has thrown himself on the earth down to the very middle of the gold wheel,[96] so many Chakravarttī kings will there be for reward;[97] but having fixed his mind on earthly joys, the fruit of holiness is far off."[98]

On this southern side is a standing figure of Kwan-tsz'-tsai (Avalokiteśvara) Bodhisattva. Sometimes he is seen holding a vessel of perfume going to the vihāra of Buddha and turning round to the right.

To the south of this statue is a stūpa, in which are remains of Buddha's hair and nails cut during three months. Those persons afflicted with children's complaints,[99] coming here and turning round religiously, are mostly healed.

To the west of this, outside the wall, and by the side of a tank, is a stūpa. This is where a heretic, holding a sparrow in his hand, asked Buddha questions relating to death and birth.

To the south-east about 50 paces, within the walls, is an extraordinary tree, about eight or nine feet in height, of which the trunk is twofold. When Tathāgata of old time was in the world, he flung his tooth-cleaner (dantakāṣṭha) on the ground here, where it took root. Although many months and years have elapsed since then, the tree neither decreases nor increases.[100]

Next to the east there is a great vihāra about 200 feet in height. Here Tathāgata, residing for four months, explained various excellent laws.

After this, to the north 100 paces or so, is a vihāra in which is a figure of Kwan-tsz'-tsai Bodhisattva. The disciples of pure faith, who offer their religious gifts, do not all see the place he occupies alike; it is not fixed.[101] Sometimes he (i.e., the figure) seems to be standing by the side of the door; sometimes he goes out in front of the eaves. Religious people, both clerics and laics, from all parts come together in numbers to offer their gifts.

To the north of this vihāra is a great vihāra, in height about 300 feet, which was built by Balāditya-rāja (Po-lo-'o-tie-to-wang). With respect to its magnificence, its dimensions, and the statue of Buddha placed in it, it resembles (is the same as) the great vihāra built under the Bodhi tree.[102]

To the north-east of this is a stūpa. Here Tathāgata in days gone by explained the excellent law for seven days.

To the north-west is a place where the four past Buddhas sat down.

To the south of this is a vihāra of brass[103] built by śīlāditya-rāja. Although it is not yet finished, yet its intended measurement, when finished (to plan), will be 100 feet.[104]

Next to the eastward 200 paces or so, outside the walls, is a figure of Buddha standing upright and made of copper. Its height is about 80 feet. A pavilion of six stages is required to cover it. It was formerly made by Pūrṇavarma-rāja (Mwan-cheu).

To the north of this statue 2 or 3 li, in a vihāra constructed of brick, is a figure of Tāra Bodhisattva (To-lo-p'u-sa). This figure is of great height, and its spiritual appearance very striking. Every fast-day of the year large offerings are made to it. The kings and ministers and great people of the neighbouring countries offer exquisite perfumes and flowers, holding gem-covered flags and canopies, whilst instruments of metal and stone resound in turns, mingled with the harmony of flutes and harps. These religious assemblies last for seven days.

Within the southern gate of the wall is a large well. Formerly, when Buddha was alive, a great company of merchants parched with thirst came here to the spot where Buddha was. The Lord of the World, pointing to this place, said, "You will find water there." The chief of the merchants, piercing the earth with the end of the axle of his cart, immediately water rushed out from the ground. Having drunk and heard the law, they all obtained the fruit of holiness.

Going south-west 8 or 9 li from the saṅghārāma, we come to the village of Kulika (Kiu-li-kia). In it is a stūpa built by Aśoka-rāja. This is where the venerable Mudgalaputra (Mo-te-kia-lo-tseu) was born. By the side of the village is a stūpa. This is where the Venerable One reached complete Nirvāṇa,[105] and in it are placed the remains of his bequeathed body. The venerable (Mahāmudgalaputra) was of a great Brāhmaṇ family, and was an intimate friend of śāriputra when they were young. This śāriputra was renowned for the clearness of his dialectic skill; the other for his persevering and deep penetration. Their gifts and wisdom were alike, and moving or standing they were always together.[106] Their aims and desires from beginning to end were just the same. They had together left the world from distaste to its pleasures, and as hermits had followed Sañjaya (Shen-she-ye) as their master.[107] śāriputra having met Aśvajita (Ma-shing) the Arhat, hearing the law, understood its holy (meaning).[108] On returning he repeated what he had heard for the sake of the venerable (Mudgalaputra). On this he understood the meaning of the law and reached the first fruit.[109] then with 250 followers he went to the place where Buddha was. The Lord of the World, seeing him at a distance, pointing him out, said to his disciples, "That one coming here will be the first among my followers in the exercise of spiritual faculties (miraculous powers)." Having reached the place where Buddha was, he requested to enter the law (the society). The Lord replying, said, "Welcome, O Bhikṣu; carefully practise a pure life, and you shall escape the limits of sorrow." Hearing this, his hair fell off, and his common robes were changed into others. Observing in their purity the sections of the rules of moral discipline, and being in his exterior behaviour faultless, after seven days, getting rid of all the bonds of sin, he reached the condition of an Arhat and the supernatural powers.

