Sanskrit quote nr. 25 (Maha-subhashita-samgraha)

Sanskrit text:

अकर्तव्येष्वसाध्वीव तृष्णा प्रेरयते जनम् ।
तमेव सर्वपापेभ्यो लज्जा मातेव रक्षति ॥

akartavyeṣvasādhvīva tṛṣṇā prerayate janam |
tameva sarvapāpebhyo lajjā māteva rakṣati ||

⏒⏒⏒⏒¦⏑⎼⎼⏒¦¦⏒⏒⏒⏒¦⏑⎼⏑⏒¦¦
⏒⏒⏒⏒¦⏑⎼⎼⏒¦¦⏒⏒⏒⏒¦⏑⎼⏑⏒¦¦

Meter name: Śloka; Type: pathyā (‘normal’); 8 syllables per quarter (pāda).

Primary English translation:

“Avidity is like a fallen woman; it instigates a person into wrongful activities. Modesty is like a mother; it guards a person against all sins.”

(translation by Raghu Vira; notes: in Sārasamuccaya)

Index

  1. Introduction
  2. Glossary of terms
  3. Analysis of Sanskrit grammar
  4. Sources
  5. Authorship
  6. About the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha

Presented above is a Sanskrit aphorism, also known as a subhāṣita, which is at the very least, a literary piece of art. This page provides critical research material such as an anlaysis on the poetic meter used, an English translation, a glossary explaining technical terms, and a list of resources including print editions and digital links.

Glossary of Sanskrit terms

Note: Consider this as an approximate extraction of glossary words based on an experimental segmentation of the Sanskrit verse. Some could be superfluous while some might not be mentioned.

Trishna (trsna, tṛṣṇā, तृष्णा): defined in 8 categories.
Pra (प्र, prā, प्रा): defined in 3 categories.
Jana (जन): defined in 7 categories.
Tama (तम, tamā, तमा): defined in 5 categories.
Tami (तमि): defined in 1 categories.
Apa (āpa, आप): defined in 8 categories.
Lajja (लज्ज, lajjā, लज्जा): defined in 7 categories.
Matri (matr, mātṛ, मातृ): defined in 5 categories.
Mata (māta, मात, mātā, माता): defined in 5 categories.
Mati (māti, माति): defined in 9 categories.

Defined according to the following glossaries/dictionaries: Buddhism, Sanskrit, Purana, Ayurveda (science of life), Shaktism (Shakta philosophy), Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy), Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism), Marathi, Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar), Hinduism, Pali, Itihasa (narrative history), Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy), Yoga (school of philosophy), Theravada (major branch of Buddhism), Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa), Jainism

Analysis of Sanskrit grammar

Note: this is an experimental feature and only shows the first possible analysis of the Sanskrit verse. If the system was successful in segmenting the sentence, you will see of which words it is made up of, generally consisting of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles and Indeclinables. Click on the link to show all possible derivations of the word.

