Buddhist records of the Western world (Xuanzang)

by Samuel Beal | 1884 | 224,928 words | ISBN-10: 8120811070

This is the English translation of the travel records of Xuanzang (or, Hiuen Tsiang): a Chinese Buddhist monk who traveled to India during the seventh century. This book recounts his documents his visit to India and neighboring countries, and reflects the condition of those countries during his time, including temples, culture, traditions and fest...

Chapter 6 - Country of Kia-shi-mi-lo (Kashmir)

Note: Kaśmīr appears to have been a kingdom of considerable extent. The old name is Kāśyapapura, which has been connected with the Kaspapuros of Hekataio.[1]

The kingdom of Kaśmīr is about 7000 li in circuit, and on all sides it is enclosed by mountains. These mountains are very high. Although the mountains have passes through them, these are narrow and contracted. The neighbouring states that have attacked it have never succeeded in subduing it. The capital of the country on the west side is bordered by a great river. It (the capital) is from north to south 12 or 13 li, and from east to west 4 or 5 li. The soil is fit for producing cereals, and abounds with fruits and flowers. Here also are dragon-horses and the fragrant turmeric, the fo-chü,[2] and medicinal plants.

The climate is cold and stern. There is much snow but little wind. The people wear leather doublets and clothes of white linen. They are light and frivolous, and of a weak, pusillanimous disposition. As the country is protected by a dragon, it has always assumed superiority among neighbouring people. The people are handsome in appearance, but they are given to cunning. They love learning and are well instructed. There are both heretics and believers among them. There are about 100 saṅghārāmas and 5000 priests. There are four stūpas built by Aśoka-rāja. Each of these has about a pint measure of relics of Tathāgata. The history of the country says: This country was once a dragon lake. In old times the Lord Buddha was returning to the middle kingdom (India) after subduing a wicked spirit in U-chang-na (Udyāna), and when in mid-air, just over this country, he addressed ānanda thus: "After my Nirvāṇa, the Arhat Madhyāntika will found a kingdom in this land, civilise (pacify) the people, and by his own effort spread abroad the law of Buddha."

In the fiftieth year after the Nirvāṇa, the disciple of ānanda, Madhyāntika (Mo-t'ien-ti-kia) the Arhat—having obtained the six spiritual faculties[3] and been gifted with the eight Vimokṣas[4]—heard of the prediction of Buddha. His heart was overjoyed, and he repaired to this country. He was sitting tranquilly in a wood on the top of a high mountain crag, and exhibited great spiritual changes. The dragon beholding it was filled with a deep faith, and requested to know what he desired. The Arhat said, "I request you to give me a spot in the middle of the lake just big enough for my knees."[5]

On this the dragon withdrew the water so far, and gave him the spot. Then by his spiritual power the Arhat increased the size of his body, whilst the dragon king kept back the waters with all his might. So the lake became dry, and the waters exhausted. On this the Nāga, taking his flight, asked for a place.[6]

The Arhat (then said), "To the north-west of this is a pool about 100 li in circuit; in this little lake you and your posterity may continue to dwell." The Nāga said, "The lake and the land being mutually transferred, let me then be allowed to make my religious offerings to you." Madhyāntika said, "Not long hence I shall enter on the Nirvāṇa without remnants (anupadhiśeṣa); although I should wish to allow your request, how can I do it?" The Nāga then pressed his request in this way: "May 500 Arhats then ever receive my offerings till the end of the law?[7] After which (I ask to be allowed) to return to this country to dwell (in it) as a lake." Madhyāntika granted his request.

Then the Arhat, having obtained this land by the exercise of his great spiritual power, founded 500 saṅghārāmas. He then set himself to procure by purchase from surrounding countries a number of poor people who might act as servitors to the priests. Madhyāntika having died, these poor people constituted themselves rulers over the neighbouring countries. The people of surrounding countries despising these low-born men, would not associate with them, and called them Kritīyas[8] (Ki-li-to). The fountains now have begun to bubble up (in token of the end of the law having come).