East of the old village of Mudgalaputra, going 3 or 4 li, we come to a stūpa. This is the place where Bimbisāra-rāja went to have an interview with Buddha. When Tathāgata first obtained the fruit of a Buddha, knowing that the hearts of the people of the Magadha were waiting for him athirst, he accepted the invitation of Bimbisāra-rāja, and early in the morning, putting on his robes, he took his begging-dish, and with a thousand Bhikṣus around him, on the right hand and the left (he advanced). In front and behind these there were a number of aged Brāhmaṇs who went with twisted hair (jālina), and being desirous of the law, wore their dyed garments (cīvara). Followed by such a throng, he entered the city of Rāja-gṛha.

Then Lord śakra (Ti-shih), king of Devas, changing his appearance into that of a Mānava (Ma-na-p'o) youth,[110] with a crown upon his head and his hair bound up, in his left band holding a golden pitcher and in his right a precious staff, he walked above the earth four fingers high, leading Buddha along the road in front, in the midst of the vast assembly. Then the king of the Magadha country, Bimbisāra (Pin-pi-so-lo) by name, accompanied by all the Brāhmaṇ householders within the land, and the merchants (ku-sse), 100,000 myriads in all, going before and behind, leading and following, proceeded from the city of Rājagṛha to meet and escort the holy congregation.

South-east from the spot where Bimbasāra-rāja met Buddha, at a distance of about 20 li, we come to the town of Kālapināka (Kia-lo-pi-na-kia). In this town is a stūpa which was built by Aśoka-rāja. This is the place where śāriputra, the venerable one, was born. The well[111] of the place still exists. By the side of the place[112] is a stūpa. This is where the venerable one obtained Nirvāṇa; the relics of his body, therefore, are enshrined therein. He also was of a high Brāhmaṇ family. His father was a man of great learning and erudition; he penetrated thoroughly the most intricate questions. There were no books he had not thoroughly investigated. His wife had a dream and told it to her husband. "Last night," said she, "during my sleep my dreams were troubled by a strange man[113] whose body was covered with armour; in his hand he held a diamond mace with which he broke the mountains; departing, he stood at the foot of one particular mountain." "This dream," the husband said, "is extremely good. You will bear a son of deep learning; he will be honoured in the world, and will attack the treatises of all the masters and break down their teaching (schools). Being led to consider, he will become the disciple of one who is more than human."[114]

And so in due course she conceived a child. All at once she was greatly enlightened. She discoursed in high and powerful language, and her words were not to be overthrown. When the venerable one began to be eight years old, his reputation was spread in every direction. His natural disposition was pure and simple, his heart loving and compassionate. He broke through all impediments in his way, and perfected his wisdom. He formed a friendship when young with Mudgalaputra, and being deeply disgusted with the world, and having no system to adopt as a refuge, he went with Mudgalaputra to the heretic Sañjaya's abode, and practised (his mode of salvation). Then they said together, "This is not the system of final deliverance,[115] nor is it able to rescue us from the trammels of sorrow. Let us each seek for an illustrious guide. He who first obtains sweet dew,[116] let him make the taste common to the other."[117]

At this time the great Arhat Aśvajita, holding in his hand his proper measure bowl (pātra), was entering the city begging for food.

śāriputra seeing his dignified exterior and his quiet and becoming manner, forthwith asked him, "Who is your master?" He answered, "The prince of the śākya tribe, disgusted with the world, becoming a hermit, has reached perfect wisdom. This one is my master." Sāriputra added, "And what doctrine does he teach? May I find a way to hear it?" He said, "I have but just received instruction, and have not yet penetrated the deep doctrine." śāriputra said, "Pray tell me (repeat) what you have heard." Then Aśvajita, so far as he could, explained it and spoke. śāriputra having heard it, immediately reached the first fruit, and went forthwith with 250 of his followers, to the place where Buddha was dwelling.

The Lord of the World, seeing him afar off, pointing to him and addressing his followers, said, "Yonder comes one who will be most distinguished for wisdom among my disciples." Having reached the place, he bent his head in worship and asked to be permitted to follow the teaching of Buddha. The Lord said to him, "Welcome, O Bhikṣu."

Having heard these words, he was forthwith ordained.[118] Half a month after, hearing Buddha preach the law on account of a Brāhmaṇ[119] called "Long-nails" (Dīrghanakha), together with other discourses,[120] and understanding them with a lively emotion, he obtained the fruit of an Arhat. After this, ānanda hearing Buddha speak about his Nirvāṇa, it was noised abroad and talked about (by the disciples). Each one was affected with grief. śāriputra was doubly touched with sorrow, and could not endure the thought of seeing Buddha die. Accordingly, he asked the Lord that he might die first. The lord said, "Take advantage of your opportunity."

He then bade adieu to the disciples and came to his native village. His followers, the śrāmaneras, spread the news everywhere through the towns and villages. Ajātaśatru-rāja and his people hastened together as the wind, and assembled in clouds to the assembly, whilst śāriputra repeated at large the teaching of the law. Having heard it, they went away. In the middle of the following night, with fixed (correct) thought, and mind restrained, he entered the Samādhi called "final extinction." After awhile, having risen out of it, he died.

