Sanskrit quote nr. 18 (Maha-subhashita-samgraha)

Sanskrit text:

अकरुण कातरमनसा दर्शितनीरा निरन्तरालेयम् ।
त्वामनुधावति विमुखं गङ्गेव भगीरथं दृष्टिः ॥

akaruṇa kātaramanasā darśitanīrā nirantarāleyam |
tvāmanudhāvati vimukhaṃ gaṅgeva bhagīrathaṃ dṛṣṭiḥ ||

Meter name: Āryā; Type: Mātrācchanda; 19 syllables per quarter (pāda).

Primary English translation:

“O pitiless man, with an agitated mind my eyes shed a continuous flow of tears and follow you with your face averted, like Gaṅgā following Bhagīratha.”

(translation by A. A. Ramanathan)

Index

  1. Introduction
  2. Glossary of terms
  3. Analysis of Sanskrit grammar
  4. Sources
  5. Authorship
  6. About the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha

Presented above is a Sanskrit aphorism, also known as a subhāṣita, which is at the very least, a literary piece of art. This page provides critical research material such as an anlaysis on the poetic meter used, an English translation, a glossary explaining technical terms, and a list of resources including print editions and digital links.

Glossary of Sanskrit terms

Note: Consider this as an approximate extraction of glossary words based on an experimental segmentation of the Sanskrit verse. Some could be superfluous while some might not be mentioned.

Akaruna (akaruṇa, अकरुण): defined in 1 categories.
Katara (kātara, कातर): defined in 3 categories.
Anas (अनस्): defined in 1 categories.
Darshita (darsita, darśita, दर्शित): defined in 2 categories.
Nirantarala (nirantarāla, निरन्तराल, nirantarālā, निरन्तराला): defined in 1 categories.
Idam (इदम्): defined in 2 categories.
Tva (tvā, त्वा): defined in 3 categories.
Yushmad (yusmad, yuṣmad, युष्मद्): defined in 3 categories.
Anu (अनु): defined in 8 categories.
Vimukha (विमुख): defined in 5 categories.
Ganga (gaṅga, गङ्ग, gaṅgā, गङ्गा): defined in 12 categories.
Bhagiratha (bhagīratha, भगीरथ): defined in 5 categories.
Drishti (drsti, dṛṣṭi, दृष्टि): defined in 8 categories.

Defined according to the following glossaries/dictionaries: Marathi, Sanskrit, Pali, Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar), Jainism, Purana, Itihasa (narrative history), Ayurveda (science of life), Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy), Dharmashastra (religious law), Hinduism, Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy), Kavya (poetry), Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism), Theravada (major branch of Buddhism), India history, Shilpashastra (iconography), Buddhism, Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Analysis of Sanskrit grammar

Note: this is an experimental feature and only shows the first possible analysis of the Sanskrit verse. If the system was successful in segmenting the sentence, you will see of which words it is made up of, generally consisting of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles and Indeclinables. Click on the link to show all possible derivations of the word.

