Buddhist records of the Western world (Xuanzang)

by Samuel Beal | 1884 | 224,928 words | ISBN-10: 8120811070

This is the English translation of the travel records of Xuanzang (or, Hiuen Tsiang): a Chinese Buddhist monk who traveled to India during the seventh century. This book recounts his documents his visit to India and neighboring countries, and reflects the condition of those countries during his time, including temples, culture, traditions and fest...

Chapter 21 - Country of Kien-t’o-lo (Gandhara)

The kingdom of Gandhāra is about 1000 li from east to west, and about 800 li from north to south. On the east it borders on the river Sin (Sindh). The capital of the country is called Po-lu-sha-pu-lo;[1] it is about 40 li in circuit. The royal family is extinct, and the kingdom is governed by deputies from Kapiśa. The towns and villages are deserted, and there are but few inhabitants. At one corner of the royal residence[2] there are about 1000 families. The country is rich in cereals, and produces a variety of flowers and fruits; it abounds also in sugar-cane, from the juice of which they prepare "the solid sugar." The climate is warm and moist, and in general without ice or snow. The disposition of the people is timid and soft: they love literature; most of them belong to heretical schools; a few believe in the true law. From old time till now this border-land of India has produced many authors of śāstras; for example, Nārāyaṇadeva,[3] Asaṅga Bodhisattva, Vasubandhu Bodhisattva, Dharmatrāta, Manorhita, Pārśva the noble, and so on. There are about 1000 saṅghārāmas, which are deserted and in ruins. They are filled with wild shrubs,[4] and solitary to the last degree. The stūpas are mostly decayed. The heretical temples, to the number of about 100, are occupied pell-mell by heretics.

Inside the royal city, towards the north-east,[5] is an old foundation (or a ruinous foundation). Formerly this was the precious tower of the pātra of Buddha. After the Nirvāṇa of Buddha, his pātra coming to this country, was worshipped during many centuries. In traversing different countries it has come now to Persia.[6]

Outside the city, about 8 or 9 li to the south-east, there is a pipala tree about 100 feet or so in height. Its branches are thick and the shade beneath sombre and deep. The four past Buddhas have sat beneath this tree, and at the present time there are four sitting figures of the Buddhas to be seen here. During the Bhadrakalpa, the 996 other Buddhas will all sit here. Secret spiritual influences guard the precincts of the tree and exert a protecting virtue in its continuance. śākya Tathāgata sat beneath this tree with his face to the south and addressed ānanda thus:—"Four hundred years after my departure from the world, there will be a king who shall rule it called Kaniṣka (Kia-ni-se-kia); not far to the south of this spot he will raise a stūpa which will contain many various relics of my bones and flesh."

To the south of the Pippala tree is a stūpa built by King Kaniṣka; this king ascended the throne four hundred years after the Nirvāṇa,[7] and governed the whole of Jambudvīpa. He had no faith either in wrong or right (crime or religious merit), and he lightly esteemed the law of Buddha. One day when traversing a swampy grove (bushy swamp) he saw a white hare, which he followed as far as this spot, when suddenly it disappeared. He then saw a young shepherd-boy, who was building in the wood hard by a little stūpa about three feet high. The king said, "What are you doing?" The shepherd-boy answered and said, "Formerly śākya Buddha, by his divine wisdom, delivered this prophecy: 'There shall be a king in this victorious (superior) land who shall erect a stūpa, which shall contain a great portion of my bodily relics.' The sacred merits of the great king (Kaniṣka) in former births (suh), with his increasing fame, have made the present occasion a proper one for the fulfillment of the old prophecy relating to the divine merit and the religious superiority of the person concerned. And now I am engaged for the purpose of directing you to these former predictions."[8] Having said these words he disappeared.

The king hearing this explanation, was overjoyed. Flattering himself that he was referred to in the prophecy of the great saint, he believed with all his heart and paid reverence to the law of Buddha. Surrounding the site of the little stūpa he built a stone stūpa, wishing to surpass it in height, to prove the power of his religious merit. But in proportion as his stūpa increased the other always exceeded it by three feet, and so he went on till his reached 400 feet, and the circumference of the base was a li and a half. The storeys having reached to five, each 150 feet in height, then he succeeded in covering the other. The king, overjoyed, raised on the top of this stūpa twenty-five circlets of gilded copper on a staff, and he placed in the middle of the stūpa a peck of the śarīras of Tathāgata, and offered to them religious offerings. Scarcely had he finished his work when he saw the little stūpa take its place at the south-east of the great foundation, and project from its side about half-way up.[9] The king was disturbed at this, and ordered the stūpa to be destroyed. When they had got down to the bottom of the second storey, through which the other projected, immediately that one removed to its former place, and once more it surpassed in height the other. The king retiring said, "It is easy to commit errors in human affairs,[10] but when there is divine influence at work it is difficult to counteract it. When a matter is directed by spiritual power, what can human resentment effect?" Having confessed his fault, therefore, he retired.

These two stūpas are still visible. In aggravated[11] sickness, if a cure is sought, people burn incense and offer flowers, and with a sincere faith pay their devotions. In many cases a remedy is found.

On the southern side of the steps, on the eastern face of the great stūpa, there are engraved (or carved) two stūpas,[12] one three feet high, the other five feet. They are the same shape and proportion as the great stūpa. Again, there are two full-sized figures of Buddha, one four feet, the other six feet in height. They resemble him as he sat cross-legged beneath the Bodhi tree. When the full rays of the sun shine on them they appear of a brilliant gold colour, and as the light decreases the hues of the stone seem to assume a reddish-blue colour. The old people say, "Several centuries ago, in a fissure of the stone foundation, there were some gold-coloured ants, the greatest about the size of the finger, the longest about a barleycorn in size. Those of the same species consorted together; by gnawing the stone steps they have left lines and marks as if engraved on the surface, and by the gold sand which they left (as deposits) they have caused the figures of Buddha to assume their present appearance."

