Yogadrstisamuccaya of Haribhadra Suri (Study)

by Riddhi J. Shah | 2014 | 98,110 words

This page relates ‘Dvatrimshad-dvatrimshika by Upadhyaya Yashovijaya’ of the study on the Yogadrstisamuccaya: a 6th-century work on Jain Yoga authored by Haribhadra Suri consisting of 228 Sanskrit verses. The book draws from numerous sources on traditional Yoga. Three important topics are stipulated throughout this study: 1) nature of liberation, 2) a liberated soul, and 3) omniscience.—This section belongs to the series “Influence of the Yogadrishtisamuccaya”.

Chapter 6.3 - Dvātriṃśad-dvātriṃśikā by Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya

Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya, who belonged to 18th century A.D., was born in a village named Kanoḍā of Gujarat. His name was Jaśavanta. His father namely Nārāyaṇa was a trader. His mother’s name was Saubhāgyadevī. He was initiated into Jain monkhood at a very early age in Pāṭaṇa (Pattanapūra) of Gujarat and given the name Yaśovijaya. His Dikṣāguru as well as Vidyāguru was Nayavijaya. Nayavijaya was known as Vibudha Nayavijaya in Jain tradition. He took his disciple Yaśovijaya along with him to Kāśī for higher education. They stayed in Kāśī for three years. Yaśovijaya studied the six philosophical systems (Ṣaḍdarśana) and achieved excellent proficiency in Nyāya philosophy. He earned the titles such as Nyāya-viśārada (Nyāyācārya), Upādhyāya (Vācaka), Laghu-Haribhadra, Kavi and Kūrcālī-Śārada in his life.

Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya has composed minimum hundred works in his life. He has mentioned this fact in the praśasti[1] of his work Tarkabhāṣā[2] . His works on Nyāya are of approximate two lacs verses[3] . His works are available in four languages. They are Sanskrit, Prakrit, Gujarati and Hindi. It is interesting to note that some of the works of Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya are found in two languages. For instance his work namely Falāfalaviṣayaka [Phalāphalaviṣayaka?] praśnapatra is composed in Sanskrit as well as Gujarati languages. His work namely Viśiṣṭajinastavana is found in two languages Gujarati as well as Hindi. He has composed works in prose as well as verse[4] .

His works deal with five major areas. They are:

  1. Nyāya,
  2. Āgama,
  3. Yoga,
  4. Bhakti,
  5. Ācāra.

His one work usually deals with one of these areas. The Dvātriṃśad-dvātriṃśikā [dvātriṃśaddvātriṃśikā] is his only work which covers all these five areas in one treatise.

Dvātriṃśad-dvātriṃśikā discusses thirty two subjects and thirty two verses for each subject in Sanskrit. Therefore the treatise is of 1024 verses in total. Moreover, Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya has written an auto-commentary in Sanskrit namely Tattvārtha-dīpikā on Dvātriṃśad-dvātriṃśikā. The treatise along with the auto-commentary contains 5050 verses. Besides the auto-commentary we also have a Sanskrit commentary and a Gujarati description on this treatise. Both are written by Muni Yashovijaya (2oth Century A.D.). Nayalatā, which contains 50,000 verses, is the name of Sanskrit commentary and Dvātriṃśad-prakāśa is the name given to the Gujarati description[5] .

Thirty one groups of thirty two verses of the Dvātriṃśad-dvātriṃśikā are in anuṣṭup metre and the last thirty second one is composed in rathoddhatā metre. Each group of thirty two verses contains a word paramānanda at the end. Dvātriṃśad-dvātriṃśikā is a treatise in which Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya has used techniques of prācīna nyāya as well as navya nyāya. In this treatise he has mentioned views of Naiyāyikas’, Buddhists’, and Jains’ on Nyāya. Here author has presented concepts of Jain canons in the style of navya nyāya. The author has skillfully discussed notions of Pātñjala Yoga, Upaniṣadic Yoga, Buddhist Yoga as well as Jain Yoga. He has tried to present similarities and dissimilarities among beliefs and thoughts of all these Yogic streams. While presenting Jain Yoga, our author has very sincerely referred all four treatises of Haribhadrasūri on Yoga. The treatise Dvātriṃśad-dvātriṃśikā also contains verses pertaining to faith, devotion and worship. Moreover, the treatise deals with topics pertaining to conducts viz. code of conducts of laymen (śrāvaka) as well as monks. This is how the Dvātriṃśad-dvātriṃśikā envelops in it the areas such as nyāya, āgama, yoga, bhakti and ācāra.