Four or five li to the south-east of the town Kālapināka[121] is a stūpa. This is the spot where a disciple of śāriputra reached Nirvāṇa. It is otherwise said, "When Kāśyapa Buddha was in the world, then three koṭis of great Arhats entered the condition of complete Nirvāṇa in this place."

Going 30 li or so to the east of this last-named stūpa, we come to Indraśailaguhā mountain (In-t'o-lo-shi-lo-kia-ho-shan).[122] The precipices and valleys of this mountain are dark and gloomy. Flowering trees grow thickly together like forests. The summit has two peaks, which rise up sharply and by themselves. On the south side of the western peak[123] between the crags is a great stone house,[124] wide but not high. Here Tathāgata in old time was stopping when śakra, king of Devas, wrote on the stone matters relating to forty-two doubts which he had, and asked Buddha respecting them.[125]

Then Buddha explained the matters. The traces of these figures still exist. Persons now try to imitate by comparison these ancient holy figures (figure forms).[126] Those who enter the cave to worship are seized with a sort of religious trepidation.

On the top of the mountain ridge are traces where the four former Buddhas sat and walked, still remaining. On the top of the eastern peak is a saṅghārāma; the common account is this: when the priests who dwell here look across in the middle of the night at the western peak, where the stone chamber is, they see before the image of Buddha lamps and torches constantly burning.

Before the saṅghārāma on the eastern peak of the Indraśailaguhā mountain is a stūpa which is called Haṅsa (Keng-sha).[127] Formerly the priests of this saṅghārāma studied the doctrine of the Little Vehicle, that is, the Little Vehicle of the "gradual doctrine."[128] They allowed therefore the use of the three pure articles of food, and they followed this rule without fail. Now afterwards, when it was not time to seek for the three pure articles of food, there was a Bhikṣu who was walking up and down; suddenly he saw a flock of wild geese flying over him in the air. Then he said in a jocose way, "To-day the congregation of priests has not food sufficient, Mahāsattvas! now is your opportunity." No sooner had he finished, than a goose, stopping its flight, fell down before the priest and died. The Bhikṣu having seen this, told it to the priests, who, hearing it, were affected with pity, and said one to the other, "Tathāgata framed his law as a guide and encouragement (suitable to) the powers (springs) of each person;[129] now we, following 'the gradual doctrine,' are using a foolish guide. The Great Vehicle is the true doctrine. We ought to change our former practice, and follow more closely the sacred directions. This goose falling down is, in truth, a true lesson for us, and we ought to make known its virtue by handing down the story to other ages, the most distant." On this they built a stūpa to hand down to future ages the action they bad witnessed, and they buried the dead goose beneath it.

Going 150 or 160 li to the north-east of the Indraśila-guhā mountain, we come to the Kapotika (pigeon) convent.[130] There are about 200 priests, who study the principles of the Sarvāstavāda school of Buddhism.

To the east is a stūpa which was built by Aśoka-rāja. Formerly Buddha residing in this place, declared the law for one night to the great congregation. At this time there was a bird-catcher who was laying his snares for the feathered tribe in this wood. Having caught nothing for a whole day, he spoke thus, "My bad luck to-day is owing to a trick somewhere." Therefore he came to the place where Buddha was, and said in a high voice, "Your speaking the law to-day, O Tathāgata, has caused me to catch nothing in all my nets. My wife and my children at home are hungry; what expedient shall I try to help them?" Then Tathāgata replied, "If you will light a fire, I will give you something to eat."

Then Tathāgata made to appear a large dove, which fell in the fire and died. Then the bird-catcher taking it, carried it to his wife and children, and they ate it together. Then he went back to the place where Buddha was, on which, by the use of expedients, he framed his discourse so as to convert the bird-catcher. Having heard the discourse, he repented of his fault and was renewed in heart. Then he left his home, and practising wisdom, reached the holy fruit, and because of this the saṅghārāma was called Kapotika.

To the south of this 2 or 3 li we come to a solitary hill,[131] which is of great height, and covered with forests and jungle. Celebrated flowers and pure fountains of water cover its sides and flow through its hollows. On this hill are many vihāras and religious shrines, sculptured with the highest art. In the exact middle of the vihāra is a figure of Kwan-tsz-tsai Bodhisattva. Although it is of small size, yet its spiritual appearance is of an affecting character. In its hand it holds a lotus flower; on its head is a figure of Buddha.

There are always a number of persons here who abstain from food desiring to obtain a view of the Bodhisattva. For seven days, and fourteen days, and even for a whole month (do they fast). Those who are properly affected see this Kwan-tsz'-tsai Bodhisattva with its beautiful[132] marks, and thoroughly adorned with all its majesty and glory. It comes forth from the middle of the statue, and addresses kind words to these men.

In old days the king of the Siṃhala country, in the early morning reflecting his face in a mirror, was not able to see himself, but he saw in the middle of a Tāla wood, on the top of a little mountain in the Magadha country of Jambudvīpa, a figure of this Bodhisattva. The king, deeply affected at the benevolent appearance of the figure, diligently searched after it. Having come to this mountain,[133] he found in fact a figure resembling the one he had seen. On this he built a vihāra and offered to it religious gifts. After this the king still recollecting the fame of the circumstance, according to his example, built vihāras and spiritual shrines. Flowers and incense with the sound of music are constantly offered here.