On the southern side of the stone steps of the great stūpa[13] there is a painted figure of Buddha about sixteen feet high. From the middle upward there are two bodies, below the middle, only one. The old tradition says: In the beginning, there was a poor man who hired himself out to get a living; having obtained a gold coin, he vowed to make a figure of Buddha. Coming to the stūpa, he spoke to a painter and said, "I wish now to get a figure of Tathāgata painted, with its beautiful points of excellence;[14] but I only have one gold coin; this is little enough to repay an artist. I am sorry to be so hampered by poverty in carrying out my cherished aim."

Then the painter, observing his simple truth, said nothing about the price, but promised to set to work to furnish the picture.

Again there was a man, similarly circumstanced, with one gold coin, who also sought to have a picture of Buddha painted. The painter having received thus a gold piece from each, procured some excellent colours (blue and vermilion) and painted a picture. Then both men came the same day to pay reverence to the picture they had had done, and the artist pointed each to the same figure, telling them, "This is the figure of Buddha which you ordered to be done." The two men looking at one another in perplexity, the mind of the artist understanding their doubts, said, "What are you thinking about so long? If you are thinking about the money, I have not defrauded you of any part. To show that it is so there must be some spiritual indication on the part of the picture." Scarcely had he finished when the picture, by some spiritual power, divided itself (from the middle upwards), and both parts emitted a glory alike. The two men with joy believed and exulted.

To the south-west of the great stūpa 100 paces or so, there is a figure of Buddha in white stone about eighteen feet high. It is a standing figure, and looks to the north. It has many spiritual powers, and diffuses a brilliant light. Sometimes there are people who see the image come out of an evening and go round[15] the great stūpa. Lately a band of robbers wished to go in and steal. The image immediately came forth and went before the robbers. Affrighted, they ran away; the image then returned to its own place, and remained fixed as before. The robbers, affected by what they had seen, began a new life, and went about through towns and villages telling what had happened.

To the left and right of the great stūpa are a hundred little stūpas standing closely together,[16] executed with consummate art. Exquisite perfumes and different musical sounds at times are perceived, the work of Rishis, saints, and eminent sages; these also at times are seen walking round the stūpas.

According to the prediction of Tathāgata, after this stūpa has been seven times burnt down and seven times rebuilt, then the religion of Buddha will disappear. The record of old worthies says this building has already been destroyed and restored three times. When (I) first arrived in this country it had just been destroyed by a fire calamity. Steps are being taken for its restoration, but they are not yet complete.

To the west of the great stūpa there is an old saṅghārāma which was built by King Kaniṣka. Its double towers, connected terraces, storeyed piles, and deep chambers bear testimony to the eminence of the great priests who have here formed their illustrious religious characters (gained distinction). Although now somewhat decayed, it yet gives evidence of its wonderful construction. The priests living in it are few; they study the Little Vehicle. From the time it was built many authors of śāstras have lived herein and gained the supreme fruit (of Arhatship). Their pure fame is wide-spread, and their exemplary religious character still survives.

In the third tower (double-storeyed tower) is the chamber of the honourable Pārśvika (Pi-lo-shi-po), but it has long been in ruins; but they have placed here a commemorative tablet to him. He was at first a master of the Brāhmaṇs (or a Brāhmaṇ doctor), but when eighty years of age he left his home and assumed the soiled robes (of a Buddhist disciple). The boys of the town ridiculed him, saying, "Foolish old man! You have no wisdom, surely! Don't you know that they who become disciples of Buddha have two tasks to perform, viz., to give themselves to meditation and to recite the Scriptures? And now you are old and infirm, what progress can you make as a disciple?[17] Doubtless you know how to eat (and that is all)!" Then Pārśvika, hearing such railing speeches, gave up the world[18] and made this vow, "Until I thoroughly penetrate[19] the wisdom of the three Piṭakas and get rid of the evil desire of the three worlds, till I obtain the six miraculous powers[20] and reach the eight deliverances (vimokṣas), I will not lie down to rest (my side shall not touch the sleeping mat)." From that day forth the day was not enough for him to walk in meditation or to sit upright in deep thought. In the daytime he studied incessantly the doctrine of the sublime principles (of Buddhism), and at night he sat silently meditating in unbroken thought. After three years he obtained insight into the three piṭakas, and shook off all worldly desires,[21] and obtained the threefold knowledge.[22] Then people called him the honourable Pārśvika[23] and paid him reverence.

To the east of Pārśvika's chamber is an old building in which Vasubandhu[24] Bodhisattva prepared the 'O-pi-ta-mo-ku-she-lun (Abhidharmakoṣa śāstra);[25] men, out of respect to him, have placed here a commemorative tablet to this effect.

