The Chaldean account of Genesis

by George Smith | 1876 | 63,564 words

The Chaldean account of Genesis, containing the description of the creation, the fall of man, the deluge, the tower of Babel, the times of the patriarchs, and Nimrod; Babylonian fables, and legends of the gods; from the cuneiform inscriptions Author: Smith, George, 1840-1876 Subject: Bible; Mythology, Assyro-Babylonian; Creation Publisher: London ...

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  CHAPTER I. THE DISCOVERY OF THE GENESIS LEGENDS.

  • Cosmogony of Berosus.
  • Discovery of Cuneiform Inscriptions.
  • Historical Texts.
  • Babylonian origin of Assyrian literature.
  • Mythological tablets*
  • Discovery of Deluge texts.
  • Izdubar, his exploits.
  • Mutilated condition of tablets.
  • Lecture on Deluge tablets.
  • "Daily Telegraph" offer.
  • Expedition to Assyria.
  • Fragments of Creation tablets.
  • Solar Myth.
  • Second journey to Assyria.
  • Tower of Babel.
  • Clay records.
  • Account of creation in "Telegraph."
  • "Daily Telegraph" collection.
  • Interest of Creation legends.
  • The Fall.
  • New fragments.
  • List of texts . .

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CHAPTER II. BABYLONIAN AND ASSYRIAN LITERATURE.

  • Babylonian literature.
  • Kouyunjik library.
  • Fragmentary condition.
  • Arrangement of tablets.
  • Subjects.
  • Dates.
  • Babylonian source of literature.
  • Literary period.
  • Babylonian Chronology.
  • Akkad.
  • Sumir.
  • Urukh, king of Ur.
  • Hammurabi.
  • Babylonian astrology.
  • War of Gods.
  • Izdubar legends.
  • Creation and fall.
  • Syllabaries and bilingual tablets.
  • Assyrian copies.
  • Difficulties as to date.
  • Mutilated condition.
  • Babylonian library.
  • Assyrian empire.
  • City of Assur.
  • Library at Calah.
  • Sargon of Assyria.
  • Sennacherib.
  • Removal of Library to Nineveh.
  • Assurbanipal or
  • Sardanapalus.
  • His additions to library.
  • Description of contents.
  • Later Babylonian libraries ......

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CHAPTER IIIi CHALDEAN LEGENDS TRANSMITTED THROUGH BEROSUS AND OTHER ANCIENT AUTHORS.

  • Berosus and his copyists.
  • Cory s translation.
  • Alexander Polyhistor.
  • Babylonia.
  • Cannes, his teaching.
  • Creation.
  • Belus.
  • Chaldean kings.
  • Xisuthrus.
  • Deluge.
  • The Ark.
  • Return to Babylon.
  • Apollodorus.
  • Pantibiblon.
  • Larancha.
  • Abydenus.
  • Alorus, first king.
  • Ten kings.
  • Sisithrus.
  • Deluge.
  • Armenia.
  • Tower of Babel.
  • Cronos and Titan.
  • Nicolaus Damascenus.
  • Dispersion from Hestiaeus.
  • Babylonian colonies.
  • Tower of Babel.
  • The Sibyl.
  • Titan and Prometheus.
  • Damascius.
  • Tauthe.
  • Moymis.
  • Kissare and Assorus.
  • Triad.
  • Bel ...

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CHAPTER IV. BABYLONIAN MYTHOLOGY.

  • Greek accounts.
  • Mythology local in origin.
  • Antiquity.
  • Conquests.
  • Colonies.
  • Three great gods.
  • Twelve great gods.
  • Angels.
  • Spirits.
  • Ann.
  • Anatu.
  • Vul.
  • Ishtar.
  • Equivalent to Venus.
  • Hea.
  • Cannes.
  • Merodach.
  • Bel or Jupiter.
  • Ziratbanit, Succoth Benoth.
  • Elu.
  • Sin the moon god.
  • Ninip.
  • Shamas.
  • Nergal.
  • Anunit.
  • Table of gods . . . .

