Yogadrstisamuccaya of Haribhadra Suri (Study)

by Riddhi J. Shah | 2014 | 98,110 words

This page relates ‘Works of Haribhadrasuri’ of the study on the Yogadrstisamuccaya: a 6th-century work on Jain Yoga authored by Haribhadra Suri consisting of 228 Sanskrit verses. The book draws from numerous sources on traditional Yoga. Three important topics are stipulated throughout this study: 1) nature of liberation, 2) a liberated soul, and 3) omniscience.—This section belongs to the series “Life, Date and Works of Acarya Haribhadrasuri”.

Chapter 2.4 - Works of Haribhadrasūri

I. Introduction

In the whole of Indian literature Haribhadrasūri holds a distinguished position for his versatile intelligence, unparallel knowledge, equal treatment to all, non-prejudicial criticism and an excellent command over the languages. Haribhadrasūri’s intensive aspiration for deliverance from birth and death and his desire to guide the aspirants for the same goal made him to devote all his time in preaching and writing.

Haribhadrasūri a great Jain scholar composed as many as 1444 great master works which are extremely precious.It is highly impressive that Haribhadrasūri has to his credit the creation of huge literature both in Sanskrit and Prakrit languages. He wrote scholarly commentaries on Jain scriptures and he carved new path in the field of Yoga through his works.

Different source texts ascribe various numbers of works to Haribhadrasūri. In some treatises the figure given is 1400 prakaraṇas whereas in others it is either 1440 or 1444. However majority treatises ascribe 1400 prakaraṇas to Haribhadrasūri. Regarding the variation in number from 1400 and 1444, let us quote words of H. R. Kapadia.

He says:

“The variation in number from 1400 to 1444 can be accounted for, in case we admit that those who mentioned the number as 1400 intended to give a round number and not the actual one. Such a thing is noticed in the verse mentioning the death–dates of Vajra, Haribhadra and Bappabhaṭṭi together with the date of the destruction of Valabhī. Some who look upon 1444 as the correct number even now, believe that the hymn beginning with “saṃsāradāvānala” is to be looked upon as four works.”[1]

Now we will see that who ascribes how many works to Haribhadrasūri. There are three categories:

  1. Scholars who believe that Haribhadrasūri wrote 1444 prakaraṇas.
  2. Scholar who recognize Haribhadrasūri as an author of 1440 prakaraṇas.
  3. Scholar who ascribe 1400 Prakaraṇas to Haribhadrasūri.

1. Haribhadrasūri–An author of 1444 works:

a. Ratnaśekharasūri (15th V.S.) composed a treatise namely Śrāddhapratikramaṇa.[2] He also wrote an auto-commentary namely Śrāddhapratikaramaṇārthadīpikā[3] in 90 V.S. 1506. In the auto-commentary Ratnaśekharasūri has mentioned Haribhadrasūri as an author of 1444 prakaraṇas.[4]

b. Stambha III, Vyākhāna 30 of the treatise Upadeśaprasāda [5] written by Vijayalakṣmīsūri tells us that Haribhadrasūri wrote 1444 prakaraṇas.

c. The following line, recorded in the Kharataragacchapaṭṭāvalī (V.S. 1834) (= 1777 A.D.) of Muni Kṣamākalyāṇa, is:

1444 pūjāpañcāśakādiprakaraṇāni kṛ tāni iti|[6]

d. calagacchapaṭṭāvalī says that

śrīharibhadrasūriḥ 1444 prakaraṇakartā|[7]

2. Haribhadrasūri: An author of 1440 works:

a. Ācārya Rājaśekharasūri (1349 A.D.) assigns 1440 prakaraṇas to Haribhadrasūri.[8]

3. Haribhadrasūri: An author of 1400 works:

a. While commenting on XIX, V. 44 of Haribhadrasūri’s Pañcāsaga(p.3016), Abhayadevasūri says that Haribhadrasūri wrote 1400 works during his life. Abhayadevasūri, who is well known as navāṅgīṭīkākāra, passed away in V.S. 1134 = 1077 A.D.