In the hundredth year after the Nirvāṇa of Tathāgata, Aśoka, king of Magadha, extended his power over the world, and was honoured even by the most distant people. He deeply reverenced the three gems, and had a loving regard for all living things.[9] At this time there were 500 Arhats and 500 schismatical priests, whom the king honoured and patronised without any difference. Among the latter was a priest called Mahādeva, a man of deep learning and rare ability; in his retirement he sought a true renown; far thinking, he wrote treatises the principles of which were opposed to the holy doctrine. All who heard of him resorted to his company and adopted his views. Aśoka-rāja, not knowing either holy or common men,[10] and because he was naturally given to patronise those who were seditious, was induced to call together an assembly of priests to the banks of the Ganges, intending to drown them all.

At this time the Arhats having seen the danger threatening their lives, by the exercise of their spiritual power flew away through the air and came to this country and concealed themselves among the mountains and valleys. Aśoka-rāja having heard of it, repented, and confessing his fault, begged them to return to their own country; but the Arhats refused to do so with determination. Then Aśoka-rāja, for the sake of the Arhats, built 500 saṅghārāmas, and gave this country as a gift to the priesthood.

In the four-hundredth year[11] after the Nirvāṇa of Tathāgata, Kaniṣka, king of Gandhāra, having succeeded to the kingdom, his kingly renown reached far, and he brought the most remote within his jurisdiction. During his intervals of duty he frequently consulted the sacred books of Buddha; daily he invited a priest to enter his palace and preach the law, but he found the different views of the schools so contradictory that he was filled with doubt, and he had no way to get rid of his uncertainty. At this time the honoured Pārśva said, "Since Tathāgata left the world many years and months have elapsed. The different schools hold to the treatises of their several masters. Each keeps to his own views, and so the whole body is torn by divisions."

The king having heard this, was deeply affected and gave way to sad regrets. After awhile he spoke to Pārśva and said, "Though of no account personally, yet, thanks to the remnant of merit which has followed me through successive births since the time of the Holy One till now, I have come to my present state. I will dare to forget my own low degree, and hand down in succession the teaching of the law unimpaired. I will therefore arrange the teaching of the three piṭakas of Buddha according to the various schools." The honourable Pārśva replied, "The previous merit of the great king has resulted in his present distinguished position[12] That he may continue to love the law of Buddha is what I desire above all things.

The king then summoned from far and near a holy assembly (issued an edict to assemble the holy teachers).

On this they came together from the four quarters, and, like stars, they hurried together for myriads of li, men the most distinguished for talents and for holiness of life. Being thus assembled, for seven days offerings of the four necessary things were made, after which, as the king desired that there should be an arrangement of the law, and as he feared the clamour of such a mixed assembly (would prevent consultation), he said, with affection for the priests, "Let those who have obtained the holy fruit (as Arhats) remain, but those who are still bound by worldly influences[13] let them go!" Yet the multitude was too great. He then published another order: "Let those who have arrived at the condition of 'freedom from study' remain, and those who are still in a condition of learners go."[14] Still there were a great multitude who remained. On this the king issued another edict: "Those who are in possession of the three enlightenments and have the six spiritual faculties[15] may remain; the others can go."[16] And yet there was a great multitude who remained. Then he published another edict: "Let those who are acquainted both with the three Piṭakas and the five vidyās[17] remain; as to others, let them go." Thus there remained 499 men. Then the king desired to go to his own country,[18] as he suffered from the heat and moisture of this country. He also wished to go to the stone grot[19] at Rājagṛha, where Kāśyapa had held his religious assembly (convocation). The honourable Pārśva and others then counselled him, saying, "We cannot go there, because there are many heretical teachers there, and different śāstras being brought under consideration, there will be clamour and vain discussion. Without having right leisure for consideration, what benefit will there be in making (fresh) treatises?[20] The mind of the assembly is well affected towards this country; the land is guarded on every side by mountains, the Yakṣas defend its frontiers, the soil is rich and productive, and it is well provided with food. Here both saints and sages assemble and abide; here the spiritual rishis wander and rest."