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CHAPTER V. BABYLONIAN LEGEND OP THE CREATION.

  • Mutilated condition of tablets.
  • List of subjects.
  • Description of chaos.
  • Tiamat.
  • Generation of gods.
  • Damascius.
  • Comparison with Genesis.
  • Three great gods.
  • Doubtful fragments.
  • Fifth tablet. Stars.
  • Planets.
  • Moon.
  • Sun.
  • Abyss or chaos.
  • Creation of moon.
  • Creation of animals.
  • Man.
  • His duties.
  • Dragon of sea.
  • Fall.
  • Curse for disobedience.
  • Discussion.
  • Sacred tree.
  • Dragon or serpent.
  • War with Tiamat.
  • Weapons.
  • Merodach.
  • Destruction of Tiamat.
  • Mutilation of documents.
  • Parallel Biblical account.
  • Age of story ... .

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CHAPTER VI. OTHER BABYLONIAN ACCOUNTS OF THE CREATION.

  • Cuneiform accounts originally traditions.
  • Variations.
  • Account of Berosus.
  • Tablet from Cutha.
  • Translation.
  • Composite
  • animals.
  • Eagle-headed men.
  • Seven brothers.
  • Destruction of men.
  • Seven wicked spirits.
  • War in heaven.
  • Variations of story.
  • Poetical account of Creation . . . .

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CHAPTER VII. THE SIN OF THE GOD Zu.

  • God Zu.
  • Obscurity of legend.
  • Translation.
  • Sin of Zu.
  • Anger of the gods.
  • Speeches of Anu to Vul.
  • Vul's answer.
  • Speech of Anu to Nebo.
  • Answer of Nebo.
  • Sarturcla.
  • Changes to a bird.
  • The Zu bird.
  • Bird of prey.
  • Sarturda lord of Amarda ..... .

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CHAPTER VIII. THE EXPLOITS OF LITE AHA.

  • Lubara.
  • God of Pestilence.
  • Itak.
  • The Plague.
  • Seven warrior gods.
  • Destruction of people.
  • Anu.
  • Goddess of Karrak.
  • Speech of Elu.
  • Sin and destruction of Babylonians.
  • Shamas.
  • Sin and destruction of Erech.
  • Ishtar.
  • The great god and Duran.
  • Cutha.
  • Internal wars.
  • Itak goes to Syria.
  • Power and glory of Lubara.
  • Song of Lubara.
  • Blessings on his worship.
  • God Ner.
  • Prayer to arrest the Plague . . .

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CHAPTER IX. BABYLONIAN FABLES.

  • Tables.
  • Common in the East.
  • Description.
  • Power of speech in animals.
  • Story of the eagle.
  • Serpent.
  • Shamas.
  • The eagle caught.
  • Eats the serpent.
  • Anger of birds.
  • Etana.
  • Seven gods.
  • Third tablet.
  • Speech of eagle Story of the fox.
  • His cunning.
  • Judgment of Shamas.
  • His show of sorrow.
  • His punishment.
  • Speech of fox.
  • Fable of the horse and ox.
  • They consort together.
  • Speech of the ox.
  • His good fortune.
  • Contrast with the horse.
  • Hunting the ox.
  • Speech of the horse.
  • Offers to recount story.
  • Story of Ishtar.
  • Further tablets .

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CHAPTER X. FRAGMENTS OF MISCELLANEOUS TEXTS.

  • Atarpi.
  • Sin of the world.
  • Mother and daughter quarrel.
  • Zamu.
  • Punishment of world.
  • Hea.
  • Calls his sons.
  • Orders drought.
  • Famine.
  • Building.
  • Nusku.
  • Riddle of wise man.
  • Nature and universal presence of air.
  • Gods.
  • Sinuri.
  • Divining by fracture of reed. Incantation.
  • Dream.
  • Tower of Babel.
  • Obscurity of legend.
  • Not noticed by Berosus.
  • Fragmentary tablet.
  • Destruction of Tower.
  • Dispersion.
  • Locality of Babylon.
  • Birs Nimrud. Babil.
  • Assyrian representations ....