b. Municandrasūri (V.S. 1174) (= 1117 A.D.) wrote śīkā on Upadeśapada of Haribhadrasūri. In the śīkā Municandrasūri mentioned Haribhadrasūri as an author of 1400 prakaraṇas.[9]

c. Disciple of this Municandrasūri namely Vādī Devasūri (V.S.1143 to 1226) (=1086 to 1169), in his treatise Syādvādaratnākara, attributed various adjectives to Haribhadrasūri. One ofthem is Haribhadrasūri’s greatness as a writer of 1400 prakaraṇas.[10]

d. Muniratnasūri (V.S. 1252) (= 1195 A.D.) who was a disciple of Samudraghoṣa introduced Haribhadrasūri as an author of 1400 prakaraṇas in his own composition Amama Jina Caritra.[11]

e. Pradhyumnasūri (1324 V.S.) (= 1267 A.D.) wrote “Samarāditya Saṅkṣepa” and in this treatise the author referred Haribhadrasūri as a writer of 1400 prakaraṇas.[12]

f. Munidevasūri (a contemporary to above mentioned Pradyumnasūri) in his treatise Śāntinātha-caritra repeats the same thing regarding Haribhadrasūri.[13]

g. In Prabhārakacaritra of Prabhācandra mentions that Haribhadrasūri wrote 1400prakaraṇas.[14]

h. While writing Bṛhadśīkā on Ṣaḍdarśanasamuccaya, Guṇaratnasūri (1466 V.S.) (=1409 A.D.) confirms Haribhadrasūri’s authorship for Ṣaḍdarśanasamuccaya and also introduces Haribhadrasūri as an author of 1400 treatises.[15]

i. Jinadattasūri of Kharataragaccha wrote Gaṇadharasārdhaśataka. In this treatise the author has attributed to Haribhadrasūri the authorship of 1400 treatises.[16]

j. Harṣanandanagaṇi (V.S. 1673) (= 1616 A.D.) a disciple of Samayasundaragaṇi wrote Madhyāhna-vyākhyāna-paddhati. While, commenting upon a verse “pālitto Vṛddhavādī” of Maharśikulaka of this treatise, the author wrote a following line which ascribes the authorship of 1400 prakaraṇas to Haribhadrasūri.

The line is:

Śrī Vṛddhagacchecaturdaśaśatagranthagranthanatatparaḥ[17]

Muni Kalyanavijaya in his preface on Dhammasaṃgahaṇī[18] mentioned eightyeight works of Haribhadrasūri. Muni Kalyanavijaya’s list of eighty-eight entries contains works of Haribhadrasūri, which are either actually preserved or known from quotations only.Muni Jinavijaya enumerates twenty-six works of Haribhadrasūri as the most renowned ones. And twenty works out of these twenty-six have been edited. [19] H.R. Kapadia has referred to forty-one[20] works, which are definitely ascribed to Haribhadrasūri. These include his best works like Śāstravārtāsamuccaya, Ṣaḍdarśanasamuccaya, Anekāntajayapatākā, Yogabindu,Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya and many others.

Jacobi’s quotation regarding number of works of Haribhadrasūri is as follows:

“…., the number 1,400 be a mere hyperbole without any special meaning, we must assume that in this connection prakaraṇa does not denote as usually a separate systematic treatise, Aṣṭaka 32, Ṣoḍaśaka 16, etc., but on what principle in the other cases his books were split into a great number of prakaraṇa it is impossible to say.”[21]

Here we may raise a question -that is it possible for a person to compose 1400/1444 prakaraṇas in one life?[22] There are several Europeans who are authors of a large number of works.

Their names[23] are as follows:

1. Richard Bechaster—145

2. L’abb’e Prevost—170

3. Daniel Defoe, the well-known author of Robinson Cruzo—174 and a number of pamphlets as well.

4. Dr. Campbell has composed so much as would fill in a cart,

5. Bishop Snidberg, father of Swedenborg,—his works would occupy ten carts.

6. While attending to his occupation, Hans Sexes a German Shoe-maker could write 200 works on comedy and tragedy and 700 fables.

7. Mozer, a German, who died in the last century, composed 480 works out of which about 463 were published.

8. Kruntz, German scholar, could singly compose an encyclopedia, which could furnish material for 72 volumes by the time of his death.