The assembly having deliberated, they came to this resolution: "We are willing to fall in with the wishes of the king." On this, with the Arhats, he went from the spot where they had deliberated to another, and there founded a monastery, where they might hold an assembly (for the purpose of arranging) the Scriptures and composing the Vibhāṣā śāstra.[21]

At this time the venerable Vasumitra (Shi-Yu) was putting on his robes outside the door (about to enter) when the Arhats addressed him and said, "The bonds or sin (the kleśas) not loosed, then all discussion is contradictory and useless. You had better go, and not dwell here."

On this Vasumitra answered, "The wise without doubt regard the law in the place of[22] Buddha, appointed for the conversion of the world, and therefore you[23] reasonably desire to compile true (orthodox) śāstras. As for myself, though not quick, yet in my poor way I have investigated the meaning of words. I have also studied with earnestness the obscure literature of the three piṭakas and the recondite meaning of the five vidyās; and I have succeeded in penetrating their teaching,[24] dull as I am."

The Arhats answered, "It is impossible; but if it is as you say, you can stand by a little and presently get the condition of 'past learning.' Then you can enter the assembly; at present your presence is not possible."

Vasumitra answered, "I care for the condition of 'past learning' as little as for a drop of spittle; my mind seeks only the fruit of Buddha;[25] I do not run after little quests (little sideways). I will throw this ball up into the air, and before it comes to earth I shall have got the holy condition (fruit) of 'past learning.'"

Then all the Arhats roundly scolded him, saying, "'Intolerably arrogant' is your right title. The fruit of 'past learning' is the condition praised by all the Buddhas. You are bound to acquire this condition and scatter the doubts of the assembly."

Then Vasumitra cast the ball into the air; it was arrested by the Devas, who, before it fell, asked him this question: "In consequence of obtaining the fruit of Buddha, you shall succeed Maitreya in his place (in the Tuṣita heaven); the three worlds shall honour you, and the four kinds of creatures (all flesh) shall look up to you with awe. Why then do you seek this little fruit?"

Then the Arhats, having witnessed all this, confessed their fault, and with reverence asked him to become their president. All difficulties that occurred in their discussion were referred to him for settlement. These five hundred sages and saints first composed in ten myriads of verses the Upadeśa śāstra to explain the Sūtra Piṭaka.[26] Next they made in ten myriads of verses the Vinaya Vibhāṣā śāstra to explain the Vinaya Piṭaka; and afterwards they made in ten myriad of verses the Abhidharma Vibhāṣā śāstra[27] to explain the Abhidharma Piṭaka. Altogether they composed thirty myriad of verses in six hundred and sixty myriad of words, which thoroughly explained the three Piṭakas. There was no work of antiquity[28] to be compared with (placed above) their productions; from the deepest to the smallest question, they examined all,[29] explaining all minute expressions, so that their work has become universally known and is the resource of all students who have followed them.

Kaniṣka-rāja forthwith ordered these discourses to be engraved on sheets of red copper. He enclosed them in a stone receptacle, and having sealed this, he raised over it a stūpa with the Scriptures in the middle. He commanded the Yakṣas[30] to defend the approaches to the kingdom, so as not to permit the other sects to get these śāstras and take them away, with the view that those dwelling in the country might enjoy the fruit of this labour.[31]

Having finished this pious labour, he returned with his army to his own capital.[32]

Having left this country by the western gate, he turned towards the east and fell on his knees, and again bestowed all this kingdom on the priesthood.