Going south-east from this shrine on the solitary mountain about 40 li, we come to a convent with about fifty priests,[134] who study the teaching of the Little Vehicle. Before the saṅghārāma is a great stūpa, where many miracles are displayed. Here Buddha in former days preached for Brahma-deva's sake and others during seven days. By the side of it are traces where the three Buddhas of the past age sat and walked. To the north-east of the saṅghārāma about 70 li, on the south side of the Ganges river, we come to a large village, thickly populated.[135] There are many Deva temples here, all of them admirably adorned.

Not far to the south-east is a great stūpa. Here Buddha for a night preached the law. Going east from this we enter the desert mountains; and going 100 li or so, we come to the convent of the village of Lo-in-ni-lo.[136]

Before this is a great stūpa which was built by Aśoka-rāja. Here Buddha formerly preached the law for three months. To the north of this 2 or 3 li is a large tank about 30 li round. During the four seasons of the year a lotus of each of the four colours opens its petals.

Going east we enter a great forest wild, and after 200 li or so we come to the country of I-lan-na-po-fa-to (Hiraṇyaparvata).

Footnotes and references:


See ante, vol. i. p. 5, note 25. Consult also Monier Williams, Sansc. Dict., sub voc. Gandhadvipa.


"Tui i shuh" seems to imply that he had changed his place of abode, and so was at a loss to find his way about; or it may simply mean, "In the lapse of time it happened that," etc. So Julien translates it.


The ruins of the stūpa and the lower portion of the shaft of the pillar raised on the spot where the young elephant was taken still exist at Bakror, on the eastern bank of the Lilājan river, about one mile to the south-east of Buddha Gayā (Cunningham, Anc. Geog., p. 459).


In a fond way, as we speak to dumb creatures.


The Mohana Nadï river.


Udra-Rāmaputtra was one of the teachers to whom Bodhisattva went before his penance (Fo-sho-hing-tsan-king, varga 12); but it is uncertain whether he is the one referred to in the text. The expression, "restraining his spirit" means that when he confined his spirit within his body he left here bodily traces.


Pañchābhijñās; see Childers, Pali Dict., sub voc. Abhiññā; Burnouf, Introd., p., 263; Lotus, pp. 820 ff.


That is, none of the females of the palace.


Could take her place of precedence.


That is, although his spirit was able to leave his body, yet, owing to his evil thoughts, it was unable to rise as before "above the vapoury clouds."


This seems to show that although his spirit quickly passed "outside," it was unable to obtain complete independence of his body.


That is, in the highest of the Arupa heavens, This heaven is called in Chinese fi-seang-fi-fi-siang-tin, i.e., the heaven where there is neither thought (consciousness) nor an absence of thought; in Pāli. "Nevasaññānāsaññā" (see Childers, Pāli Dict. sub voc. From the history given in the Fo-sho-king, it would seem that this refinement of language as to the character of the highest heaven ie due to Udra-Rāmaputtra.


That is, although he is now in the highest heaven of substance (bhuva), where his life will last 80,000 great kalpas (an incalculable period), yet he is not saved from future misery. This exhibits the character of Buddha's conception of Nirvāṇa, that it is a condition free from any possibility of a return to mundane or other bodily form of existence.


That is, the Mountain of the Venerable Master, i.e., Kāśyapa. Pāda is here added as a token of respect, as in Deva-pādāh, Kumārila-pādāḥ, etc. It seems to have been called the Cock's-foot from its shape, the three peaks or spurs resembling the foot of the cock. Fa-hian places it 3 li to the south of Gayā, probably a mistake for 3 yojanas to the east (see Fa-hian, Beal's ed., cap. xxxiii. n. I). It has been identified by Cunningham with the village of Kurkihār (vid. Arch. Survey, vol. i. pp. 14-16; vol. xv. p. 4; and Anc. Geog. Ind., p. 460). This hill of the cock's foot must not be confused with the saṅghārāma of the cock-garden near Patna. There is no evidence that there was a hill near this last establishment, and it is nowhere called the Kukkuṭa-pāda vihāra. The quotation made by Julien (vol. ii. 428 n.) refers to the hill near Gayā; so also does the note of Burnouf, Introd., p. 366. See also Schiefner's Lebensbeschreibung (Cākyamuni's, p. 278.; Ind. Ant., vol. xii. p. 327.)


This is a difficult passage, but the sense is evident. Kāśyapa dwells in the mountain awaiting the arrival of Maitreya; he cannot therefore have passed into complete Nirvāṇa. In fact, the subsequent narrative shows that he will only reach that condition when Maitreya comes. I take the expression "chung tsie mih" to denote the indefinite character of his present condition, which cannot be called Nirvāṇa, but is a middle state of existence. Pāda, as stated above, is an honorary affix; the expression "ki-heou" refers to the inner recesses of the mountain. Julien translates the passage thus: "In the sequence of time the great Kāśyapa dwelt in this mountain, and there entered Nirvāṇa. Men dare not call him by his name, and so they say "the foot of the venerable."