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CHAPTER XI. THE IZDUBAR LEGENDS.

  • Account of Deluge.
  • Nimrod.
  • Izdubar.
  • Age of Legends.
  • Babylonian cylinders.
  • Notices of Izdubar.
  • Surippak.
  • Ark City.
  • Twelve tablets.
  • Extent of Legends.
  •  

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CHAPTER XII. MEETING OF HEABANI AND IZDUBAR.

  • Dream of Izdubar.
  • Heabani.
  • His wisdom.
  • His solitary life.
  • Izdubar's petition.
  • Zaidu.
  • Harimtu and Samhat.
  • Tempt Heabani.
  • Might and fame of Izdubar.
  • Speech of Heabani.
  • His journey to Erech.
  • The midannu or tiger.
  • Festival at Erech.
  • Dream of Izdubar.
  • Friendship with Heabani . .

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CHAPTEE XIII. DESTRUCTION or THE TYRANT HUMBABA.

  • Elamite dominion.
  • Forest region.
  • Humbaba.
  • Conversation.
  • Petition to Shamas.
  • Journey to forest.
  • Dwelling of Humbaba.
  • Entrance to forest.
  • Meeting with Humbaba.
  • Death of Humbaba.
  • Izdubar king . . . . . .

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CHAPTER XIV. THE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAR.

  • Triumph of Izdubar.
  • Ishtar's love.
  • Her offer of marriage.
  • Her promises.
  • Izdubar s answer.
  • Tammuz.
  • Amours of Ishtar.
  • His refusal.
  • Ishtar's anger.
  • Ascends to Heaven.
  • The bull.
  • Slain by Izdubar.
  • Ishtar's curse.
  • Izdubar s triumph.
  • The feast.
  • Ishtar's despair.
  • Her descent to Hades.
  • Description.
  • The seven gates.
  • The curses.
  • Uddusunamir.
  • Sphinx.
  • Release of Ishtar.
  • Lament for Tammuz . . . .

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CHAPTER XV. ILLNESS AND WANDERINGS OF IZDUBAR.

  • Heabani and the trees.
  • Illness of Izdubar.
  • Death of Heabani.
  • Journey of Izdubar.
  • His dream.
  • Scorpion men.
  • The Desert of Mas.
  • The paradise.
  • Siduri and Sabitu.
  • Urbamsi.
  • Water of death.
  • Ragmu.
  • The conversation.
  • Hasisadra

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CHAPTER XVI. THE STORY OF THE FLOOD AND CONCLUSION.
 

  • Eleventh tablet.
  • The gods.
  • Sin of the world.
  • Command to build the ark.
  • Its contents.
  • The building.
  • The Flood.
  • Destruction of people.
  • Fear of the gods.
  • End of Deluge.
  • Nizir.
  • Resting of Ark.
  • The birds.
  • The descent from the ark.
  • The sacrifice.
  • Speeches of gods.
  • Translation of Hasisadra.
  • Cure of Izdubar.
  • His return.
  • Lament over Heabani.
  • Kesurrection of Heabani.
  • Burial of warrior.
  • Comparison with Genesis.
  • Syrian nation.
  • Connection of legends.
  • Points of contact.
  • Duration of deluge.
  • Mount of descent.
  • Ten generations.
  • Early cities.
  • Age of Izdubar.

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CHAPTER XVII. CONCLUSION.

  • Notices of Genesis.
  • Correspondence of names.
  • Abram.
  • Ur of Chaldees.
  • Ishmael.
  • Sargon.
  • His birth.
  • Concealed in ark.
  • Ao-e of Nimrod.
  • Doubtful theories.
  • Creation.
  • Garden Eden.
  • Cannes.
  • Berosus.
  • Izdubar legends.
  • Urukh of Ur.
  • Babylonian seals.
  • Egyptian names.
  • Assyrian sculptures .

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