After Kaniṣka's death the Kritīya race again assumed the government, banished the priests, and overthrew religion.[33]

The king of Himatala,[34] of the country of To-hu-lo (Tukhāra), was by descent of the śākya race.[35] In the six-hundredth year after the Nirvāṇa of Buddha, he succeeded to the territory of his ancestor, and his heart was deeply imbued with affection for the law of Buddha.[36] Hearing that the Kritīyas had overthrown the law of Buddha, he assembled in his land the most warlike (courageous) of his knights, to the number of three thousand, and under the pretence of being merchants laden with many articles of merchandise and with valuable goods, but having secretly concealed on their persons warlike instruments, they entered on this kingdom, and the king of the country received them as his guests with special honour. He[37] then selected five hundred of these, men of great courage and address, and armed them with swords and provided them with choice merchandise to offer to the king.

Then the king of Himatala, flinging off his cap,[38] proceeded towards the throne; the king of the Kritīyas, terrified, was at a loss what to do. Having cut off the king's head, (the king of Himatala) said to the officers standing below, "I am the king of Himatala, belonging to Tukhāra. I was grieved because this low-caste ruler practised such outrages; therefore I have today punished his crimes; but as for the people, there is no fault to be found with them." Having banished the ministers in charge of the government to other states and pacified this country, he commanded the priests to return, and built a saṅghārāma, and there settled them as in old time. Then he left the kingdom by the western gate (pass), and when outside he bowed down with his face to the east, and gave in charity to the priesthood (the kingdom).

As for the Kritīyas, as they had more than once been put down by the priests and their religion overturned, in lapse of time their enmity had increased so that they hated the law of Buddha. After some years they came again into power. This is the reason why at the present time this kingdom is not much given to the faith and the temples of the heretics are their sole thought.

About 10 li to the south-east of the new city and to the north of the old city,[39] and on the south of a great mountain, is a saṅghārāma with about 300 priests in it. In the śtūpa (attached to the convent) is a tooth of Buddha in length about an inch and a half, of a yellowish-white colour; on religious days it emits a bright light. In old days the Kritīya race having destroyed the law of Buddha, the priests being dispersed, each one selected his own place of abode. On this occasion one śramaṇa, wandering throughout the Indies to visit and worship the relics of Buddha (traces of the Holy One) and to exhibit his sincere faith, after a while came to hear that his native country was pacified and settled. Forthwith he set out on his return, and on his way he met with a herd of elephants rushing athwart his path through the jungle and raising a trumpeting tumult. The śramaṇa having seen them, climbed up a tree to get out of their way; then the herd of elephants rushed down to drink[40] at a pool and to cleanse themselves with the water; then surrounding the tree, they tore its roots, and by force dragged it to the ground. Having got the śramaṇa, they put him on the back of one, and hurried off to the middle of a great forest, where was a sick elephant wounded (swollen with a sore), and lying on the ground at rest. Taking the hand of the priest, it directed it to the place of the hurt, where a rotten (broken) piece of bamboo had penetrated. The śramana thereupon drew out the splinter and applied some medicinal herbs, and tore up his garment to bind the foot with it. Another elephant taking a gold casket, brought it to the sick elephant, who having received it gave it forthwith to the śramaṇa. The śramaṇa opening it, found in the inside Buddha's tooth. Then all the elephants surrounding him, he knew not how to get away. On the morrow, being a fast-day, each elephant brought him some fruit for his midday meal. Having finished eating, they carried the priest out of the forest a long way (some hundred li), and then they set him down, and, after salutation paid, they each retired.

The śramaṇa coming to the western borders of the country, crossed a rapid river; whilst so doing the boat was nearly overwhelmed, when the men, consulting together, said, "The calamity that threatens the boat is owing to the śramaṇa; he must be carrying some relics of Buddha, and the dragons have coveted them."