Shaḍabhijñās. See Childers, Pāli Dict., s. v. Abhiññā, and ante, vol. i. p. 104, n. 73.


See Childers, u. s., s. v. Vimokho; Burnouf, Lotus, pp. 347, 824 f. and ante, vol. i. p. 149. n. 90.




The word means "waste" or "distant;" as we might say, through "a waste of ages," or "dreary ages."


This passage is translated by Julien thus: "Which Maitreya after he became Buddha left, that it might be transmitted to you." But this cannot be correct. Maitreya has not become Buddha. I translate it, "I deliver to you to keep, awaiting the time when Maitreya shall become perfect Buddha."


This is the usual phrase used for "calling a convocation."


The thrice-repeated law; see ante, p. 47. n. 10.


The three-peaked mountain here referred to has been identified by General Cunningham with the three peaks of the Murali mountain, which stands three miles north-east of the town of Kurkihār. There is still a square basement surrounded by quantities of bricks on the highest or middle peak of the three. Arch. Survey, vol. xv. p. 5.


"In Pāli called gosīsam, among the Tibetans gorshi-sha, and among the Mongols gurshosha. It is apparently applied to sandal-wood having the odour of the cow's head" (Burnouf, Introd., p. 557). But perhaps its name is derived from its on appearance, viz., a centre of silvery white wood within a darker outside circle. Compare the description of the bull that carried off Europa —kuklos d'argupheos mestomarmaire metôpô Abstract of Four Lectures, p. 158. For the circle on the forehead, see the figures "from the oldest painting in Cave X. at Ajaṇṭā" (Burgess, plates viii. ix. x., Report on the Paintings at Ajaṇṭā).


I do not find in the text that they entered Nirvāṇa here.


"The forest of the staff."


The text here seems to be faulty.


See the seals found at Birdaban; Arch. Surv., vol. iii. p. 157, pl. xlvi.; see also J. Bom. B. R. A. S., vol. vi. p. 157 f.


Or, invited the congregation of priests to a religious assembly to consecrate the service.


The Bamboo forest (Chang-lin) is still known as the Jakhti-ban; it lies to the east of the Buddhain hill (Buddhavana), and is frequented by the people for the purpose of cutting bamboos (Cunningham, Anc. Geog., p. 461).


These springs are about two miles to the south of Jakhti-ban, at a place called Tapoban, which name is a common contraction of Tapta-pāṇi, or the "hot water" (Ibid.)


Or it may be "a transverse pass."


The great mountain referred to in the text corresponds with the lofty bill of Handia, 1463 feet in height (Cunningham).


This restoration rests on M. Julien's authority, as explained in his note (iii. 13).


Kwang mow, see Medhurst, Chin. Dict., sub Mow, p. 994.


Chan-tau, wooden bridges over mountain chasms (Khang-hi, quoted by Julien, note in loco)


Kuśagārapura was the original capital of Magadha, and was called Rājagṛiha, or the "royal residence." It was also named Girivraja, or the "hill surrounded." (See Cunningham, Anc. Geog., p. 462).


So also Fa-hian states that the five hills which surround the town are like the walls of a city (cap. xxviii.)


This is a perversion of the simple story found in the Fo-sho-king, vv. 1713 ss., and compare p. 246, n. 4.


The opposite of existence ("yau", material or conditioned existence), and also of not-being.


The stanza be recited is given in the Fo-sho-king, v. 1392. See also p. 194, n. 2.


For the history of Jīvaka see S. Hardy's Manual of Buddhism, p. 238.


A great number of the later developed sūtras are said to have been delivered here. There is also a late form of belief which connects the spiritual form of Buddha with this mountain. It is barely possible that Buddha did in his later years declare a developed (mystical) form of his doctrine, and perhaps this mountain was the scene of his teaching; but the greater portion of the sūtras claiming the authority of his utterance here are fabulous. Compare Fa-hian, cap. xxix. The Vulture Peak is a part of the lofty hill now called śaila-giri, but no caves have been discovered there (Cunningham, Anc. Geog., p. 466).


The story of Devadatta rolling down the stone will be found in Fa-hian, chap. xxix., also in the Fo-sho-king, p. 246, and in the Manual of Buddhism, p. 383. The accounts, however, slightly differ.


Fa-hian relates how he visited the cave on this peak, and wept in recollection of Buddha's residence therein. Here also, he adds, "he delivered the Sheu-ling-yan Sūtra." This is the śuraṅgama Sūtra. Hiuen Tsiang says he also delivered here the Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra. These sūtras, belonging to the last stage of Buddhist development, are referred to this mountain, as it was the scene of Buddha's latest teaching. See Cunningham, Anc. Geog., p. 467; see also Fergusson, Cave Temples of India, p. 50.


Fa-hian, chap. xxix.


Julien translates "The long cavern which traverses the flanks of the mountain." But the "long cavern" is the hole referred to, piercing the side of the rock.


Probably caves or cells. Cunningham understands them to be small rooms built against the cliff (Anc. Geog., p. 467). The Chinese quite bears out this idea.