To the south of Vasubandhu's house, about fifty paces or so, is a second storied-pavilion in which Manorhita,[26] a master of śāstras, composed the Vibhāṣā śāstra. This learned doctor flourished in the midst of the thousand years[27] after the Nirvāṇa of Buddha. In his youth he was devoted to study and had distinguished talent. His fame was wide spread with the religious, and laymen sought to do him hearty reverence. At that time Vikramāditya,[28] king of the country of śrāvastī, was of wide renown. He ordered his ministers to distribute daily throughout India[29] five lakhs of gold coin; he largely (everywhere) supplied the wants of the poor, the orphan, and the bereaved. His treasurer, fearing that the resources of the kingdom would be exhausted, represented the case to the king, and said, "Mahārāja! your fame has reached to the very lowest of your subjects, and extends to the brute creation. You bid me add (to your expenditure) five lakhs of gold to succour the poor throughout the world. Your treasury will thus be emptied, and then fresh imposts will have to be laid (on the land cultivators), until the resources of the land be also exhausted; then the voice of complaint will be heard and hostility be provoked. Your majesty, indeed, will get credit for charity, but your minister[30] will lose the respect of all." The king answered, "But of my own surplus I (wish to) relieve the poor. I would on no account, for my own advantage, thoughtlessly burthen (grind down) the country." Accordingly he added five lakhs for the good of the poor. Some time after this the king was engaged chasing a boar. Having lost the track, be gave a man a lakh for putting him on the scent again. Now Manorhita, the doctor of śāstras, once engaged a man to shave his head, and gave him offhand a lakh of gold for so doing.[31] This munificent act was recorded in the annals by the chief historian. The king reading of it, was filled with shame, and his proud heart continually fretted about it,[32] and so he desired to bring some fault against Manorhita and punish him. So he summoned an assembly of different religious persons whose talents were most noted,[33] to the number of one hundred, and issued the following decree: "I wish to put a check to the various opinions (wanderings) and to settle the true limits (of inquiry); the opinions of different religious sects are so various that the mind knows not what to believe. Exert your utmost ability, therefore, to-day in following out my directions." On meeting for discussion be made a second decree: "The doctors of law belonging to the heretics[34] are distinguished for their ability. The Shamans and the followers of the law (of Buddha) ought to look well to the principles of their sect; if they prevail, then they will bring reverence to the law of Buddha; but if they fail, then they shall be exterminated."[35] On this, Manorhita questioned the heretics and silenced[36] ninety-nine of them. And now a man was placed (sat on the mat to dispute with him) of no ability whatever,[37] and for the sake of a trifling discussion (Manorhita) proposed the subject of fire and smoke. On this the king and the heretics cried out, saying, "Manorhita, the doctor of śāstras, has lost the sense of right connection (mistaken the order or sense of the phrase); he should have named smoke first and fire afterwards: this order of things is constant." Manorhita wishing to explain the difficulty, was not allowed a hearing; on which, ashamed to see himself thus treated by the people, he bit out his tongue and wrote a warning to his disciple Vasubandhu, saying, "In the multitude of partisans there is no justice; among persons deceived there is no discernment." Having written this, he died.

A little afterwards Vikramāditya-rāja lost his kingdom and was succeeded by a monarch who widely patronised those distinguished for literary merit.[38] Vasubandhu, wishing to wash out the former disgrace, came to the king and said, "Mahārāja, by your sacred qualities you rule the empire and govern with wisdom. My old master, Manorhita, was deeply versed in the mysterious doctrine. The former king, from an old resentment, deprived him of his high renown. I now wish to avenge the injury done to my master." The king, knowing that Manorhita was a man of superior intelligence, approved of the noble project of Vasubandhu; he summoned the heretics who had discussed with Manorhita. Vasubandhu having exhibited afresh the former conclusions of his master, the heretics were abashed and retired.

To the north-east of the saṅghārāma of Kaniṣka-rāja about 50 li, we cross a great river and arrive at the town of Puṣkalāvatī (Po-shi-kie-lo-fa-ti).[39] It is about 14 or 15 li in circuit; the population is large; the inner gates are connected by a hollow (tunnel?).[40].

Outside the western gate is a Deva temple. The image of the god is imposing and works constant miracles.

To the east of the city is a stūpa built by Aśoka-rāja. This is the place where the four former Buddhas delivered the law (preached). Among former saints and sages many have come (descended spiritually) from Mid-India to this place to instruct all creatures (things). For example, Vasumitra,[41] doctor of śāstras, who composed the Chung-sse-fen-o-pi-ta-mo(Abhidharmaprakaraṇa-pāda) śāstra in this place.

To the north of the town 4 or 5 li is an old saṅghārāma, of which the halls are deserted and cold. There are very few priests in it, and all of them follow the teaching of the Little Vehicle. Dharmatrāta, master of śāstras, here composed the Ts'a-o-pi-ta-ma-lun (Saṃyuktābhidharma S'āstra).[42]

By the side of the saṅghārāma is a stūpa several hundred feet high, which was built by Aśoka-rāja. It is made of carved wood and veined stone, the work of various artists. śākya Buddha, in old time when king of this country, prepared himself as a Bodhisattva (for becoming a Buddha). He gave up all he had at the request of those who asked, and spared not to sacrifice his own body as a bequeathed gift (a testamentary gift). Having been born in this country a thousand times as king, he gave during each of those thousands births in this excellent country, his eyes as an offering.

Going not far east from this, there are two stone stūpas, each about 100 feet in height. The right-hand one was built by Brahmā Deva, that on the left by śakra (king of Devas). They were both adorned with jewels and gems. After Buddha's death these jewels changed themselves into ordinary stones. Although the buildings are in a ruinous condition, still they are of a considerable height and grandeur.

Going north-west about 50 li from these stūpas, there is another stūpa. Here śākya Tathāgata converted the Mother of the demons[43] and caused her to refrain from hurting men. It is for this reason the common folk of this country offer sacrifices to obtain children from her.

Going north 50 li or so from this, there is another stūpa. It was here Sāmaka Bodhisattva[44] (Shang-mu-kia), walking piously, nourished as a boy his blind father and mother. One day when gathering fruits for them, be encountered the king as he was hunting, who wounded him by mistake with a poisoned arrow. By means of the spiritual power of his great faith he was restored to health through some medicaments which Indra (Tien-ti), moved by his holy conduct, applied to the wound.

To the south-east of this place[45] about 200 li, we arrive at the town Po-lu-sha.[46] On the north of this town is a stūpa; here it was Sudāna[47] the prince, having given in charity to some Brahmaṇs the great elephant of his father the king, was blamed and banished. In leaving his friends, having gone out of the gate of the wall, it was here he paid adieu. Beside this is a saṅghārāma[48] with about fifty priests or so, who all study the Little Vehicle. Formerly Īśvara, master of śāstras, in this place composed the O-pi-ta-mo-ming-ching-lun.[49]

Outside the eastern gate of the town of Po-lu-sha is a saṅghārāma with about fifty priests, who all study the Great Vehicle. Here is a stūpa built by Aśoka-rāja. In old times Sudāna the prince, having been banished from his home, dwelt in Mount Dantaloka.[50] Here a Brahmaṇ begged his son and daughter, and he sold them to him.