The master of the ship having examined (his goods), found the tooth of Buddha. Then the śramaṇa, raising up the relic, bowed his head, and called to the Nāgas and said, "I now intrust this to your care; not long hence I will come again and fake it." Then declining to cross the river,[41] he returned to the bank and departed. Turning to the river he sighed and said, "Not knowing how to restrain these Nāga creatures has been the cause of my calamity." Then going back to India, he studied the rules of restraining dragons, and after three years he returned towards his native country, and having come to the river-side he built and appointed there an altar. Then the Nāgas brought the casket of Buddha's tooth and gave it to the śramaṇa; the śramaṇa took it and brought it to this saṅghārāma and henceforth worshipped it. Fourteen or fifteen li to the south of the saṅghārāma is a little saṅghārāma in which is a standing figure of Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva. If any one vows to fast till he dies unless he beholds this Bodhisattva, immediately from the image it comes forth glorious in appearance.

South-east of the little saṅghārāma about 30 li or so, we come to a great mountain, where there is an old (ruined) saṅghārāma, of which the shape is imposing and the masonry strong. But now it is in ruins; there is only left one angle where there is a small double tower. There are thirty priests or so who study the Great Vehicle. This is where of old Saṅghabhadra, a writer of śāstras, composed the Shun-ching-li-lun[42] (Nyāyānusāra śāstra); on the left and the right of the saṅghārāma are stūpas where are enshrined the relics (śarīras) of great Arhats. The wild beasts and mountain apes gather flowers to offer as religious oblations. Throughout the year they continue these offerings without interruption, as if it were a traditional service. Many miraculous circumstances occur in this mountain. Sometimes a stone barrier is split across; sometimes on the mountain-top there remain the traces of a horse; but all things of this sort are only mistaken traces of the Arhats and śrāmaṇeras, who in troops frequent this spot, and with their fingers trace these figures, as if riding on horses or going to and fro (on foot), and this has led to the difficulty in explaining these marks.[43]

Ten li to the east of the saṅghārāma of Buddha's tooth, between the crags of a mountain to the north,[44] is a small saṅghārāma. In old days the great master of śāstras called So-kin-ta-lo (Skandhila)composed here the treatise called Chung-sse-fan-pi-p'o-sha.[45]

In the little convent is a śtūpa of stone about 50 feet high, where are preserved the śarīras of the bequeathed body of an Arhat.

In former times there was an Arhat whose bodily size was very great, and he eat and drank as an elephant. People said in raillery, "He knows well enough how to eat like a glutton, but what does he know of truth or error?" The Arhat, when about to pass to Nirvāṇa, addressing the people round him, said, "Not long hence I shall reach a condition of anūpadhiśesa (without a remnant).[46] I wish to explain how I have attained to the excellent law."[47] The people hearing him again laughed together in ridicule. They all came together in an assembly to see him put to shame.[48] Then the Arhat spoke thus to the people: "I will tell you how, for your advantage, my previous conditions of life and the causes thereof. In my former birth I received, because of my desert, the body of an elephant, and I dwelt in Eastern India, in the stable of a king. At this time this country possessed a Shaman who went forth to wander through India in search of the holy doctrine of Buddha, the various sūtras and śāstras Then the king gave me to the Shaman. I arrived in this country carrying on my back the books of Buddha. Not long after this I died suddenly. The merit I had obtained by carrying these sacred books eventuated in my being born as a man, and then again I died as a mortal.[49] But, thanks to the merit I possessed, I soon (was born in the same condition, and) assumed the coloured clothes of a hermit. I diligently set after the means of putting off (the shackles of existence), and gave myself no repose. Thus I obtained the six supernatural powers and cut off my connection with the three worlds. However, when I eat I have preserved my old habits, but every day I moderate my appetite, and only take one-third of what my body requires as nourishment." Although he thus spoke, men were still incredulous. Forthwith he ascended into the air and entered on the Samādhi called the brilliancy of flame. From his body proceeded smoke and fire,[50] and thus he entered Nirvāṇa; his remains (bones) fell to the earth, and they raised a stūpa over them.

Going north-west 200 li or so of the royal city, we come to the saṅghārāma called "Mai-lin."[51] It was here the master of śāstras called Pūrṇa[52] composed a commentary on the Vibhāṣā śāstra.