That is, as it seems, the capital of Magadha, viz., Rājagṛha.


I have restored Pi-pu-lo to Vipula in deference to Julien. But it might be equally well restored to Vaibhāra or Baibhār, and as Cunningham in his map of Rājgīr (Arch. Survey, vol. i. pl. xiv.) places Baibhār to the west of the north gate of the town, it would be more agreeable to the account in the text to restore it so. On the other hand, as Hiuen Tsiang places the hot springs on the south-western slopes of Pi-po-lo, and as we are told that "the hot springs of Rājagṛha are found at the eastern foot of Mount Baibhār and the western foot of Mount Vipula" (Cunningham, Anc. Geog., p. 466), it would seem that he must be speaking of Vipula.


Rāvanahrad; in Pali, Anavatatta, in Tibetan, Ma-dros, in Chinese, Wu-je-no. See Asiat. Res., vol. xx. p. 65, or Ann. Musée Guimet, tom. ii. p. 168; Burnouf, Introd., pp. 152, 154; and ante, vol. i. pp. 11-13.


The names of these warm springs are given by Cunningham (Anc. Geog., p. 466).


This stone house is mentioned also by Fa-hian, chap. xxx. He places it to the south of the new city, west about three hundred paces. It would therefore be in Mount Baibhār, and Cunningham suggests that Pi-pu-lo may be an equivalent for Vaibhāra (Arch. Survey, i. p. 21 n.). It may be so, but it is usually restored to Pippala. This stone house is supposed to be the same as the present Sonbhāndār, or "treasury of gold" (ibid). General Cunningham also identifies the Sonbhāndār cave with the Sattapaṇṇi cave. But this seems impossible. Mr. Fergusson's remarks on this perplexing subject are intelligible and satisfactory. See Cave Temples of India, pp. 49, 50, and note.


I.e., to succour the people in the dark ways of birth, i.e., demons and pretas and "the lost."


This incident is also related by Fa-hian, cap. xxx.


So I understand "tan c'hi", "in the snapping of a finger." Julien translates it as though Buddha called the Bhikshu by cracking his fingers.


It may be either "calling him" or "calling an assembly."


The bamboo garden of Karaṇḍa or Kalaṇḍa. For an account of this garden see Fa-hian, (Beal's edit., p. 117, n. 2), and also Julien in loco, n. 1; see also Burnouf, Introd., 1st ed. p. 456; Lalita Vistara, p. 415.


This is the famous Sattapaṇṇi cave, in which the "first Buddhist council" was held. "At the entrance of the Sattapaṇṇa cave in the Magadha town (compare ante, n. 45) Giribbaja (i.e., Girivraja or Rājagṛha) the first council was finished after seven months" (Dīpavaṃśa (Oldenberg) v. 5). In connection with this extract I would refer to the sentence preceding it (4), where we have named "the second beginning of the Vassa season." This seems to explain the constant use of the expression, the "double resting season," by Hiuen Tsiang. See below, n. 61.


The hall appears to have been structural; the cave at the back was natural. See Fergusson, Cave Temples of India, p. 49.


A business relating to religion; a religious proceeding.


For a similar account of ānanda's illumination, see Abstract of Four Lectures, p. 72, and compare the whole account.


In other accounts it is stated he entered through the wall.


Chanting or rehearsing, saṅgīti.


Or, the second "three months." It is to be noted that the season of Wass was twofold, either the first "three months," or, the second "three months."


This is contrary to the usual explanation, which makes the Sthavira school date from the second convocation at Vaiśāli.


Or perhaps the Sannipāta-nikāya.


This account, too, differs from the common tradition, which makes this school of the great assembly date from the schism at Vaiśālī. The statement, however, of Hiuen Tsiang, that the additional piṭakas were collated at this assembly is a useful and suggestive one.


For the eight qualities of water see J. R. A. S., vol. ii. pp. 1, 141.


"The royal abode" (Wang she). This is what Fa-hian calls "the new city." It was to the north of the mountains.


That is, the walls of the royal precincts or the citadel.


That is, as it seems, in the place where the king was living. From this it would appear that the site of the new town of Rājagṛha, had been before used as a burial-place for the people of the "old town."


I.e., of the inner city of Rājagṛha.


In Chinese "Hsing lih", "constellation" or "star collection."


If this "Lo-hu-lo" be the son of Buddha, his conversion is generally stated to have occurred at Kapilavastu (Manual of Buddhism, p. 206).


Nālanda has been identified with the village of Baragaon, which lies seven miles north of Rājgīr (Cunningham, Anc. Geog., p. 468).


According to I-tsing the name Nālanda is derived from Nāga Nanda (see J. R. A. S., N.S., vol. xiii. p. 571). For a description of this temple of Nālanda see "Two Chinese Buddhist Inscriptions found at Buddha Gayā," J. R. A. S., N.S., vol. xiii. l. c. See also Abstract of Four Lectures, p. 140.


So I understand the passage. It has no reference to the Nāga. The word Nālanda would thus appear to be derived from na+alam+da, "not giving enough," or "not having enough to give."


