Sanskrit quote nr. 28 (Maha-subhashita-samgraha)

Sanskrit text:

अकलङ्कचन्द्रकलया कलिता सा भाति वारुणी तरुणी ।
भालस्थलीव शम्भोः संध्याध्यानोपविष्टस्य ॥

akalaṅkacandrakalayā kalitā sā bhāti vāruṇī taruṇī |
bhālasthalīva śambhoḥ saṃdhyādhyānopaviṣṭasya ||

Meter name: Āryā; Type: Mātrācchanda; 19 syllables per quarter (pāda).

Primary English translation:

“The damsel of the western direction shines with the moon without the black spot (with the setting sun). It looks like the fore-head of Lord Śiva seated at his evening twilight meditation.”

(translation by A. A. Ramanathan)


  1. Introduction
  2. Glossary of terms
  3. Analysis of Sanskrit grammar
  4. Sources
  5. Authorship
  6. About the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha

Presented above is a Sanskrit aphorism, also known as a subhāṣita, which is at the very least, a literary piece of art. This page provides critical research material such as an anlaysis on the poetic meter used, an English translation, a glossary explaining technical terms, and a list of resources including print editions and digital links.

Glossary of Sanskrit terms

Note: Consider this as an approximate extraction of glossary words based on an experimental segmentation of the Sanskrit verse. Some could be superfluous while some might not be mentioned.

Akalanka (akalaṅka, अकलङ्क): defined in 3 categories.
Candrakala (candrakalā, चन्द्रकला): defined in 4 categories.
Kalita (kalitā, कलिता): defined in 3 categories.
Varuni (vāruṇi, वारुणि, vāruṇī, वारुणी): defined in 10 categories.
Taruni (taruṇī, तरुणी): defined in 3 categories.
Taru (तरु): defined in 3 categories.
Bhala (bhāla, भाल): defined in 3 categories.
Sthali (sthalī, स्थली): defined in 6 categories.
Shambhu (sambhu, śambhu, शम्भु): defined in 7 categories.
Sandhi (सन्धि): defined in 8 categories.
Sandhya (सन्ध्य, sandhyā, सन्ध्या): defined in 3 categories.
Adhyana (ādhyāna, आध्यान): defined in 1 categories.
Upavishta (upavista, upaviṣṭa, उपविष्ट): defined in 3 categories.

Defined according to the following glossaries/dictionaries: Sanskrit, Theravada (major branch of Buddhism), Marathi, Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy), Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar), Pali, Hinduism, Jainism, Purana, Itihasa (narrative history), Ayurveda (science of life), Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy), Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy), Dharmashastra (religious law), Vastushastra (architecture), Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres), Arthashastra (politics and welfare), Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology), India history, Yoga (school of philosophy)

Analysis of Sanskrit grammar

Note: this is an experimental feature and only shows the first possible analysis of the Sanskrit verse. If the system was successful in segmenting the sentence, you will see of which words it is made up of, generally consisting of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles and Indeclinables. Click on the link to show all possible derivations of the word.