To the west of the city 140 or 150 li there is a great river, on the borders of which, to the north, resting on the southern slope of a mountain, is a saṅghārāma belonging to the Mahāsaṃghīka (Ta-chong-pu) school, with about 100 priests. It was here in old time that Fo-ti-la (Bodhila),[53] a master of śāstras, composed the treatise Tsih-chin-lun.[54]

From this going south-west, and crossing some mountains and traversing many precipices, going 700 li or so, we come to the country Pun-nu-ts'o (Punach).

Footnotes and references:


Kaśmīr in early times appears to have been a kingdom of considerable extent. The old name is said to have been Kāśyapapura, which has been connected with the Kaspapuros of Hekataios (Frag. 179, and Steph. Byzant.), polis Iandarikê Skuthôn, said to have been in or near Paktuikê and called Kaspaturos by Herodotos (lib. iii. c. 102, lib. iv. c. 44), from which Skylax started on his voyage down the Indus. Ptolemy has Kaspeiria and its capital Kaspeira (lib. vii. c. 1, 42, 47, 49; lib. viii. c. 26, 7), possibly for Kasmeira. The name Kaśmīr ii the one used in the Mahābhārata, Pāṇini, etc. The character ascribed to the people by the Chinese pilgrim, is quite in accord with that given to them by modern travellers (see Vigne, Travels in Kashmir, vol. ii. p. 142 f.) For further information see Lassen, Ind. Alt., vol. i. pp. 50-53; and conf. Wilson, Ariana Ant., pp. 136 f.; Asiat. Res., vol. xv. p. 117; Köppen, Die Relig. d. Buddha, vol. ii. pp. 12 f. 78; Remusat, Nouv. Mél. Asiat., tome i. p. 179; Vassilief, p. 40; J. A. S. Ben., vol. vii. p. 165, vol. xxv. pp. 91-123; Yule's Marco Polo, vol. i. pp. 177 f.; Cunningham, Anc. Geog. Ind., pp. 90 ff.; Troyer's Rājataraṅgiṇī, tome ii. pp. 293 ff,; Humboldt's Cent. Asien, vol. i. p. 92. The "great river" is the Vitastā.


Lentilles de verre.—Jul.


ṣaḍabhijñā. See ante, note 73, p. 104.


See references in note 73, p. 104.


I.e., to sit.


This is an abrupt combination; it means asked for a place "to live in."


I.e., till religion be done with.


In Chinese Mai-te, "bought people" (Sans. krīta). In the Vishṇu Purāṇa it is said that "unregenerate tribes, barbarians and other śūdras, will rule over the banks of the Indus and the regions of the Dārvikā, of the Chandrabhāgā and of Kaśmīra" (Wilson, in Hall's ed., vol. iv. p. 223), and the Bhāyavata has a similar statement, calling the "unregenerate" "other outcasts not enlightened by the Vedas" (ib. p. 224). See p. 156, n. 119 infra.


"Sse-sing", the four varṇa or castes, or the four classes of living beings, according to the Chinese, produced (1) from eggs, (2) embryos (animals and men), (3) moisture, and (4) by transformation.


I.e., the difference between them.


That is, 300 years after Aśoka (B.C. 263-224), or about A.D. 75. Hiuen Tsiang places Aśoka only 100 years after Buddha, while in Aśoka's own inscriptions the Teacher is placed 221 years before the first of Aśoka's reign. The Avadāna ṣataka supports this, placing the king two hundred years after Buddha. Conf. Ind. Ant., vol. vi. pp. 149 f.; Burnouf, Introd., p. 385; Max Müller's India, etc., p. 306.


Literally, "the great king in previous conditions (suh) having planted a good root—or, the root of virtue—has in consequence attained much happiness or merit. "


The world-influences or bonds refer to the kleśas. The five kleśas are (1) desire, (2) hate, (3) ignorance, (4) vanity, (5) heresy. See Burnouf, Lotus, pp. 443 f. Or the reference may be to the five nīvaraṇas, for which see Childers, Pali dict. sub voc.