The "one Vehicle," according to the authority quoted by Julien (n. 2 in loco) is "the vehicle of Buddha, which is compared to a car formed of seven precious substances, and drawn by a white ox." But the expression, "one Vehicle," is a common one in later Buddhist books to denote the nature of Buddha, to which we all belong, and to which we all shall return.


Triratnāni—Buddha, dharma, saṅgha.


It is true the symbol "shang" in this phrase is not the same as that forming the second member of the word "ho-shang" (upādhyāya), but they are the same in sound, and therefore I think ho-shang in the text should be translated "teacher."


That is, the invitation coming from a long distance.


That is, he ascended the pavilion with three stages where the strangers from China had been received; but when he arrived he found they had departed.


The usual order was that they should be classed according to the number of years they had been "professed disciples;" but in the convent of Balāditya the order was that they should be classed according to their natural age, up to the time of their full ordination. The king, although he had become a disciple, was not fully ordained.


That is, to enter the whole area.


But it is not said what king. The symbol, too, is "ti", not "wang". Is śīlāditya referred to? He was not to take the name of "wang" or "ta wang" (see vol. i. p. 213 n. 21).


A native of Kāñchipura, author of the śabdavidya-samyukta śāstra (Max Müller, pp. 308 n., 309-310 and n., 346, 348-349, 361).


See Vassilief; Max Müller, India, p. 311.


Max Müller, India, p. 305 and n., pp. 309-310 n., p. 362.


Pupil of ārya Asaṅga (Max Müller, pp. 305, 310 n.,318n.; Vassilief, pp. 59 78, 226-227, 305).


Po-lo-pho-mi-to-lo of Central India, by caste a Kshattriya. He reached China in A.D. 627, and died in 633 at the age of sixty-nine (Beal, Abs. Four. Lect., p. 28; Max Müller, Ind., p. 312).


Eitel, p. 37.


Max Müller, Ind., pp. 312-361; Eitel, Djñānatchandra.


The favourite teacher of Hiuen Tsiang. Vie, pp. 144, 212, 215, 225; Max Müller, India, pp. 310, 343; Eitel. s. v.


This is the literal meaning of the symbols. Julien translates, "he has a profound virtue." It may mean that his religious merit, though deep, will have but a distant reward.


I.e., to the middle of the earth where the gold wheel is.


I.e., so many times will he be a Chakravarttī king.


This seems to explain the words "deep and distant." See above n. 95.


Or it may be translated, "those afflicted with complicated diseases." The symbol "ying" means either "a babe" or "to add or increase."


After having used the dantakāshṭha for cleaning the teeth, it was usual to divide it into two parts, hence the double trunk of the tree (compare Julien in loc., n. 1). The dantakāshṭha in the original is "chewing-willow-twig." The wood used in India is the Acacia catechu; see ante, vol. i. p. 68 n.; and Julien's note, tome 1., p. 55.


Or, "do not all see what they see alike. The place he occupies is not fixed."


This is the great vihāra supposed to have been built by Amaradeva. With respect to this and the whole subject, the controversies and theories respecting its date, see Dr. Rajendralāl Mitra's work on the stūpa at Buddha Gayā.


Yu-shih, "calamine stone, used in the formation of brass" (Medhurst). There is much confusion in the use of the symbols teou shi and yu shi. The former is explained by Medhurst (sub voc. t'how) "as a kind of stone resembling metal, which the Chinese call the finest kind of native copper. It is found in the Posse country and resembles gold. On the application of fire it assumes a red colour, and does not turn black." But "yu shi" (which seems to be intended in the passage in the text, although Julien renders it "theou chi") is explained by Medhurst (sub voc. shih) to be "calamine stone, used in the formation of brass." The calamine stone is the cadmia of Pliny—"fit et e lapide œroso, quem vocant cadmiam" (vol. ii. cap. xxxiv. §2). Cadmus is fabled to have discovered its use in the composition of brass, and hence the name. It may be called calamine from its place of exportation, Calamina, at the mouth of the Indus, hence the Chinese say it comes from "Po-sse". Brass being capable of being rolled into thin sheets (latten or Dutch metal), might easily be used in covering the walls of a building. It was so used probably by śīlāditya in the case under notice.


Not in height, but in length.


Literally, Nirvāṇa "without remains" (anupādiseśa). For the meaning of this phrase consult Childers, Pāli Dict., sub voc. Nibbānaṃ. Julien renders it Parinirvāṇna.


For an account of these two disciples, see Fo-sho-king, varga 17. They are called Seriyut and Mugalan in Pāli,—Hardy, Manual of Buddhism, p. 181.


"There was at this time in Rājagaha a famous paribrajika called Saṅga. To him they (Seriyut and Mugalan) went, and they remained with him some time."—Manual of Buddhism, p. 195.


Or, understood the holy one, i.e., Aśvajita.


I.e., became a śrotāpanna.


That is, a young Brāhmaṇ.


This may also mean "the stone foundation."


Julien says, "by the side of the well." But refer to the account of Mudgalaputra's birthplace. The original is "the well of the village," not "of the house."


By intercourse with a strange man.