The erudite Jain scholar Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya has referred works of his predecessors in his compositions[6] . He has also composed commentary on certain works of his predecessors. For instance Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya’s commentary on Umāsvāti Mahārāja’s Tattvārthsūtra, Hemacandrācārya’s Vītarāgastotra. It seems that among all the predecessors Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya has special regard for Haribhadrasūri. The title ‘Laghu Haribhadra’ given to Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya supports this assumption. The Uvaesarahasya of Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya seems to be greatly influenced by Uvaesapaya of Haribhadrasūri. The work namely Mārgapariśuddhi of Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya matches so much with the Pañcavatthuga of Haribhadrasūri that the former appears to be the Sanskrit rendering of the latter. Besides these Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya has frequently quoted the Aṣṭaka-prakaraṇa of Haribhadrasūri in his works. Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya has composed commentary on following works of Haribhadrasūri. They are: 1. Yogaviṃśika 2. Śāstravārtāsamuccaya 3. Ṣoḍaśaka. The former has also written one-one avacūri on the two works of the latter namely Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya and Yogabindu.

The Dvātriṃśad-dvātriṃśikā of Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya refers, more than once, the following works of Haribhadrasūri.

They are:

  • Aṣṭaka-prakaraṇa,
  • Ṣoḍaśaka,
  • Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya,
  • Yogabindu,
  • Pañcāsaga,
  • Uvaesapaya,
  • Pañcavatthuga and
  • Samarāiccakahā.

Certain verses of the Dvātriṃśad-dvātriṃśikā are taken as it is from some of the above quoted Sanskrit works of Haribhadrasūri. For instance the 16th, 20th, 23rd, 28th, 48th verses of the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya are reproduced word by word as verses numbered 20.27and29; 21.8and16; 22.9 of the Dvātriṃśad-dvātriṃśikā[7] . The Tattvārtha-dīpikā, an autocommentary of Dvātriṃśad-dvātriṃśikā, contains many lines that are taken as it is from autocommentary of the treatise Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya[8] .

The dvātriṃśikās 10th to 26th from the treatise Dvātriṃśad-dvātriṃśikā discuss the problems of Yoga as understood by Haribhadrasūri in his works on Yoga. However, the dvātriṃśikās from 19th to 24th are dedicated to the treatise Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya of Haribhadrasūri. Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya analyses the content of the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya in a very scholarly manner. He expands it and takes it one step deeper by elaborating the content of the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya. Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya has presented lines of the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya in the form of quotation at many places in these five dvātriṃśikās. Besides, he has written many verses and lines from auto-commentary of the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya as it as in the above mentioned dvātriṃśikās. This shows his high regards for Haribhadrasūri.

The 19th dvātriṃśikā namely Yogaviveka-dvātriṃśikā contains the three-fold yoga[9] , four types of yogins [10] , four types of yama [11] and the yoga-triad [12] . Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya has mentioned name and nature of the eight yogadṛṣṭis in the 20th dvātriṃśikā Yogāvatāradvātriṃśikā by name. In the same dvātriṃśikā he has defined terms dṛṣṭi as well as oghadṛṣṭi. Here, we get brief introduction of eight yogadṛṣṭis with the description of similes attached to them. The name of the 21st dvātriṃśikā is Mitrā-dvātriṃśikā and Tārāditraya-dvātriṃśikā is the name given to the 22nd dvātriṃiśikā. From their names only we come to know that these two dvātriṃśikās explain first four yogadṛṣṭis namely Mitrā, Tārā, Balā, and Dīprā. The 23rd dvātriṃśikā namely Kutarkagrahanivṛtti-dvātriṃśikā narrates the nature of the fallacious argument (kutarka). This dvātriṃśikā depicts futility of the fallacious argument. In this dvātriṃśikā Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya has discussed the topics such as oneness of the omniscients, two types of worships namely citrā and acitrā, oneness of the path leading to liberation, unity in the diversified sermons delivered by the omniscients. The 24th dvātriṃśikā namely Saddṛṣṭidvātriṃśikā talks about the last four yogadṛṣṭis namely Sthirā, Kāntā, Prabhā, Parā.

While narrating eight yogadṛṣṭis Haribhadrasūri, in his Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya, has said that,

granthibhede sad-dṛṣṭitvaṃ, sa ca dīprottarakālamiti... [13] ”.

That is why Up ādhyāya Ya śovijaya has named his 24th dvātriṃśikā as the Saddṛṣṭi-dvātriṃśikā where he has described the last four yogadṛṣṭis.

While mentioning name of the three fold yoga viz. icchāyoga, śāstrayoga and sāmrthyayoga Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya has made a very important remark about Yoga. He says that, “the religious practices performed without being a hypocrite is Yoga in real sense, the rest is just illusion of yoga. Hence the religious practices performed with hypocrisy cannot be called yoga[14] ”. Haribhadrasūri also says that a beholder of a icchāyoga, who is desirous of practicing religious performances, should do so without being a hypocrite[15] .

Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya has mentioned in his treatise namely Adhyātmasāra that,

sutyajyaṃ rasalāmpaṭyaṃ sutyajyaṃ dehabhūṣaṇam |
sutyajāḥ kāmabhogāśca
, dasुtyajaṃ dambhasevanam ||3.6||

Therefore, Haribhadrasūri as well as his successor Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya have emphasized on the absence of hypocrisy in yogic practices.