In a note on this passage Julien explains that the first class, Wu-hio, designates the Arhats; the second, Hio-jin, those studying to become śramaṇas.


For the trividyās and the ṣaḍabhijñas see ante, n. 73 and 75, pp. 104, 105, and note 66, p. 142.


There is a phrase here used, "tsz chu", of frequent occurrence in Buddhist books. It means, "with these exceptions,"—his exceptis


The five vidyās (Wu-ming) are (1) śabdavidyā, the treatise on grammar; (2) Adhyātmavidyā, the treatise on inner principles or esoteric doctrines; (3) Chikitsāvidyā, the treatise on medicine, magic formulas, and occult science (Eitel) ; (4) Hetuvidyā, the treatise on causes; (5)śilapasthānavidyā, the treatise on the sciences, astronomy, meteorology, and mechanical arts. See ante, p. 78, note 24.


So I translate it. Literally it would be "the king had a desire for his own country;" i.e., for the highlands of Gandhāra.


The phrase may mean a stone, i.e., structural, house; or a stone chamber—a cave. It is generally supposed to have been a cave—the Saptaparṇa cave.


Or, "what use in holding discussions?"


This passage, which is unusually confused, may be translated also thus: "On this he went with the Arhats from that place, and came (to a place where) he founded a monastery and collected the three Piṭakas. Being about to compose the Pi-p'o-sha-lun (Vibhāshā śāstra), then," etc.


That is, taking the place of, or standing in the stead of, Buddha.


The assembly or convocation desires, etc. Or it may be translated thus: "Having collected the general, or right sense, you are now about to compose an orthodox treatise" (i.e., the Vibhāshā śāstra).


This at least seems to be the sense of the passage, but the force of the phrase "ch'hin in" is doubtful.


That is, I seek only the condition of a Buddha.


This definition of the Upadeśa (U-po-ti-sho), viz., a treatise to explain the Sūtra Piṭaka (Su-ta-la-t'sang), confirms the explanation generally given of the whole class of works so named. Burnouf (Introd. Bud. Ind., p. 58) regards the term as equivalent to "instruction" or "explanation of esoteric doctrine." In Nepal the word is applied to the Tantra portion of the Buddhist writings. It is also used as an equivalent for Abhidharma. The Upadeśa class of books is the twelfth in the duodecimal division of the Northern School (Eitel, Handbook, s. voc.)


O-pi-ta-mo-pi-po-sha-lun. This work is generally called the Abhidharma-mahāvibhāshā śāstra. It was translated into Chinese by Hiuen Tsiang. It is said to be a commentary on Kātyāyanīputra's Jñānaprasthāna S'āstra, belonging to the Sarvāstivāda class of books. It is in forty-three chapters (vargas), and consists of 438,449 Chinese characters. See Bunyiu Nanjio's Catalogue, No. 1263.


Thousand ancient; but is "tsien" an error?


Literally, "branches and leaves were investigated; shallow and deep places fathomed."


The Yakshas are supernatural beings employed to guard treasure or keep the way to a treasure. Sometimes they are regarded as malevolent beings, but not so necessarily. See General Cunningham, Stūpa of Bharhut, p. 20 ff. They are represented in this work as keeping the four gates of the Stūpa.


"With a view that they who wished to study them should in the country (chung) receive instruction." I cannot follow M. Julien's translation. He seems to regard the Stūpa as a saṅghārāma or convent in which instruction was given; and he makes Kanishka give himself to study.


That is, to the capital of Gandhāra.


"The law of Buddha." The Kritīyas or Krityas are defined to be "demons who dig out corpses," or explained as "serfs" (persons bought, krīta). They are said to be either Yakshakrityas or Manushakrityas, the former being shaped like Yakshas, the latter like human beings. The Manushakrityas were those domestic slaves whom Madhyāntika introduced into Kaśmīr (Eitel, Handbook, sub voc.) See also Cunningham, Anc. Geog. of Ind., p. 93 ; and ante, note 94. p. 150.