To the north-east of Po-lu-sha city about 20 li or so we come to Mount Dantaloka. Above a ridge of that mountain is a stūpa built by Aśoka-rāja; it was here the prince Sudāna dwelt in solitude. By the side of this place, and close by, is a stūpa. It was here the prince gave his son and daughter to the Brahmaṇ, who, on his part, beat them till the blood flowed out on the ground. At the present time the shrubs and trees are all of a deep red colour. Between the crags (of the mountain) there is a stone chamber, where the prince and his wife dwelt and practised meditation. In the midst of the valley the trees droop down their branches like curtains. Here it was the prince in old time wandered forth and rested.

By the side of this wood, and not far from it, is a rocky cell in which an old rishi dwelt.

Going north-west from the stone cell about 100 li or so, we cross a small hill and come to a large mountain. To the south of the mountain is a saṅghārāma, with a few priests as occupants, who study the Great Vehicle. By the side of it is a stūpa built by Aśoka rāja. This is the place which in old time was occupied by Ekaśṛīṅga Rishi.[51] This rishi being deceived by a pleasure-woman, lost his spiritual faculties. The woman, mounting his shoulders, returned to the city.

To the north-east of the city of Po-lu-sha 50 li or so, we come to a high mountain, on which is a figure of the wife of Īśvara Deva carved out of green (bluish) stone. This is Bhīmā Devī.[52] All the people of the better class, and the lower orders too, declare that this figure was self-wrought. It has the reputation of working numerous miracles, and therefore is venerated (worshipped) by all, so that from every part of India men come to pay their vows and seek prosperity thereby. Both poor and rich assemble here from every part, near and distant. Those who wish to see the form of the divine spirit, being filled with faith and free from doubt, after fasting seven days are privileged to behold it, and obtain for the most part their prayers.[53] Below the mountain is the temple of Maheśvara Deva; the heretics who cover themselves with ashes[54] come here to offer sacrifice.

Going south-east from the temple of Bhīmā 150 li, we come to U-to-kia-han-ch'a.[55] This town is about 20 li in circuit; on the south it borders on the river Sindh (Sin-to). The inhabitants are rich and prosperous. Here is amassed a supply of valuable merchandise, and mixed goods from all quarters.

To the north-west of U-to-kia-han-c'ha 20 li or so we come to the town of P'o-lo-tu-lo.[56] This is the place where the Rishi Pāṇini, who composed the Ching-ming-lun[57] was born.

Referring to the most ancient times, letters were very numerous; but when, in the process of ages, the world was destroyed and remained as a void, the Devas of long life[58] descended spiritually to guide the people. Such was the origin of the ancient[59] letters and composition. From this time and after it the source (of language) spread and passed its (former) bounds. Brahmā Deva and śakra (Devendra) established rules (forms or examples) according to the requirements. Rishis belonging to different schools each drew up forms of letters. Men in their successive generations put into use what had been delivered to them; but nevertheless students without ability (religious ability) were unable to make use (of these characters). And now men's lives were reduced to the length of a hundred years, when the Rishi Pāṇini was born; he was from his birth extensively informed about things (men and things). The times being dull and careless, he wished to reform the vague and false rules (of writing and speaking) to fix the rules and correct improprieties. As he wandered about asking for right ways,[60] he encountered Īśvara Deva, and recounted to him the plan of his undertaking. Īśvara Deva said, "Wonderful! I will assist you in this." The Rishi, having received instruction, retired. He then laboured incessantly and put forth all his power of mind. He collected a multitude of words, and made a book on letters which contained a thousand ślokas; each śloka was of thirty-two syllables. It contained everything known from the first till then, without exception, respecting letters and words. He then closed it and sent it to the king (supreme ruler), who exceedingly prized it, and issued an edict that throughout the kingdom it should be used and taught to others; and he added that whoever should learn it from beginning to end should receive as his reward a thousand pieces of gold. And so from that time masters have received it and handed it down in its completeness for the good of the world. Hence the Brāhmaṇs of this town are well grounded in their literary work, and are of high renown for their talents, well informed as to things (men and things), and of a vigorous understanding (memory).

In the town of So-lo-tu-lo is a stūpa. This is the spot where an Arhat converted a disciple of Pāṇini. Tathāgata had left the world some five hundred years, when there was a great Arhat who came to the country of Kaśmīr, and went about converting men. Coming to this place, he saw a Brahmachārin occupied in chastising a boy whom he was instructing in letters. Then the Arhat spake to the Brāhmaṇ thus: "Why do you cause pain to this child?" The Brāhmaṇ replied, "I am teaching him the Shing-ming (śabdavidyā), but he makes no proper progress." The Arhat smiled significantly,[61] on which the Brāhmaṇ said, "Shamans are of a pitiful and loving disposition, and well disposed to men and creatures generally; why did you smile, honoured sir? Pray let me know!"