If these Europeans could compose so many works in their one life, then definitely a Jain scholar like Haribhadrasūri could compose these many works. There is a reason recorded in history for proving Haribhadrasūri’s authorship to such a big number of works.In order to clean the sin caused by deciding to kill 1400 Buddhists monks, Haribhadrasūri determined to write works of equal number. It may be possible that such a prolific writer and an erudite like Haribhadrasūri would have written works before this incident happened. But after the incident occured he might have made up his mind and started composing works to reach upto 1400. Apart from this legendary incident if we focus on Haribhadrasūri’s life style as a Jain monk, it would definitely answer our question. These are the lines written by by Ishwarlal Jain in an article “ṣaḍdarśanavettā śrīharibhadrasūri[24] that support the aforementioned point.

The lines say: “jaina sādhuoṃ kā jīvana

aisā nivṛttimaya hotā hai ki unheṃ saṃsāra kā koī jhaṃjhaṭa nahīṃ hotā| na dhana ādi ke parigrahacintā, na aiśo-ārāmavicāra| unakādhyeya ke vala janakalyāṇa aura ātmonnati hī hotā hai| aise pāvana jīvana meṃ eka prakhara vidvāna kī lekhanī se itane granthoṃ kā likhā jānā koī āścaryajanaka bāta nahīṃ”.

II. Classification of Works of Haribhadrasūri:

Haribhadrasūri composed many works in Prakrit as well as Sanskrit. Some of his works are endowed with the auto-commentaries (svopajñaṭīkā) and some are without the auto-commentaries. The Pañcavattuga, Yogaśataka, Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya, Śāstravārtāsamuccaya, Sarvajñasiddhi, Hiṃsāṣṭka-are the works that have an autocommentary by himself, whereas the rest has none. For instance Yogaviṃśikā, Ṣoḍaśaka etc. However the Anekāntjayapatākā is the only work of Haribhadrasūri which has two commentaries by the author himself.

They are:

  1. Anekāntajayapatākodhyotadīpikā,
  2. Bhāvārthamātravedinī.

Haribhadrasūri did not only compose original treatises but also wrote expository commentaries. Haribhadrasūri wrote all commentaries in Sanskrit only. He wrote commentaries on Jain as well as non-Jain literature. Haribhadrasūri wrote a commentary namely Śiṣyahitā or Nyāyapraveśakavyākhyā on the non-Jain treatise namely Nyāyapraveśaka.[25] In olden days we had a tradition of writing commentaries like Nijjutti, Bhāsa and cuṇṇis upon several Jain canons in Prakrit language. It is Haribhadrasūri who was the pioneer of writing Sanskrit commentaries on Jain canons. No Sanskrit commentary earlier than that of his has been discovered.

Following is the list of the commentaries that Haribhadrasūri wrote on Jain canons and also on other Jain literature:

  1. Aṇuogaddāra
  2. Āvassaya
  3. Oghanijjutti
  4. Ceiyadandaṇasutta
  5. Jambuddivapaṇṇatti
  6. Jīvājīvābhigama
  7. Dasaveyāliya
  8. Nandī
  9. Nyāyāvatāra
  10. Pañcasuttaga
  11. Paṇṇavaṇā
  12. Piṇḍanijjutti
  13. Vaggakevaliyasutta

III. Brief Introduction of works of Ācārya Haribhadrasūri:

Here, an attempt has been made to present the summary of works [26] of Haribhadrasūri in brief.

Anekāntajayapatākā

Anekāntajayapatākā is composed in Sanskrit. It is the only work of Haribhadrasūri which have two commentaries written by him. They are:

  1. Anekāntajayapatākodyotadīpikā
  2. Bhāvārthamātrāvedinī.

Both these auto-commentaries are in Sanskrit. The second auto-commentary namely Bhāvārthmātrāvedinī is still unpublished. It has been deposited by the Government at the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute.[27] Anekāntajayapatākā contains 3500 verses and has been divided into six adhikāras.

