Sanskrit quote nr. 1 (Maha-subhashita-samgraha)

Sanskrit text:

अंशवस्तव निशाकर नूनं कल्पितास्तरुणकेतकखण्डैः ।
येन पाण्डुरतरद्युतयो नः कण्टकैरिव तुदन्ति शरीरम् ॥

aṃśavastava niśākara nūnaṃ kalpitāstaruṇaketakakhaṇḍaiḥ |
yena pāṇḍurataradyutayo naḥ kaṇṭakairiva tudanti śarīram ||


Meter name: Rathoddhatā; Type: Akṣaracchanda (sama); 11 syllables per quarter (pāda).

Primary English translation:

“Surely, Oh moon, your rays are made of the young leaves of the ketakī flowers: hence your very white rays pain my body as if with thorns (of the flowers).”

(translation by A. A. Ramanathan)


  1. Introduction
  2. Glossary of terms
  3. Analysis of Sanskrit grammar
  4. Sources
  5. Authorship
  6. About the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha

Presented above is a Sanskrit aphorism, also known as a subhāṣita, which is at the very least, a literary piece of art. This page provides critical research material such as an anlaysis on the poetic meter used, an English translation, a glossary explaining technical terms, and a list of resources including print editions and digital links.

Glossary of Sanskrit terms

Note: Consider this as an approximate extraction of glossary words based on an experimental segmentation of the Sanskrit verse. Some could be superfluous while some might not be mentioned.

Amshu (amsu, aṃśu, अंशु): defined in 5 categories.
Yushmad (yusmad, yuṣmad, युष्मद्): defined in 3 categories.
Nishakara (nisakara, niśākara, निशाकर): defined in 4 categories.
Kalpita (कल्पित, kalpitā, कल्पिता): defined in 3 categories.
Tarunaka (taruṇaka, तरुणक): defined in 3 categories.
Taka (तक): defined in 3 categories.
Khanda (khaṇḍa, खण्ड): defined in 9 categories.
Ya (य): defined in 3 categories.
Yah (yaḥ, यः): defined in 1 categories.
Yat (यत्): defined in 2 categories.
Pandura (pāṇḍura, पाण्डुर): defined in 5 categories.
Tarad (तरद्): defined in 1 categories.
Na (न): defined in 5 categories.
Asmad (अस्मद्): defined in 2 categories.
Kantaka (kaṇṭaka, कण्टक): defined in 5 categories.
Sharira (sarira, śarīra, शरीर): defined in 8 categories.

Defined according to the following glossaries/dictionaries: Sanskrit, Pali, Purana, Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy), Marathi, Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar), Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy), Itihasa (narrative history), Hinduism, Jainism, Theravada (major branch of Buddhism), Buddhism, Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy), India history, Ayurveda (science of life)

Analysis of Sanskrit grammar

Note: this is an experimental feature and only shows the first possible analysis of the Sanskrit verse. If the system was successful in segmenting the sentence, you will see of which words it is made up of, generally consisting of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles and Indeclinables. Click on the link to show all possible derivations of the word.