Himatala, defined in the text as Sue-shan-hia, "under the snowy mountains" (see ante, p. 42, n. 139).


He was descended from one of the śākya youths who were driven from their country for resisting the invasion of Virūdhaka, the accouut of which will be found in the sixth book. Hiuen Tsiang's date places him about 280 A.D. (note 97, ante).


"He planted his heart in the law of Buddha, and the streams of his affection flowed into the sea of the law."


That is, the king of Himatala.


If the symbol in the text is intended for "ch'hang", it should be translated "flinging away his robe," that is, the robe (or web of rich cloth) that concealed the sword. If it be "maou", then it would be "flinging away his cap."


General Cunningham says Abu Rihān calls the capital Adishṭan, which is the Sanskrit Adhishṭhāna or "chief town;" and that is the present city of śrīnagar, which was built by Rāja Pravarasena about the beginning of the sixth century, and was therefore a comparatively new place at the time of Hiuen Tsiang's visit. The "old capital" was about two miles to the south-east of Takht-i-Sulimān, and is now called Pāndrethān, a Kaśmiri corruption of Purānādhishṭhāna, or "the old chief city."—Anc. Geog. lnd., p. 93. Conf. Troyer's Rājataraṅgiṇī, tome i. p. 104, t. iii. pp. 336-357; Asiat. Res., vol. xv. p. 19; Lassen, Ind. Alt., vol. ii. p. 912. The mountain is Hariparvata or Hörparvat, now Takht-i-Sulimān.


Not to drink, but to draw in the water and use it for cooling themselves.


That is, he did not land on the other side, but went back in the boat.


The śāstra composed by Seng-kia-po-t'o-lo (Saṅghabhadra) was called in the first instance Kiu-she-po-lun, or "the śāstra which destroys the kosha like hail" (karakā). This title was employed to denote the power of the treatise to overturn the Abhidharmakosha śāstra composed by Vasubaudhu. The title was afterwards changed by Vasubandhu himself to Nyāyānusāra śāstra (Shun-ching-li-lun). See Book iv. infra.


This passage, which is obscure, seems to mean that the śrāmaṇeras who follow the Arhats, or the śrāmaṇeras who are Arhats (for it appears from one of Aśvaghosha's sermons (Abstract of Four Lectures, p. 120) that a śrāmaṇera may arrive at this condition), amuse themselves by tracing figures of horses on the rocks, and therefore such traces have no meaning beyond this.


That is, as it seems, a range of mountains called the Northern Range.


Restored by Julien to Vibhāshāprakaraṇapāda Conf. Jour. Asiat., ser. iv. tom. xiv. No. 713; Bunyiu Nanjio's Catalogue, Nos. 1277 and 1292.


Wou-yu-ni-pan, that is, a condition of freedom from the skandhas. Childers (Pali Dict., p. 526). It means perfect or complete Nirvāṇa. See below, note 135.


I wish to relate the steps (groundwork) by which this body (i.e., I myself) arrived at this excellent condition, or law.


Julien regards this phrase (teh shih) as equivalent to "success or nonsuccess." It seems, however, more agreeable to the context to translate it as here—to see him "get loss," i.e., disgraced.


I died "with remains;" that is, I died, but was destined to be reborn, not having got rid of the skandhas, or "conditions of individual existence." In Note 132 above, we find just the opposite phrase, "Wou yu," i.e., "without remains." Julien has emitted this passage.


This kind of miracle is frequently named in Buddhist books. See Fo-sho-hing-tsan-king, v. 1353 ff.


I adopt "mai lin" from Julien. In my text the symbol appears to be shang, but there may be a misprint. Julien doubtfully restores "mai-lin" to Vikrītavana.


In Chinese, Yuen-mun.


I have adopted this restoration from Julien. The Chinese symbols might also be restored to Buddhatara.


The Tsih-chin-lun is restored by Julien doubtfully to Tattvasañchaya śāstra. This treatise belonged to the Mahāsaṅghika collection.

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