Anekāntavādapraveśa

It is a work in Sanskrit, which contains 720 verses. It is comparatively smaller than the bigger and more difficult work Anekāntajayapatākā of the author. Anekāntavādapraveśa seems to be Anekāntajayapatākā’s epitome with reproductions word for word in many places. The only difference is that in Anekāntavādapraveśa Yogācāra section of Anekāntajayapatākā is not at all treated.

Anekāntavādapraveśa deals with five topics, viz.,

  1. sadasattvavāda,
  2. nityānityatvavāda,
  3. sāmānyaviśeṣatvavāda,
  4. abhilāpyānabhilāpyatvavāda,
  5. mokṣavāda.

This Anekāntapraveśa seems to be the same as one noted by Guṇaratnasūri as Anekāntapraveśa in his commentary (p. 107a) to Ṣaḍdarśanasamuccaya (chapter IV, V.58).[28]

Anekāntasiddhi

It appears to be a work of Haribhadrasūri with the line nācitrāta 2् 9 quoted from it. It can be inferred that Anekāntasiddhi is the work in Sanskrit as well as in prose. It establishes the concept of non-absolutism (anekānta).

Aṣtakaprakaraṇa

It deals with 32 aṣṭakas, each consists 8 verses and the last has 10 verses. These aṣṭakas have titles viz., Ātmanityavādāṣṭaka, Kṣaṇikavādāṣṭaka, Nityānityāṣṭaka and so on. However, only 16 aṣṭakas out of 32 have significant titles. In V.S. 1080 (- 1023 A.D.) Jineśvarasūri commented upon Aṣṭakaprakaraṇa. His disciple Abhayadevasūri rendered the Prakrit portion, occurring in this commentary, into Sanskrit.

Ātmasiddhi

Anekāntajayapatākā part- 2, p. 218 has referred this work namely Ātmasiddhi. As we can infer from its title, it must be dealing with the establishment of the soul.

Uvaesapaya (Upadeśapada)

It is written in āryā metre. It is a text related with dharmakathānuyoga. It is written in Prakrit language and contains 1039 verses. Through the medium of story it points out ten well-known illustrations, which depict how difficult it is to secure a human birth. A detailed exposition of the four types of intelligence, viz., autpātikī, vainayikī, karmajā and parināmikī, take place in this treatise. Moreover the method of receiving and imparting religious instruction is treated in Uvaesapaya.

Though the names of texts are not stated, some verses of Uvaesapaya are taken directly from them. For example 5th verse is taken from Uttarajjhayaṇanijjutti (160).The verses numbered 63-64 of Nandī are reproduced in 40-51 verses of Uvaesapaya. And verse 164 of it has been taken from III, 93 of Sammaipayaraṇa (Sanmatiprakaraṇa).

Uvaesapaya has three commentaries. One of them is very deep in meaning and it is written by someone who preceded Municandrasūri (V.S. 1174) (- 1117 A.D). It is named as Sukhasambodhinī[29] . Another commentary is written by Vardhamānasūri but probably has not been published so far[30] . H. R. Kapadia has said in his part-2 introduction of Anekāntajayapatākā (P. XXIV) that there are three commentaries written on Uvaesapaya. However, he has narrated details of two commentaries nothing has been said regarding the third commentary of the text.

Daṃsaṇasuddhi

It is in Prakrit language. Since it contains 70 verses it is also known as Darisaṇasattari. Sattari is saptati in Sanskrit. The small Prakrit text deals with Samyagdarśana (right faith) and its purity.Saṅghatilalkasūri (V. S. 1422) (= 1365 A.D.) commented upon this work of Haribhadrasūri. The commentary is named as Tattvakaumudī and it narrates the main topics of the text by means of illustration.

Darisaṇasattari

This is another work of Haribhadrasūri, which talk about right faith. Eventhough the previously mentioned Daṃsaṇasuddhi or Darisaṇasattari bear resemblance of name with the present text Darisaṇaśattari, they are two different works of the same author.

Darisaṇasattari is mentioned as Darśanasaptatikā on p.92 of the Descriptive Catalogue of Manuscripts in the Jain Bhandars at Pattan. On p. 93 of it the starting and the ending portion[31] of this text are given. In the opening verse[32] it is suggested that this work, written in Prakrit language, explains the religion that is to be practiced by Jain laity. In the opening verse Haribhadrasūri uses a term “sāvagadhammaṃ”. It may be the reason why some scholars have designated the present work as Sāvagadhammapagaraṇa.