  • Line 1: “aṃśavastava niśākara nūnaṃ kalpitāstaruṇaketakakhaṇḍaiḥ”
  • aṃśavas -
  • aṃśu (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    aṃśavaḥ (nominative plural)
    aṃśavaḥ (vocative plural)
  • tava -
  • yuṣmad (pronoun, none); (1 der.)
    tava (genitive single)
  • niśākara -
  • niśākara (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    niśākara (vocative single)
  • nūnam -
  • nūnam (indeclinable); (1 der.)
  • kalpitās -
  • kalpita (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    kalpitāḥ (nominative plural)
    kalpitāḥ (vocative plural)
    kalpitā (noun, feminine); (3 der.)
    kalpitāḥ (nominative plural)
    kalpitāḥ (vocative plural)
    kalpitāḥ (accusative plural)
    kḷp -> kalpita (participle, masculine); (2 der.)
    kalpitāḥ (nominative plural), from √kḷp
    kalpitāḥ (vocative plural), from √kḷp
    kḷp -> kalpitā (participle, feminine); (3 der.)
    kalpitāḥ (nominative plural), from √kḷp
    kalpitāḥ (vocative plural), from √kḷp
    kalpitāḥ (accusative plural), from √kḷp
  • taruṇake -
  • taruṇaka (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    taruṇake (locative single)
    taruṇaka (noun, neuter); (4 der.)
    taruṇake (nominative dual)
    taruṇake (vocative dual)
    taruṇake (accusative dual)
    taruṇake (locative single)
  • taka -
  • taka (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    taka (vocative single)
    tak (verb class 1); (1 der.)
    taka (imperative active second single)
  • khaṇḍaiḥ -
  • khaṇḍa (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    khaṇḍaiḥ (instrumental plural)
    khaṇḍa (noun, neuter); (1 der.)
    khaṇḍaiḥ (instrumental plural)
  • Line 2: “yena pāṇḍurataradyutayo naḥ kaṇṭakairiva tudanti śarīram”
  • yena -
  • yena (indeclinable); (1 der.)
    ya (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    yena (instrumental single)
    yaḥ (pronoun, masculine); (1 der.)
    yena (instrumental single)
    yat (pronoun, neuter); (1 der.)
    yena (instrumental single)
  • pāṇḍura -
  • pāṇḍura (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    pāṇḍura (vocative single)
    pāṇḍura (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    pāṇḍura (vocative single)
  • taradyu -
  • tarad (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    taradi (locative single)
  • utayo -
  • naḥ -
  • na (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    naḥ (nominative single)
    asmad (pronoun, none); (3 der.)
    naḥ (accusative plural)
    naḥ (dative plural)
    naḥ (genitive plural)
  • kaṇṭakair -
  • kaṇṭaka (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    kaṇṭakaiḥ (instrumental plural)
  • iva -
  • iva (indeclinable adverb); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable adverb)
    iva (indeclinable); (1 der.)
  • tudanti -
  • tud -> tudat (participle, neuter); (3 der.)
    tudanti (nominative plural), from √tud (class 6 verb)
    tudanti (vocative plural), from √tud (class 6 verb)
    tudanti (accusative plural), from √tud (class 6 verb)
    tud -> tudantī (participle, feminine); (1 der.)
    tudanti (vocative single), from √tud (class 6 verb)
    tud (verb class 6); (1 der.)
    tudanti (present active third plural)
  • śarīram -
  • śarīra (noun, neuter); (3 der.)
    śarīram (adverb)
    śarīram (nominative single)
    śarīram (accusative single)


This quote is contained within the following Sanskrit literary sources:

Śrīkaṇṭhacarita 11.57: The Śrīkaṇṭhacarita is a Sanskrit work in the genre Mahākāvya (Indian epic poetry) written somewhere in the 12th century. The book was written by Maṅkhaka in the 12th century A.D..
More info

Subhāṣitāvalī 1123: This is a compilation of Collection of 3527 subhāṣita verses authored by 360 poets. The book was compiled by Vallabhadeva in 1417-67 A.D..
More info


Maṅkhaka (12th century) is the author of the Śrīkaṇṭhacarita. Maṅkhaka was an author of classical Sanskrit poetry from Kashmir, who was well-versed in grammar and ethics. He is known for his detailed reflection on his personal life and his dynasty. He was also known as Maṅkha or Maṅkhuka.

Vallabhadeva (15th century) is the compiler of the Subhāṣitāvalī, into which he included this quote, ascribing the authorship to Maṅkhaka (also known as: Maṅkha, Maṅkhuka).

About the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha

This quote is included within the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha (महासुभाषितसंग्रह, maha-subhashita-samgraha / subhasita-sangraha), which is a compendium of Sanskrit aphorisms (subhāṣita), collected from various sources. Subhāṣita is a genre of Sanskrit literature, exposing the vast and rich cultural heritage of ancient India.

It has serial number 1 and can be found on page 1. (read on

Sanskrit is the oldest living language and bears testimony to the intellectual past of ancient India. Three major religions (Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism) share this language, which is used for many of their holy books. Besides religious manuscripts, much of India’s ancient culture has been preserved in Sanskrit, covering topics such as Architecture, Music, Botany, Surgery, Ethics, Philosophy, Dance and much more.

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