This is an obscure sentence, but it seems to correspond with the dream of the man standing at the foot of a mountain. Buddha is constantly spoken of as "a mountain of gold;" and the expression "puh ju yih jin", "not as one man," seems to allude to the superhuman character or śāriputra's future teacher. On the other hand, Julien translates it, "there will not be a greater honour for a man than to become his disciple;" or, "nothing will be considered so great an honour to a man as to become his disciple," and this perhaps is the meaning of the passage.


"The highest" or "absolute truth."


That is, "the water of immortality;" the doctrine of Buddha.


I.e., let him communicate the knowledge of that system of salvation (sweet dew).


Admitted to undertake the duties of the moral code of discipline.


This Brāhmaṇ or Brahmachārin (ch'ang-chao-fan-chi) is well known, as there is a work called Dīrghanakha, parivrājaka paripṛccha (Jul. note in loc.)


Or, the end of the discourse; but the symbol "chu" generally means "the rest."


For some remarks on Kālapināka, see Fa-hian (Beal's edition), p.111, n. 2.


"The-cavern-of-Indra mountain." The "rocky hill standing by itself," named by Fa-hian, chap. xxviii., has been identified by General Cunningham (Arch. Survey, vol. i. p. 18) with the western peak of this hill. The northern range of hills, that stretch from the neighbourhood of Gayā to the bank of the Pañchāna river, a distance of about thirty-six miles, end abruptly in two lofty peaks; the higher of the two on the west is called Giryek. This is the one referred to by Fa-hian. (See Cunningham, Arch. Survey, vol. i. pp. 16, 17, and vol. iii. p. 150.)


Julien has omitted the symbol for west.


Now called Gidha-dwar; in Sanskrit, Gṛdhradwāra, "the vulture's opening."


That is, at it seems, he drew certain figures or letters on the stone, and asked Buddha to explain some difficulties he had as to the subject of these figures. These forty-two difficulties have no reference to the Book of Forty-two Sections.


This translation appears to me the only justifiable one. Julien has, "Now there is a statue there which resembles the ancient image, of the saint (i.e., of the Buddha)." But if the symbol "ts'z" (this) be , taken for the adverb "here," the natural translation would be: "Now there are here figures in imitation of these ancient sacred symbols or marks." The only doubt is whether "ts'z hsiang", "these marks or figures," or "the figures here," be not an error for "Fo-siang," "the figure of Buddha," which occurs a little farther on.


Keng-so-kia-lan, in Chinese Keng-sha. The lower peak on the east is crowned with a solid tower of brickwork, well known as Jārasandha-ka-baithak, or "Jārasandha's throne." This tower, the ruins of which still exist, is probably the stūpa alluded to in the text (comp. Cunningham, Arch. Survey, i. 19). But I am at a loss how to explain General Cunningham's remark (Arch. Survey, iii. 141), that "close to the hot springs on the north-east slope of the Baibhār hill there is a massive foundation of a stone house 83 feet square, called Jarāsandha-ka-baithak, or "Jarāsandha's throne." This is explained, however, in Fergusson and Burgess' Cave Temples of India, by the statement that there are two sites so named.


The advanced doctrine of the Little Vehicle (Hīnayāna); compare Julien's note, tome i. p. 3.


I.e., Buddha's law was intended to be adapted to circumstances.


This Kapotika (pigeon) convent is identified by General Cunningham with the village of Pārbati, just 10 miles to the north-east of Giriyek. This would require us to change the 150 or 160 li of Hiuen Tsiang into 50 or 60.


This solitary hill is supposed to be "the hill standing by itself," named by Fa-hian (Cunningham, Reports, vol. xv. p. 7). Dr. Fergusson, on the other hand, identifies the hill of Behar with that site (J. R. A. S. N.S., vol. vi. p. 229), and this hill with the Shekhpura range (ibid., P.232).


One form of the worship of Kwan-yin will probably be found to have been derived from the Persian Anaitis or Anāhita; the descriptions given of each are too similar to be attributed to accident. Especially on this point of "beauty" compare Sacred Books of the East, vol. xxiii. p. 82; also Bunyiu Nanjio, Catalogue of Jap. and Chin. Books lately added to the Bodleian, col. 7, to show that Kwan-yin is identified with "pure water." Note also Edkin's Chinese Buddhism, p. 262, "Kwan-yin from beyond the sea." The description of Anāhita's dress in the Abān Yasht(S. B. E., vol. xxiii.), §§126-131, corresponds with the representations in the Liturgy of Kwan-yin. The subject is too copious for a note.


The worship of Kwan-yin as a mountain deity has been alluded to in the J. R. A. S., N.S., vol. xv. pp. 333 f. I would remark here that it seems the worship of this deity was partly connected with Ceylon. The argument of the paper in the J. R. A. S. is to the same purport.


General Cunningham suggests the substitution of four li for forty. In that case the place indicated would be Aphsar (see Arch. Survey, vol. xv. p. 10).


Both distance and direction point to the vicinity of Shekhpura (op. cit. p. 13).


Identified by Cunningham with Rajjāna. In Gladwin's Ayi-Ak-bari it is found under the form "Rowbenny," which closely resembles the Chinese. Julien proposes Rohinīla doubtfully. See also Fergusson (op. cit.), p. 233.

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