Dhammasaṅgahaṇi

The work, mainly related with dravyānuyoga, is composed in Prakrit in 1396 verses. It deals with different topics such as the definition of dharma and its aspects (i.e. nikṣepas). It refutes the views of Cārvākas. It defines characteristics of the soul and establishes its existence. The eight kinds of karmans, which had covered the soul since time immemorial, has got good exposition in this text. The right faith, most valued and significant concept of Jainism, is explained with its varieties and distinguishing features. Moreover, five kinds of knowledge, vows of the clergy, establishment of omniscience and bliss in liberation such topics are also discussed in this text. Dhammasaṅgahaṇi is commented upon by Malaygirisūri (13th V.S.) in Sanskrit.

This commentary has been referred by the commentator Malayagirisūri in two of his works namely:

  1. Nandīsūtravṛtti,
  2. Malayagirivyākaraṇa.

Dharmabindu

A work of Haribhadrasūri, written in sūtra style, is in Sanskrit. Though it opens with a verse, it is mostly in prose. This work, on whole, is related with caraṇakarṇānuyoga. It is divided into eight adhyāyas. It deals with topics such as the duties of an ordinary householder, the vows of Jain laity and their transgression, the Jain monastic life, activities of the two types of Jain saints, fruits of religion, description of a tīrthaṅkara and the nature of the liberated souls.

Municandrasūri had commented upon this text of Haribhadrasūri. A palm leaf manuscript of this commentary dated V.S. 1181 (=1124 A.D.) is available.[33] IV. 3 of Dharmabindu is reproduced in the auto-commentary of 10th verse of the treatise Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya.

Dhuttakkhāṇa

The work is in Prakrit language. It contains narration of rogues. The very title of it suggests that the work must be narrating stories of rogues. Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay (1944) had published original Prakrit text edited by Muni Jinaviajay along with Sanskrit version prepared by Saṅghatilakasūri (14th century A.D.) and an old-Gujarati prose rendering of the text by an unknown writer. The Sanskrit version of Dhuttakkhāṇa, included in this edition, is extracted from the Tattvakaumudī which is a vivaraṇa or vṛtti by Saṅghatilakasūri on the Samyaktvasaptatikā attributed to Haribhdrasūri himself. Saṅghatilakasūri finished the composition of the Tattvakaumudīin V.S. 1422 (=1365 A.D.).

Pañcavatthuga

It comprises 1714 verses and is written in Prakrit language. This text has been commented upon by the writer himself. It means Pañ cavatthuga has auto-commentary. As its very name suggests, its each section is associated with one vatthu (i. e. vastu in Sanskrit), out of five.

The five sections are:

  1. Renunciation,
  2. Daily activities of the Jaina clergy.
  3. Residence in gaccha, accessories of monks and penance.
  4. Anujñā (permission),
  5. Saṃlekhanā (mortification).

According to H. R. Kapadia[34] this work is unique in two senses.:

  1. It is the first work amongst ancient works to give pros and cons for the topics expounded here.
  2. This work deals with the subject of Thava-pariṇṇā etc., the pāhuḍas, which are not, mentioned elsewhere.

Pañcāsaga

This work is written in Prakrit language and composed ināryā metre. It is divided into 19 sections and each section consists of 50 verses. Abhayadevasūri, the Navāṅgīṭīkākāra, commented upon this text. However from lines on p. 229 of Pañcāsaga it seems that someone else had commented upon it before Abhayadevasūri.

The lines are–

anyetvavibhaktikanirdeśaṃ kṛtvā “ monipāta itivyākhyānti|

Bhāvanāsiddhi

The name of this text has only been mentioned in Sarvajñ asiddhi (p.11). No other source has been found yet. The pertinent line is: “prapañcita medbhāvānāsiddhau iti neha prayāsaḥ|

From this line we cannot say anything about the text Bhāvanāsiddhi viz. in which language it might be written, how many verses does it comprise etc. However, from the word “Bhāvanā” in title, we can infer that it may be dealing either with four holy reflections viz., maitrī, pramoda, karuṇā and mādhyastha or with twelve reflections mentioned in IX.7 of Tattvārthasūtra. This text falls into the category of those texts composed by Haribhadrasūri whose names are mentioned in some treatises but no other information regarding them is found yet.