While defining icchāyoga, Haribhadrasūri says kartumicchoḥ kasyacinnirvyājameva tathāvidhakṣayopaśamabhāvena |, whereas his successor Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya states that, cikīrṣoḥ = tathāvidhakṣayopaśama'bhāve'pi nirvyājameva kartumicchoḥ,... |. It seems that the word tathāvidha is interpreted by both the scholars in their own manner. In Jainism we get eight types of karmans viz. jñāvaraṇīyakaraman, darnāvaraṇīyakarman and so on. Neither Haribhadrasūri nor Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya have specified that which type of karmans destruction-cum-subsidence is intended by words tathāvidhakṣayopaśama. When Haribhadrasūri says tathāvidhakṣayopaśamabhāvena, he implies that type of destruction-cum-subsidence of karmans which yields earnest (nirdaṃbha) performance of religious activities. The words, tathāvidhakṣayopaśama'bhāve'pi, used by Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya indicate that even though a beholder of icchāyoga have not achieved that much destruction-cum-subsidence of karmans that results into the earnest (nirdaṃbha) religious performances, the beholder of icchāyoga practices religious activities with utmost earnestness (nirdaṃbha).

Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya has explained eight yogadṛṣṭis in the span of 21st to 24th dvātriṃśikās. He has dealt with each and every topic which is discussed by Haribhadrasūri in his Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya. Moreover, in the Dvātriṃśad-dvātriṃśikā Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya has also elaborated topics which are mentioned precisely by Haribhadrasūri in his Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya. The eight yoga-limbs are its best example. In the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya Haribhadrasūri do not explain any of the eight yoga-limbs in detail. He just mentions them. In the Dvātriṃśad-dvātriṃśikā [dvātriṃśaddvātriṃśikā] Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya elaborates every yoga-limb. We get five types of the first yoga-limb namely yama in the 21st dvātriṃśikā. In the same dvātriṃśikā he states why yama is a cause of yoga? While explaining eight yogadṛṣṭis Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya presents, five types of niyama by definition of each one, seven fruits achieved by practicing śauca (one of the niyama), types of prāṇāyāma, nature of pratyāhāra in Jainism and in other philosophical system, five types of pratyāhāra and so on, in 21st to 24th dvātriṃśikās.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

See 4th verse of praśasti.

[2]:

Tarkabhāṣā of Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya is also known as Jain Tarkabhāṣā. It is published by Sindhi Jain Granthamala in 1938 A.D.

[3]:

See Yaśodohana written by H.R.Kapadia, p.117.

[4]:

To have a detailed information of life, date and works of Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya see the book Yaśodohana written by H.R.Kapadia and published in 1966. The same book was re-published in 2008 by Shrutagyaan Prasarak Sabha, Ahmedabad. This second edition was composed by Muni Yashovijaya (20th century A.D.).

[5]:

The treatise Dvātriṃśad-dvātriṃśikā compiled by Muni Yashovijaya, which is published by Shree Mahavira Swami Jain Shwetambar Murtipujak Sangh, Ahmedabada in the year 2003 A.D., contains in it the autocommentary Tattvārtha-dīpikā, Sanskrit commentary Nayalatā as well as Gujarati description Dvātriṃśadprakāśa. This compilation is divided in eight parts and of almost 2800 pages.

[6]:

See Yaśodohana by H.R.Kapadia, pp.55-67.

[7]:

Here we are discussing influence of Yogadṛṣṭisamucaya of Haribhadrasūri on the Dvātriṃśad-dvātriṃśikā of Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya. Therefore we have given examples of Yogadṛṣṭisamucaya only. There may be verses of the Dvātriṃśad-dvātriṃśikā which completely match with the verses of some other works of Haribhadrasūri. We have not mentioned them because it is beyond the scope of our research.

[8]:

Match lines of the auto-commentary on verse 20.26 of the Dvātriṃśad-dvātriṃśikā with lines of the autocommentary on verse 15th of the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya. Many lines of the latter are reproduced as it is in the former.

[9]:

icchāyoga, śāstrayoga, sāmarthyayoga.

[10]:

gotrayogin, kulayogin, pravṛttacakrayogin, niṣpannayogin.

[11]:

icchāyama, pravṛttiyama, sthirayama, siddhiyama.

[12]:

yogāvañcaka, kriyāvañcaka, phalāvañcaka.

[13]:

See auto-commentary of verse 15th of the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccya, p.10, line- 26th.

[14]:

| yo nirvyājaṃ = niṣkapaṭaṃ vidhīyate |
savyājastu yogā''bhāso gaṇanāyāmeva nā'vataratīti ||19
.1||
   –Auto-commentary on Dvātriṃśad-dvātriṃśikā (2003).

[15]:

kartumicchoḥ kasyacinnirvyājameva tathāvidhakṣayopaśamabhāvena |... ||3||
   –Yogadṛṣṭisamuccya (2010).

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