Sanskrit quote nr. 16 (Maha-subhashita-samgraha)

Sanskrit text:

अकपर्द्दकस्य विफलं जनुरिति जानीमहे महेशोऽपि ।
शिरसि कृतेन कपर्द्दी भवति जटाजूटकेनापि ॥

akaparddakasya viphalaṃ januriti jānīmahe maheśo'pi |
śirasi kṛtena kaparddī bhavati jaṭājūṭakenāpi ||

Meter name: Āryā; Type: Mātrācchanda; 19 syllables per quarter (pāda).

Primary English translation:

“We know that one’s existence is frustrating when there is no money even though one may be a great lord. But he is rich even with matted hair on the head.”

(translation by A. A. Ramanathan)

Index

  1. Introduction
  2. Glossary of terms
  3. Analysis of Sanskrit grammar
  4. Sources
  5. Authorship
  6. About the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha

Presented above is a Sanskrit aphorism, also known as a subhāṣita, which is at the very least, a literary piece of art. This page provides critical research material such as an anlaysis on the poetic meter used, an English translation, a glossary explaining technical terms, and a list of resources including print editions and digital links.

Glossary of Sanskrit terms

Note: Consider this as an approximate extraction of glossary words based on an experimental segmentation of the Sanskrit verse. Some could be superfluous while some might not be mentioned.

Viphala (विफल): defined in 3 categories.
Janu (जनु): defined in 8 categories.
Janus (जनुस्): defined in 1 categories.
Mahesha (mahesa, maheśa, महेश): defined in 5 categories.
Ap (अप्): defined in 5 categories.
Shiras (siras, śiras, शिरस्): defined in 4 categories.
Krita (krta, kṛta, कृत): defined in 8 categories.
Bhavati (bhavatī, भवती): defined in 4 categories.
Bhavat (भवत्): defined in 2 categories.
Bhavant (भवन्त्): defined in 1 categories.
Jatajuta (jaṭājūṭa, जटाजूट): defined in 1 categories.
Ka (क): defined in 6 categories.
Kim (किम्): defined in 3 categories.

Defined according to the following glossaries/dictionaries: Sanskrit, Pali, Marathi, Purana, Yoga (school of philosophy), Ayurveda (science of life), Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy), Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism), Shilpashastra (iconography), Jainism, Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar), Vaisheshika (school of philosophy), Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy), Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa), Buddhism, Katha (narrative stories), Dharmashastra (religious law)

Analysis of Sanskrit grammar

Note: this is an experimental feature and only shows the first possible analysis of the Sanskrit verse. If the system was successful in segmenting the sentence, you will see of which words it is made up of, generally consisting of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles and Indeclinables. Click on the link to show all possible derivations of the word.

  • Line 1: “akaparddakasya viphalaṃ januriti jānīmahe maheśo'pi”
  • Cannot analyse akaparddakasya*vi
  • viphalam -
  • viphala (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    viphalam (adverb)
    viphalam (accusative single)
    viphala (noun, neuter); (3 der.)
    viphalam (adverb)
    viphalam (nominative single)
    viphalam (accusative single)
    viphalā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    viphalam (adverb)
  • janur -
  • janus (noun, masculine); (4 der.)
    (compound)
    januḥ (adverb)
    januḥ (nominative single)
    januḥ (vocative single)
    janu (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    januḥ (nominative single)
  • iti -
  • iti (indeclinable particle); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable particle)
    iti (noun, feminine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    (adverb)
  • jānīmahe -
  • jñā (verb class 9); (1 der.)
    jānīmahe (present middle first plural)
  • maheśo' -
  • maheśa (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    maheśaḥ (nominative single)
  • api -
  • api (indeclinable preposition); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable preposition)
    ap (noun, neuter); (1 der.)
    api (locative single)
    api (Preverb); (1 der.)
    (Preverb)
  • Line 2: “śirasi kṛtena kaparddī bhavati jaṭājūṭakenāpi”
  • śirasi -
  • śiras (noun, neuter); (1 der.)
    śirasi (locative single)
  • kṛtena -
  • kṛtena (indeclinable); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable)
    kṛta (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    kṛtena (instrumental single)
    kṛta (noun, neuter); (1 der.)
    kṛtena (instrumental single)
    kṛ -> kṛta (participle, masculine); (4 der.)
    kṛtena (instrumental single), from √kṛ (class 1 verb)
    kṛtena (instrumental single), from √kṛ (class 2 verb)
    kṛtena (instrumental single), from √kṛ (class 5 verb)
    kṛtena (instrumental single), from √kṛ (class 8 verb)
    kṛ -> kṛta (participle, neuter); (4 der.)
    kṛtena (instrumental single), from √kṛ (class 1 verb)
    kṛtena (instrumental single), from √kṛ (class 2 verb)
    kṛtena (instrumental single), from √kṛ (class 5 verb)
    kṛtena (instrumental single), from √kṛ (class 8 verb)
  • Cannot analyse kaparddī*bh
  • bhavati -
  • bhavatī (noun, feminine); (2 der.)
    bhavati (adverb)
    bhavati (vocative single)
    bhavat (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    bhavati (locative single)
    bhavat (noun, neuter); (1 der.)
    bhavati (locative single)
    bhavant (pronoun, masculine); (1 der.)
    bhavati (locative single)
    bhavant (pronoun, neuter); (1 der.)
    bhavati (locative single)
    bhū (verb class 1); (1 der.)
    bhavati (present active third single)
  • jaṭājūṭa -
  • jaṭājūṭa (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    jaṭājūṭa (vocative single)
  • kenā -
  • kena (indeclinable); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable)
    ka (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    kena (instrumental single)
    ka (noun, neuter); (1 der.)
    kena (instrumental single)
    kaḥ (pronoun, masculine); (1 der.)
    kena (instrumental single)
    kim (pronoun, neuter); (1 der.)
    kena (instrumental single)
  • api -
  • api (indeclinable preposition); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable preposition)
    ap (noun, neuter); (1 der.)
    api (locative single)
    api (Preverb); (1 der.)
    (Preverb)

Sources

This quote is contained within the following Sanskrit literary sources:

Sūktimuktāvalī 4.2: The poems contained in this compilation belong to the category “muktaka” (gnomic poetry). It is divided into twelve chapters. Deals with topics such as Gods and Goddesses, politics, erotics, heroes, etc. The book was compiled by Harihara.
More info

Authorship

Harihara (16th century) is the compiler of the Sūktimuktāvalī, into which he included this quote. The author calls himself a son of Lakshmi and Raghava in the verse 12.74 of his Suktimuktavali. His younger brother was Shri Nilakantha. Raghava was the son of Hrishikesha (of the respectable family of Divakara) and Lakshmi was the daughter of a renowned Maithila scholar. He was a resident of the village of Bittho, which he and his brother, in the course of time, changed into an important seat of learning.

About the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha

This quote is included within the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha (महासुभाषितसंग्रह, maha-subhashita-samgraha / subhasita-sangraha), which is a compendium of Sanskrit aphorisms (subhāṣita), collected from various sources. Subhāṣita is a genre of Sanskrit literature, exposing the vast and rich cultural heritage of ancient India.

It has serial number 16 and can be found on page 3. (read on archive.org)

Sanskrit is the oldest living language and bears testimony to the intellectual past of ancient India. Three major religions (Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism) share this language, which is used for many of their holy books. Besides religious manuscripts, much of India’s ancient culture has been preserved in Sanskrit, covering topics such as Architecture, Music, Botany, Surgery, Ethics, Philosophy, Dance and much more.

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