The Arhat replied, "Light words are not becoming,[62] and I fear to cause in you incredulous thoughts and unbelief. No doubt you have heard of the Rishi Pāṇini, who compiled the śabdavidyā śāstra, which he has left for the instruction of the world." The Brāhmaṇ replied, "The children of this town, who are his disciples, revere his eminent qualities, and a statue erected to his memory still exists." The Arhat continued: "This little boy whom you are instructing was that very (Pāṇini) Rishi. As he devoted his vigorous mind to investigate worldly literature, he only produced heretical treatises without any power of true reason in them. His spirit and his wisdom were dispersed, and he has run through the cycles of continued birth from then till now. Thanks to some remnant of true virtue, he has been now born as your attached child; but the literature of the world and these treatises on letters are only cause of useless efforts to him, and are as nothing compared to the holy teaching of Tathāgata, which, by its mysterious influences, procures both happiness and wisdom. On the shores of the southern sea there was an old decayed tree, in the hollows of which five hundred bats had taken up their abodes. Once some merchants took their seats beneath this tree, and as a cold wind was blowing, these men, cold and hungry, gathered together a heap of fuel and lit a fire at the tree-foot. The flames catching hold of the tree, by degrees it was burnt down. At this time amongst the merchant troop there was one who, after the turn of the night, began to recite a portion of the Abhidharma Piṭaka. The bats, notwithstanding the flames, because of the beauty of the sound of the law patiently endured the pain, and did not come forth. After this they died, and, according to their works, they all received birth as men. They became ascetics, practised wisdom, and by the power of the sounds of the law they had heard they grew in wisdom and became Arhats as the result of merit acquired in the world. Lately the king, Kaniṣka, with the honourable Pārśvika, summoning a council of five hundred saints and sages in the country of Kaśmīr, they drew up the Vibhāṣā śāstra. These were the five hundred bats who formerly dwelt in that decayed tree. I myself, though of poor ability, am one of the number. It is thus men differ in their superior or inferior abilities. Some rise, others live in obscurity. But now, O virtuous one! permit your pupil (attached child) to leave his home. Becoming a disciple of Buddha, the merits we secure are not to be told,"

The Arhat having spoken thus, proved his spiritual capabilities by instantly disappearing. The Brāhman was deeply affected by what he saw, and moved to believe. He noised abroad through the town and neighbourhood what had happened, and permitted the child to become a disciple of Buddha and acquire wisdom. Moreover, he himself changed his belief, and mightily reverenced the three precious ones. The people of the village, following his example, became disciples, and till now they have remained earnest in their profession.

From U-to-kia-han-ch'a, going north, we pass over some mountains, cross a river, and travelling 600 li or so, we arrive at the kingdom of U-chang-na (Udyāna).

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

The country of Gandhāra is that of the lower Kabul valley, lying along the Kabul river between the Khoaspes (Kunar) and the Indus. It is the country of the Gandaræ of Ptolemy (Geog., lib. vi. c. 1,7). The capital was Purushapura now Peshawar. The Gandarii are mentioned by Hekataios (Fr. 178, 179) and Herodotos (lib. iii. c. 91, lib. vii. c.66), and the district of Gandaritis by Strabo (Geog., lib. xv. c. 1, 26). See Wilson, Ariana Ant., pp. 125, 131; J. R. As. Soc., vol. v. p. 117; Lassen, Ind. Alt., vol. i. pp. 502 f., vol. ii. pp. 150, 854; Pentapot, pp. 15 f., 105; Asiat. Res., vol. xv. pp. 103, 106 f.; Vishṇu-pur., vol. ii. pp. 169, 174, vol. iii. p. 319, vol. iv. p. 118; Mahābh., viii. 2055 f.; Troyer's Rāja-Taraṅgiṇt, tom. ii. pp. 316-321; Elliot, Hist. Ind., vol. i. p. 48 n.; Bunbury, Hist. Anc. Geog., vol. i. pp. 142, 238; Reinaud, Mém. sur l' Inde, pp. 106 f. Pānini (iv. 2, 133) mentions the Gāndhāra in the group Kachchhādi.

[2]:

The Kung shing is the fortified or walled portion of the town, in which the royal palace stood.

[3]:

There is a symbol puh before this name, which, as Julien has remarked, is inserted by mistake. The Chinese equivalents for the names of these writers are as follows: Na-lo-yen-tin (Nārāyaṇadeva), Wu-ch'o-p'u-sa (Asaṅgha Bodhisattva), Shi-shin-p'u-sa (Vasubandhu Bodhisattva), Fa-kiu(Dharmatrāta), Ju-i (Manorhita), Hie-tsun (Arya Pārśvika). All these, the text says, were born in Gandhāra.

[4]:

M. Julien has pointed out the error in the text and supplied this meaning.

[5]:

Julien has north-west.

[6]:

For the wanderings of the Pātra of Buddha (called in Chinese "the measure vessel," compare graduale and grail), see Fa-hian, pp. 36 f., 161 f.; Köppen, Die Rel. des Buddha, vol. i. p. 526; J. R. A. S., vol. xi. p. 127; also consult Yule's Marco Polo, vol. ii. pp. 301, 310 f.

[7]:

See ante, p. 56, note 200, and inf. p. 151, note 97.

[8]:

Or, "to arouse you to a sense of your destiny (your previous forecast)."

[9]:

Julien translates this differently—"he saw the little stūpa raise itself by the side of the other and exceed it by one-half," The passage is undoubtedly a difficult one, and rendered more so by a faulty text. To understand it, we must observe that the building was a tower of five storeys, each 150 feet in height. The small stūpa or tower was enclosed in the middle of the lower basement. Suddenly, when the large tower was finished, the smaller one changed its position, and came to the south-east angle of the great foundation—i.e., of the lowest division or storey—and pierced through the wall of the larger building about half way up. Kanishka, ill at ease in the presence of this portent, ordered the greater building to be destroyed down to the second stage. On this being done the little tower again went back to the middle of the space enclosed by the basement of the larger one, and there overtopped it as before. So I understand the passage; and if this be so, the only alteration required in the text is in the last clause, where instead of "siu", "little," I would substitute "ta", "great," "it came out of, i.e., towered above, the great stūpa."

[10]:

Or, "human affairs are changeable and deceptive."

[11]:

The sense of "ying" in this passage is doubtful; it may mean "complicated" or "threatening (sickness)," or it may refer to complaints peculiar to children.

[12]:

The expression lo c'ho would seem to mean that the stūpas were engraved, not built. The particular named as to steps leading up to the stūpa is significant, as illustrating the architectural appearance and character of these buildings.

[13]:

This is the literal translation; it may mean "on the southern side of the steps," as though there were steps only on the eastern side of the stūpa; or it may, by license, mean "on the steps of the stūpa, its southern face", as though the steps referred to were on the southern face. But the literal translation is preferable, in which case we may assume that a flight of steps on the eastern side led up to the platform on which the tower (stūpa) was built, and that the figures referred to were engraved between the pilasters of the terrace on the north and south sides of the steps.