  • Line 1: “akalaṅkacandrakalayā kalitā sā bhāti vāruṇī taruṇī”
  • akalaṅka -
  • akalaṅka (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    akalaṅka (vocative single)
    akalaṅka (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    akalaṅka (vocative single)
  • candrakalayā -
  • candrakalā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    candrakalayā (instrumental single)
  • kalitā -
  • kalitā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    kalitā (nominative single)
    kal -> kalitā (participle, feminine); (2 der.)
    kalitā (nominative single), from √kal (class 1 verb)
    kalitā (nominative single), from √kal (class 10 verb)
    kal (verb class 1); (1 der.)
    kalitā (periphrastic-future active third single)
  • sā* -
  • so (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    sāḥ (accusative plural)
  • bhāti -
  • bhāti (noun, feminine); (2 der.)
    bhā (verb class 2); (1 der.)
    bhāti (present active third single)
  • vāruṇī -
  • vāruṇī (noun, feminine); (2 der.)
    vāruṇī (nominative single)
    vāruṇi (noun, feminine); (3 der.)
    vāruṇī (nominative dual)
    vāruṇī (vocative dual)
    vāruṇī (accusative dual)
    vāruṇi (noun, masculine); (3 der.)
    vāruṇī (nominative dual)
    vāruṇī (vocative dual)
    vāruṇī (accusative dual)
  • taruṇī -
  • taruṇī (indeclinable); (1 der.)
    taruṇī (noun, feminine); (2 der.)
    taruṇī (nominative single)
    taru (noun, neuter); (3 der.)
    taruṇī (nominative dual)
    taruṇī (vocative dual)
    taruṇī (accusative dual)
  • Line 2: “bhālasthalīva śambhoḥ saṃdhyādhyānopaviṣṭasya”
  • bhāla -
  • bhāla (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    bhāla (vocative single)
  • sthalī -
  • sthalī (noun, feminine); (6 der.)
    sthali (adverb)
    sthalī (nominative single)
    sthalī (nominative single)
    sthali (vocative single)
  • iva -
  • iva (indeclinable adverb); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable adverb)
    iva (indeclinable); (1 der.)
  • śambhoḥ -
  • śambhu (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    śambhoḥ (ablative single)
    śambhoḥ (genitive single)
    śambhu (noun, feminine); (2 der.)
    śambhoḥ (ablative single)
    śambhoḥ (genitive single)
  • sandhyā -
  • sandhi (noun, masculine); (5 der.)
    sandhī (nominative dual)
    sandhī (vocative dual)
    sandhī (accusative dual)
    sandhi (noun, neuter); (5 der.)
    sandhi (nominative single)
    sandhi (vocative single)
    sandhi (accusative single)
    sandhi (noun, feminine); (7 der.)
    sandhī (nominative dual)
    sandhī (vocative dual)
    sandhī (accusative dual)
    sandhyā (instrumental single)
    sandhyā (instrumental single)
    sandhin (noun, masculine); (3 der.)
    sandhi (compound)
    sandhi (adverb)
    sandhī (nominative single)
    sandhya (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    sandhya (vocative single)
    sandhya (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    sandhya (vocative single)
    sandhyā (noun, feminine); (2 der.)
    sandhyā (nominative single)
    sandhyā (nominative single)
  • ādhyāno -
  • ādhyāna (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    ādhyāna (vocative single)
  • upaviṣṭasya -
  • upaviṣṭa (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    upaviṣṭasya (genitive single)
    upaviṣṭa (noun, neuter); (1 der.)
    upaviṣṭasya (genitive single)


This quote is contained within the following Sanskrit literary sources:

Subhāṣitaratnabhāṇḍāgāra 303.123: Literally, “Gems of Sanskrit poetry”. This work is a recent compilation of more than 10,000 Subhāṣitas, or ‘sanskrit aphorisms’. The book was compiled by Nārāyaṇa Rāma Ācārya in 1952.
More info

Subhāṣitasudhāratnabhāṇḍāgāra 151.130: Literally, “Treasury of Sanskrit Poetry”. A compendium of amusing, sarcastic and instructive verses. The book was compiled by Śivadatta Kaviratna in 1985.
More info

Rasikajīvana 1086: A Sanskrit anthology containing subhāṣitas (ethical aphorisms). The book was compiled by Gadādhara Bhaṭṭa in the 17th century.
More info


Nārāyaṇa Rāma Ācārya (1900 A.D.) is the compiler of the Subhāṣitaratnabhāṇḍāgāra, into which he included this quote.

Śivadatta Kaviratna is the compiler of the Subhāṣitasudhāratnabhāṇḍāgāra, into which he included this quote.

Gadādhara Bhaṭṭa (16th century) is the compiler of the Rasikajīvana, into which he included this quote. He was the son of Gauripati Bhaṭṭa from Mithilā.

About the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha

This quote is included within the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha (महासुभाषितसंग्रह, maha-subhashita-samgraha / subhasita-sangraha), which is a compendium of Sanskrit aphorisms (subhāṣita), collected from various sources. Subhāṣita is a genre of Sanskrit literature, exposing the vast and rich cultural heritage of ancient India.

It has serial number 28 and can be found on page 6. (read on

Sanskrit is the oldest living language and bears testimony to the intellectual past of ancient India. Three major religions (Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism) share this language, which is used for many of their holy books. Besides religious manuscripts, much of India’s ancient culture has been preserved in Sanskrit, covering topics such as Architecture, Music, Botany, Surgery, Ethics, Philosophy, Dance and much more.

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