  • Line 1: “akartavyeṣvasādhvīva tṛṣṇā prerayate janam”
  • Cannot analyse akartavyeṣvasādhvīva*tṛ
  • tṛṣṇā -
  • tṛṣṇā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    tṛṣṇā (nominative single)
  • pre -
  • pra (noun, masculine); (3 der.)
    (compound)
    pra (vocative single)
    pre (locative single)
    pra (noun, neuter); (6 der.)
    (compound)
    pre (nominative dual)
    pra (vocative single)
    pre (vocative dual)
    pre (accusative dual)
    pre (locative single)
    prā (noun, feminine); (10 der.)
    prā (nominative single)
    pre (nominative dual)
    pre (vocative single)
    pre (vocative dual)
    pre (accusative dual)
    prā (nominative single)
    pre (nominative dual)
    pre (vocative single)
    pre (vocative dual)
    pre (accusative dual)
    pra (Preverb); (1 der.)
    (Preverb)
    prā (Preverb); (1 der.)
    (Preverb)
  • īrayate -
  • īr -> īrayat (participle, masculine); (1 der.)
    īrayate (dative single), from √īr
    īr -> īrayat (participle, neuter); (1 der.)
    īrayate (dative single), from √īr
    īr (verb class 0); (1 der.)
    īrayate (present middle third single)
  • janam -
  • jana (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    janam (adverb)
    janam (accusative single)
    jana (noun, neuter); (3 der.)
    janam (adverb)
    janam (nominative single)
    janam (accusative single)
    janā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    janam (adverb)
  • Line 2: “tameva sarvapāpebhyo lajjā māteva rakṣati”
  • tame -
  • tama (noun, masculine); (3 der.)
    (compound)
    tama (vocative single)
    tame (locative single)
    tama (noun, neuter); (6 der.)
    (compound)
    tame (nominative dual)
    tama (vocative single)
    tame (vocative dual)
    tame (accusative dual)
    tame (locative single)
    tamā (noun, feminine); (5 der.)
    tamā (nominative single)
    tame (nominative dual)
    tame (vocative single)
    tame (vocative dual)
    tame (accusative dual)
    tami (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    tame (vocative single)
  • iva -
  • iva (indeclinable adverb); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable adverb)
    iva (indeclinable); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable)
  • sarvapā -
  • sarvapā (noun, feminine); (4 der.)
    sarvapā (nominative single)
    sarvapā (nominative single)
    sarvapā (nominative single)
    sarvapā (nominative single)
    sarvapā (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    sarvapā (instrumental single)
    sarvapā (instrumental single)
  • āpebhyo* -
  • āpa (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    āpebhyaḥ (dative plural)
    āpebhyaḥ (ablative plural)
    āpa (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    āpebhyaḥ (dative plural)
    āpebhyaḥ (ablative plural)
  • lajjā* -
  • lajja (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    lajjāḥ (nominative plural)
    lajjāḥ (vocative plural)
    lajjā (noun, feminine); (3 der.)
    lajjāḥ (nominative plural)
    lajjāḥ (vocative plural)
    lajjāḥ (accusative plural)
  • māte -
  • māta (noun, masculine); (6 der.)
    (compound)
    (compound)
    māta (vocative single)
    māte (locative single)
    māta (vocative single)
    māte (locative single)
    māta (noun, neuter); (6 der.)
    (compound)
    māte (nominative dual)
    māta (vocative single)
    māte (vocative dual)
    māte (accusative dual)
    māte (locative single)
    mātṛ (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    mātā (nominative single)
    mātā (noun, feminine); (10 der.)
    mātā (nominative single)
    māte (nominative dual)
    māte (vocative single)
    māte (vocative dual)
    māte (accusative dual)
    mātā (nominative single)
    māte (nominative dual)
    māte (vocative single)
    māte (vocative dual)
    māte (accusative dual)
    māti (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    māte (vocative single)
    mātṛ (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    mātā (nominative single)
    (verb class 2); (2 der.)
    māta (imperative active second plural)
    mātā (periphrastic-future active third single)
    (verb class 3); (1 der.)
    mātā (periphrastic-future active third single)
    (verb class 4); (1 der.)
    mātā (periphrastic-future active third single)
    (verb class 3); (1 der.)
    mātā (periphrastic-future active third single)
    (verb class 1); (1 der.)
    mātā (periphrastic-future active third single)
  • iva -
  • iva (indeclinable adverb); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable adverb)
    iva (indeclinable); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable)
  • rakṣati -
  • rakṣ -> rakṣat (participle, masculine); (1 der.)
    rakṣati (locative single), from √rakṣ (class 1 verb)
    rakṣ -> rakṣat (participle, neuter); (1 der.)
    rakṣati (locative single), from √rakṣ (class 1 verb)
    rakṣ (verb class 1); (1 der.)
    rakṣati (present active third single)

Sources

This quote is contained within the following Sanskrit literary sources:

Subhāṣitāvalī 3245: This is a compilation of Collection of 3527 subhāṣita verses authored by 360 poets. The book was compiled by Vallabhadeva in 1417-67 A.D..
More info

Subhāṣitaratnabhāṇḍāgāra 76.21: Literally, “Gems of Sanskrit poetry”. This work is a recent compilation of more than 10,000 Subhāṣitas, or ‘sanskrit aphorisms’. The book was compiled by Nārāyaṇa Rāma Ācārya in 1952.
More info

Subhāṣitasudhāratnabhāṇḍāgāra 348.23: Literally, “Treasury of Sanskrit Poetry”. A compendium of amusing, sarcastic and instructive verses. The book was compiled by Śivadatta Kaviratna in 1985.
More info

Sūktiratnahāra 225.13: A South-Indian collection of Sanskrit poems (subhāṣit-saṃgraha). Contents are drawn from sources such as the Mahābhārata, Rāmāyaṇa or the Kirātārjunīya. The book was compiled by Sūrya Kaliṅgarāja in the 14th century.
More info

Sārasamuccaya 460: An old Javanese commentary on a series of Dharmaśāstra verses (originally in Sanskrit). The book was compiled by Vararuci.
More info

Authorship

Vallabhadeva (15th century) is the compiler of the Subhāṣitāvalī, into which he included this quote.

Nārāyaṇa Rāma Ācārya (1900 A.D.) is the compiler of the Subhāṣitaratnabhāṇḍāgāra, into which he included this quote.

Śivadatta Kaviratna is the compiler of the Subhāṣitasudhāratnabhāṇḍāgāra, into which he included this quote.

Sūrya Kaliṅgarāja is the compiler of the Sūktiratnahāra, into which he included this quote, ascribing the authorship to Pratāparudra.

Vararuci is the compiler of the Sārasamuccaya, into which he included this quote. He is an unknown author of literature and poetic works, who was according to legend, one of the “nine jewels” of the court of Vikramāditya of Ujjayinī. One of his works is called the the Satagāthā which was included in the Tanjur.

About the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha

This quote is included within the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha (महासुभाषितसंग्रह, maha-subhashita-samgraha / subhasita-sangraha), which is a compendium of Sanskrit aphorisms (subhāṣita), collected from various sources. Subhāṣita is a genre of Sanskrit literature, exposing the vast and rich cultural heritage of ancient India.

It has serial number 25 and can be found on page 5. (read on archive.org)

Sanskrit is the oldest living language and bears testimony to the intellectual past of ancient India. Three major religions (Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism) share this language, which is used for many of their holy books. Besides religious manuscripts, much of India’s ancient culture has been preserved in Sanskrit, covering topics such as Architecture, Music, Botany, Surgery, Ethics, Philosophy, Dance and much more.

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