[14]:

Or, "a beautifully-marked figure of Tathāgata." The marks (siang or lakshaṇa) of Buddha are well known.—See Burnouf, Lotus, p. 616, and ante, p. 1, note 5.

[15]:

That is, circumambulate it, or perform the pradakshiṇa.

[16]:

The expression means, as M. Julien explains, arranged in order like the scales of a fish, that is, with regularity.

[17]:

Lit., in the pure streams of the high calling (traces).

[18]:

Withdrew from "time and men." It may be, withdrew for a time from men.

[19]:

Whilst I do not understand, etc.

[20]:

The six miraculous or spiritual powers are the abhijñās, so called; for which see Eitel's Handbook, s. v., or Childers, Pali Dict., s. v. abhiññā. Five are enumerated in the Lotus, cap. v. see pp. 291, 345, 372, 379, 820; Introd., p. 263. For the vimokshas see Lotus, pp. 347, 824; Childers, Pali Dict., s. v. vimokho. See note 88, p. 149, inf.

[21]:

Desire of the three worlds.

[22]:

The trividyās, the threefold knowledge, viz., (of the impermanence of all things (anitya), of sorrow (dukha), and of unreality (anātmā).

[23]:

Pārśvika, Chin. Hie-ts'un, so named from pārśva (Chin. hie), "the side," from his vow, here related, not to lie on his side. He is reckoned the ninth or tenth Buddhist patriarch (according as Vasumitra, the seventh, is excluded or not); Edkins, Chin. Buddh., p. 74; Lassen, I. A., vol. ii. p. 1202; Vassilief, pp. 48, 75 f. 203 f. 211; Ind. Ant., vol. iv. p. 141.

[24]:

Vasubandhu (Fo-siu-fan-tho) translated Thien-sin and Shi-sin, according to northern accounts, the twenty-first patriarch of the Buddhist church, and younger brother of Asaṅga. But this succession of patriarchs is more than doubtful, for Budhidharma, who is represented as the twenty-eighth patriarch, arrived in China A.D. 520; but according to Max Müller, Vasubandhu flourished in India in the second half of the sixth century (India, p. 306). If this date can be established, many of the statements of dates found in the Chinese Buddhist books will have to be discredited (inf. p. 119, n. 1). Lassen, I. A., vol. ii. p. 1205; Edkins, Ch. Buddh., pp. 169, 278; Vassilief, pp. 214 ff., or Ind. Ant., vol. iv. pp. 142 f. Vasubandhu is sometimes called the twentieth patriarch, cf. p.120, n.2

[25]:

This is a work frequently named in these records. It was written by Vasubandhu to refute the errors of the Vaibhāshikas, and was translated into Chinese by Paramārtha, A.D. 557-589. For an account of its origin see the Life of Buddha by Wong Pūh, § 195, in J. R. A. S., vol. xx. p. 211; Edkins, Ch. Buddh., p. 120; Vassilief, pp. 77 f. 108, 130, 220.

[26]:

Manorhita, otherwise written Manorata, Manorhata, or Manoratha (Jul., Vie, p. 405), also Manura. This is explained by the Chinese Ju-i, an expression used for the Kalpavṛksha or "wishing tree," denoting power to produce whatever was wished; literally, "conformable (hita) to thought (mana, mind)." He is probably the same as Maṇirata (Vassilief, Bouddhisme, p. 219). He is reckoned the twenty-second patriarch.—Lassen, I. A., vol. ii. p. 1206; Edkins, Ch. Buddh., pp. 82-84; M. Müller, India, pp. 289, 302; and note 77 ante.

[27]:

This expression, "in the midst of, or during, the thousand years," has a particular reference to the period of 1000 years which succeeded the period of 500 years after Buddha's death. The 500 years is called the period of the "true law," the 1000 years "the period of images," i.e., image-worship; after that came the period of "no law." The phrase "during the 1000 years," therefore, in these records, means that the person referred to lived during the middle portion of the second period, that is, about a thousand years after Buddha. There is a useful note in Wong Pūh's life of Buddha (§204, J. R. A. S., vol. xx. p. 215) relating to this point, from which it appears that the accepted date of the Nirvāṇa in China at this time was 850 B.C. The period of 1000 years, therefore, would extend from 350 B.C. to 650 A.D. Wong Pūh uses the expression ke-shi "the latter age," for "the thousand years." Manorhita is placed under Vikramāditya Harsha of Ujjain, and therefore lived about the middle of the 6th century A.D., according to M. Müller, India, p. 290.

[28]:

This is supposed to be the same as Vikramāditya or Harsha of Ujjayinī, according to Dr. J. Fergusson and Prof. M. Müller, the founder of the usual Saṃvat era, 56 B.C. The Chinese quivalent for his name is "chaou jih", or "leaping above the sun," or "the upspringing light," "the dawn." As to the mode in which this era of Vikramāditya might have been contrived, see Fergusson (J. R. A. S., N.S., vol. xii. p. 273). The starting-point from which these writers suppose it came into use is 544 A.D. The expression Vikramāditya of Srāvastī, is the same as Vikramāditya of Ayodhya (Oudh), where we are told (Vassilief, p. 219) he held his court. The town of śrāvastī was in ruins even in Fa-hian's time (cap. xx.)

[29]:

"Throughout all the Indies." This passage may also be translated thus: "An envoy (shi shan) coming to India, he daily," etc. Julien refers it to one of his own enveys, but in any case the passage is obscure. Judging from the context, I think the meaning is, "he ordered his minister, in the next sentence called "his treasurer," to give throughout India on one day five lakhs for the poor."

[30]:

Such is plainly the meaning; the treasurer is speaking of himself. The antithesis requires it, "kun shang, shan hia." M. Julien translates it as referring to all the subjects.