  • Line 1: “akaruṇa kātaramanasā darśitanīrā nirantarāleyam”
  • akaruṇa -
  • akaruṇa (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    akaruṇa (vocative single)
    akaruṇa (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    akaruṇa (vocative single)
  • kātaram -
  • kātara (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    kātaram (adverb)
    kātaram (accusative single)
    kātara (noun, neuter); (3 der.)
    kātaram (adverb)
    kātaram (nominative single)
    kātaram (accusative single)
    kātarā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    kātaram (adverb)
  • anasā -
  • anas (noun, neuter); (1 der.)
    anasā (instrumental single)
  • darśita -
  • darśita (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    darśita (vocative single)
    darśita (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    darśita (vocative single)
    dṛś -> darśita (participle, masculine); (1 der.)
    (compound), from √dṛś
    dṛś -> darśita (participle, neuter); (1 der.)
    (compound), from √dṛś
    dṛś -> darśita (participle, masculine); (1 der.)
    darśita (vocative single), from √dṛś
    dṛś -> darśita (participle, neuter); (1 der.)
    darśita (vocative single), from √dṛś
  • nīrā -
  • nirantarāle -
  • nirantarāla (noun, masculine); (3 der.)
    (compound)
    nirantarāla (vocative single)
    nirantarāle (locative single)
    nirantarāla (noun, neuter); (6 der.)
    (compound)
    nirantarāle (nominative dual)
    nirantarāla (vocative single)
    nirantarāle (vocative dual)
    nirantarāle (accusative dual)
    nirantarāle (locative single)
    nirantarālā (noun, feminine); (5 der.)
    nirantarālā (nominative single)
    nirantarāle (nominative dual)
    nirantarāle (vocative single)
    nirantarāle (vocative dual)
    nirantarāle (accusative dual)
  • iyam -
  • iyam (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    iyam (nominative single)
    ī (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    iyam (accusative single)
    ī (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    iyam (accusative single)
    idam (pronoun, feminine); (1 der.)
    iyam (nominative single)
  • Line 2: “tvāmanudhāvati vimukhaṃ gaṅgeva bhagīrathaṃ dṛṣṭiḥ”
  • tvām -
  • tvā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    tvām (accusative single)
    yuṣmad (pronoun, none); (1 der.)
    tvām (accusative single)
  • anu -
  • anu (indeclinable adverb); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable adverb)
    anu (indeclinable preposition); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable preposition)
    anu (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    (adverb)
    anu (noun, neuter); (5 der.)
    (compound)
    (adverb)
    anu (nominative single)
    anu (vocative single)
    anu (accusative single)
    anu (noun, feminine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    (adverb)
    anu (Preverb); (1 der.)
    (Preverb)
  • dhāvati -
  • dhāvat (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    dhāvati (locative single)
    dhāvat (noun, neuter); (1 der.)
    dhāvati (locative single)
    dhāv (verb class 1); (1 der.)
    dhāvati (present active third single)
    dhāv (verb class 1); (1 der.)
    dhāvati (present active third single)
  • vimukham -
  • vimukha (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    vimukham (adverb)
    vimukham (accusative single)
    vimukha (noun, neuter); (3 der.)
    vimukham (adverb)
    vimukham (nominative single)
    vimukham (accusative single)
    vimukhā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    vimukham (adverb)
  • gaṅge -
  • gaṅga (noun, masculine); (3 der.)
    (compound)
    gaṅga (vocative single)
    gaṅge (locative single)
    gaṅgā (noun, feminine); (5 der.)
    gaṅgā (nominative single)
    gaṅge (nominative dual)
    gaṅge (vocative single)
    gaṅge (vocative dual)
    gaṅge (accusative dual)
  • iva -
  • iva (indeclinable adverb); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable adverb)
    iva (indeclinable); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable)
  • bhagīratham -
  • bhagīratha (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    bhagīratham (adverb)
    bhagīratham (accusative single)
  • dṛṣṭiḥ -
  • dṛṣṭi (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    dṛṣṭiḥ (nominative single)

Sources

This quote is contained within the following Sanskrit literary sources:

Subhāṣitaratnabhāṇḍāgāra 351.25: Literally, “Gems of Sanskrit poetry”. This work is a recent compilation of more than 10,000 Subhāṣitas, or ‘sanskrit aphorisms’. The book was compiled by Nārāyaṇa Rāma Ācārya in 1952.
More info

Authorship

Nārāyaṇa Rāma Ācārya (1900 A.D.) is the compiler of the Subhāṣitaratnabhāṇḍāgāra, into which he included this quote.

About the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha

This quote is included within the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha (महासुभाषितसंग्रह, maha-subhashita-samgraha / subhasita-sangraha), which is a compendium of Sanskrit aphorisms (subhāṣita), collected from various sources. Subhāṣita is a genre of Sanskrit literature, exposing the vast and rich cultural heritage of ancient India.

It has serial number 18 and can be found on page 4. (read on archive.org)

Sanskrit is the oldest living language and bears testimony to the intellectual past of ancient India. Three major religions (Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism) share this language, which is used for many of their holy books. Besides religious manuscripts, much of India’s ancient culture has been preserved in Sanskrit, covering topics such as Architecture, Music, Botany, Surgery, Ethics, Philosophy, Dance and much more.

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