[31]:

M. Julien translates as follows: "Un jour le maitre des Castras Jou-i (Manorhita) ayant envoyé un homme pour couper les cheveux au roi;" but in my text there is no word for "king," and the whole context seems to require another rendering. I translate the passage as referring to Manorhita himself, who, although a writer of śāstras, was also a prince (vid. Eitel, s. v.)

[32]:

I.e., that Manorhita should have equalled him in munificence, and that he should be held up as an example.

[33]:

"Whose virtuous deeds (good qualities) were high and profound," I find nothing about Brāhmans in the text.

[34]:

Or it may be, "the unbelievers and the doctors of śāstras are both eminent," etc.

[35]:

It ought probably to be rendered thus: "If they prevail, then I will reverence the law of Buddha; if they are defeated, I will utterly exterminate the priests."

[36]:

Made to retire.

[37]:

Or, who looked at him with a dispirited (downcast) air.

[38]:

This would appear to be śīlāditya of Ujjain, spoken of by Hiuen Tsiang (Book xi.) as having lived about sixty years before his own time.

[39]:

Or Pushkarāvatī, the old capital of Gandhāra, said to have been founded by Pushkara or Pushkala, the son of Bharata and nephew of Rāma (Wilson, Vishṇu-pur., vol. iii. p. 319). The district is called Peukelaôtis and Peukelaiêtis by Arrian (Anab., lib. iv. c. 22, s. 9; Ind., c. 4, s. 11), and the capital Peukelaiêtis or Peukela (Ind., c. 1, s. 8), while Strabo calls the city Peukelaitis (lib. xv. C. 21 s. 27). Pliny has Peucolais (lib. vi. c. 21, s. 62) and the people Peucolaitæ (c. 23, s. 78). Dionysius Perigetis has Peukelais (v. 1143), and the author of the Periplus Mar. æryth. (s. 47) and Ptolemy Proklais (lib. vii. c. 1, s. 44; v. l. Poklais). Alexander the Great besieged and took it from Astes (Hasti) and appointed Sangæus (Sañjaya) as his successor. It was probably at Hashtanagara, 18 miles north of Peshawar, on the Svāt (Suastos), near its junction with the Kabul (Kophen or Kophes), the great river which the traveller here crossed. See Baber's Mem., pp. 136, 141, 251; Cunningham, Anc. Geog., pp. 49 f.; St. Martin, Geog. de l' Inde, p. 37; Bunbury, Hist. Anc. Geog., vol. i. p. 498; Wilson, Ariana Ant., pp. 185 f.; Ind. Ant., vol. v. pp. 85 f., 330; Lassen, I. A., vol. i. p. 501, vol. iii. p. 139; Reinaud, Mém. s. l' Inde, p. 65.

[40]:

The phrase "leu yen" means the inner gates of a town or village (Medhurst, s. v. Yen), and tung lin means "deeply connected," or "are deep and connected." Julien tranlates it, "the houses rise in thick lines." The readings must be different.

[41]:

Vasumitra, in Chinese Shi Yu, friend of the world.—Ch. Ed. He was one of the chief of the 500 great Arhats who formed the council convoked by Kanishka. Vassilief, pp. 49 f., 58 f., 78, 107, 113, 222 f.; Edkins, Ch. Buddh., pp. 72 f., 283; Burnouf, Int., pp. 399, 505 f.

[42]:

According to the Ch'uh-yau king (Udānavarya), Dharmatrāta was uncle of Vasumita. (See Beal, Texts from the Buddhist Canon (Dharmapada), p. 8; Rockhill's Udānavarga, p. xi.) There was another Dharmatrāta, according to Tārānātha (Rockhill's, p. xi.), who was one of the leaders of the Vaibhāshika school, and also another Vasumitra, who commented on the Abhidharma Kosha written by Vasubandhu, who lived probably in the fifth century A.D. But as the Chinese versions of the Dharmapada were made before Vasubandhu's time, and the second Vasumitra lived after Vasubandhu, for he commented on his work, it is highly probable that the Dharmatrāta alluded to in the text was the compiler of the Northern versions of the "Verses of the Law" (Dharmapada) known both in China and Tibet. Dharmatrāta, according to a note in the text, was erroneously called Dharmatara.

[43]:

The mother of the demons was, according to I-tsing (K. i. §9), called Hāritī (Ko-li-ti), and was venerated by the Buddhists. "She had made a vow in a former birth to devour the children of Rājagṛha, and was accordingly born as a Yaksha, and became the mother of 500 children. To nourish these she each day took a child (boy or girl) of Rājagṛha. People having told Buddha of it, he hid one of the Yaksha's children called "the loved one." The mother, having searched everywhere, at last found it by Buddha's side. On this the Lord addressed her as follow: "Do you so tenderly love your child? But you possess 500 such. How much more would persons with only one or two love theirs?" On this she was converted and became a Upāsikā, or lay disciple. She then inquired how she was to feed her 500 children. On this Buddha said, "The Bhikshus who live in their monasteries shall every day offer you food out of their portion for nourishment." Therefore in the convents of the western world, either within the porch of the gates or by the side of the kitchen, they paint on the wall a figure of the mother holding a child, and below sometimes five, sometimes three others in the foreground. Every day they place before this imagine a dish of food for her portion of nourishment. She is the most powerful among the followers (retinue) of the four heavenly kings (Deva-rājas). The sick and those without children offer her food to obtain their wishes. In China she is called Kwei-tseu-mu.—Julien, Mémoires, tom. i. p. 120 n. My translation of I-tsing, however, differs from Julien's. The Chalukyas and other royal families of the Dekhan claim to be descendants of Hāritī (Hārītiputra). The above account from I-tsing relates to the figure of Hāritī in the Varāha temple at Tāmralipti. Possibly this temple may have been a Chalukya foundation, for the Varāha (boar) was one of their principle insignia.

[44]:

This refers to Sāma, the son of Dukhula, in the Sāma-jātaka. He is called in Fa-hian "Shen" (for Shen-ma), and this equivalent is also given in the text. See Trans. Int. Cong. Orient. (1874), p. 135. The Jātaka is represented among the Sāñchi sculptures (Tree and Serp. Worship, pl. xxxvi, fig. 1). For an account of it see Spence Hardy's Eastern Monachism, p. 275; conf. Man. Budh., p. 460. The story is also a Brahmanical one, occurring in the Rāmāyaṇa.—Ind. Ant., vol. i. pp. 37-39.

[45]:

That is, south-east from the stūpa of Sāmaka Bodhisattva. I have not repeated the name of the place in this and other passages.

[46]:

Following the route described in the text, we are taken first 4 or 5 li to the north of Pushkalāvatī, next a little way to the east, then 50 li to the north-west, then 50 li to the north. It is from this point we are to reckon 200 li to the south-west to Po-lu-sha. M. V. de St. Martin (Mémoire, p. 309) substitutes 250 li for 200, and he then reckons from Pushkalāvatī. General Cunningham falls into the same mistake (Anc. Geog., p. 52), and identifies Po-lu-Sha with Palodheri, or the village of Pali, situated on a dheri or mound of ruins (op. cit., p. 52). This would agree with Hiuen Tsiang's distance and bearing, that is, from the stūpa of Sāmaka, which was some 90 to 100 li to the north-north-east of Pushkalāvatī.

[47]:

That is, Visvāntara, Visvaṅtara, or Vessantara, the prince. His history is a popular one among Buddhists. See Spence Hardy's Man. of Buddhism., p. 118; Fergusson, Tree and Serp. Worship, pl. xxxii.; Beal's Fah-hian, p. 194 n. 2; Burnouf, Lotus, p. 411; conf. Kathāsarit., 113, 9; Aitar. Bṛāhm., vii. 27, 34. The particulars given in the text and in Fa-hian led to the identification of pl. xxxii. in Tree and Serp. Worship with this history. The same Jātaka is also found amongst the Amarāvatī sculptures, op. cit., pl. lxv. fig. 1. With respect to the name Sudāna, the Chinese explanation (good teeth) is erroneous, as M. Julien has pointed out (p. 122 n.) Sudānta is the name of a Pratyekabuddha mentioned in the Trikāṇḍaśesha, i. 1, 13.

[48]:

So I translate the passage. M. Julien understands the number fifty to refer to the saṅghārāmas. But it would be an unusual circumstance to find fifty or more convents near one spot, nor does the text necessarily require it.

[49]:

Restored doubtfully by Julien to Abhidharmaprakāśa-sādhana S'āstra. It was perhaps the Saṃyuktābhidharmahṛdaya śāstra, which Īśvara is said to have translated in 426 A.D. Īśvara's name is given in Chinese as Tsu-tsai;, "master," "lord," "self-existent."

[50]:

Tan-ta-lo-kia, which might also be restored to Dandarika. The Japanese equivalent given in the text for "lo" is "ra". General Cunningham identifies this mountain with the Montes Dædali of Justin (op. cit., p. 52)

[51]:

This story of Ekaśṛṅga seems to be connected with the episode of śṛṅga in the Rāmāyaṇa. It is constantly referred to in Buddhist books. See Eitel's Handbook, s. v.; Catena of Buddh. Scrip., p. 260; Romantic Legend, p. 124; and compare the notice in Yule's Marco polo, vol. ii. p. 233; Ind. Ant., vol. i. p. 244, vol. ii. pp. 69, 140 f.

[52]:

Bhīmā is a form of Durgā, probably = Si-wang-mu of the Chinese.

[53]:

The same thing is said about Kwan-yin (Avalokiteśvara). For some account of the worship of Durgā or Pārvatī, and of Kwan-yin or Avalokiteśvara, as mountain deities, see J. R. A. S., N.S., vol. xv. p. 333.

[54]:

That is, the Pāśupatas. Compare what Hiuen Tsiang says in reference to Kwan-yin or Avalokiteśvara, viz., when he reveals himself on Mount Potaraka, he sometimes takes the form of Īśvara and sometimes that of a Pāśupata (book x. fol. 30). See also p. 60, n. 210 ante.

[55]:

Restored by Julien to Uḍakhāṇḍa; identified by V. St. Martin with Ohind. Its south side rests on the Indus. The distance is 150 li from the temple of Bhīmā. If we actually project 150 li (30 miles) north-west from Ohind, it would bring us near Jamālgarhi. About 50 li or 8 miles E.S.E. from it is Takht-i-Bhaï, standing on an isolated hill 650 feet above the plain. The vast quantities of ruins found in this place indicate that it was once a centre of religious worship. Is this the site of Po-lu-sha? Kapurdagarhi is 20 miles north-west from Ohind, and Takht-i-Bhaï 13 miles E.N.E. from Kapurdagarhi. See p. 135.

[56]:

The symbol "p'o" is for "so" (Jul.) The town is Salātura, the birthplace of Pāṇini, who is known by the name of śālāturīya (Pāṇini, iv. 3, 94). Cunningham identifies it with the village of Lahor, which he says is four miles north-west of Ohind.—Geog., p. 57. Conf. Weber, Hist. Sansk. Lit., p. 218, n.

[57]:

The Vyākaraṇam.

[58]:

Or, the Devas who possessed long life.

[59]:

I understand the symbol "ku" in this passage to mean "old" or "ancient."

[60]:

Or, asking for wisdom or knowledge.

[61]:

The symbol "yew", according to Medhurst, means "to put forth vital energy;" "yew ne," therefore, I take to denote "significance" or "meaning." The smile of Buddha or an Arhat was supposed to indicate prophetic insight or vision. The same meaning is attached to "a smile" in many of our own medieval legends (vid. Romantic History of Buddha, p. 12 n.) Julien's "se derida" hardly meets the idea of the original.

[62]:

"Light words," in the sense of trifling or unmeaning words, or words spoken lightly.

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