Laggasuddhi or Laggakuṇḍaliyā

It is a small work in Prakrit which contains 133 verses only. Its Sanskrit title is Lagnaśuddhi. From the word Haribhadrasūrithat occurs in 132 verse of Laggasuddhi, we may infer that this work is composed by someone whose name is Haribhadrasūri. But we do not have any other information that can introduce us as to which “Haribhadrasūri” is he, among seven or eight Haribhadrasūris of the Jaintradition. Though we are unable to identify Haribhadrasūri, Kulamaṇḍanagani in his Vicārāmṛtasaṅgraha (p.11) [35] has attributed this workto Haribhadra who is also the author of works like Dhammsaṅgahaṇi, Anekāntajayapatākā, Yogabinduetc.Laggasuddhi deals with topics viz., gocaraśuddhi, pratidvāradaśaka, yogaśuddhi, saṅkrānti, ṣaḍavargaśuddhi, udayāstaśuḍdhi and so on. It is basically a work related to jyotiṣa-śāstra.

Lokatattvanirṇaya or Nṛtattvanigama

The small work consists of 147 verse in Sanskrit. “From the opening verse it appears that the title of this work is Nṛtattvanigam; but the popular title is somehow Lokatattvanirṇaya, and it occurs in the colophon.”[36] A work of only 147 verses is in different metres. It can be majorly divided into three sections. In I. 23-31 undesirable activities of various Hindu Gods are referred to. Even though the author criticizes these acts, he is broad-minded and non-sectarian to bow down to one who is really dispassionate. May he be Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Śaṅkara etc? After referring this, the author goes ahead to describe the nature of the universe with various views about its creation. The nature of the soul, the doctrine of karman etc. form important part of the text.

Vīsavīsiyā

It is written in Prakrit language. It consists of twenty sections and each section, except the fourteenth section, comprises of twenty verses. And here, this work is known as Viṃśativiṃśikā in Sanskrit. The title of each section is in Sanskrit. But the fifteenth section is an exception. Its title is Āloyaṇa (ālocanā –in Sanskrit.) which is a Prakrit word.Moreover, a word viṃśikā has been added to the title of each section. For example, name of 19th section is “Yogaviṃśikā. Such usages are found in K. V. Abhyankar’s edition (1932 A.D.) of Vīsavīsiyā.

Śāstravārtāsamuccaya

TheŚāstravārtāsamuccayais a Sanskrit text. It consists of 700 verses. It is furnished with the auto commentary, with the extent of 2250 verses, namely “Dikpradā”.Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya too has commented upon this text which is more exhaustive than the commentary “Dikpradā.”The Śāstravārtāsamuccaya examines refutations and reconciliations of some of the views of the Non-Jain schools and sects with full respect towards them.

aḍdarśanasamuccaya

A small Sanskrit work of 87 verses deals with the six systems of Indian philosophy. The Buddhism, Nyāya, Sāṅkhya, Jainism, Vaiśeṣika and Jainminīyaare discussed under the category of āstika darśana whereas the philosophy of Lokāyata (i.e. cārvāka) is discussed under the title of nāstika darśana.Ṣaḍdarśanasamuccaya has at least four commentaries.[37] One of them is of Guṇaratnasūri (1343 A.D. to 1418 A.D.) which was first edited by L. Suali and published along with the text in Calcutta Bibliotheca Indica, in 1905 A.D. In Jaina-granthāvalī, two more commentaries on Ṣaḍdarśanasamuccaya are noted. One is written by Vidyātilakasūri alias Somatilakasūri (V.S. 1355 to 1424 V.S.) (= 1298 A.D. to 1367 A.D.) snd the author of the other commentary is not mentioned because he may be incognito.

oḍaśakaprakaraṇa

It is divided into sixteen adhikāras, each adhikāra consists of sixteen verses till fifteen adhikāras. The 16thadhikāra contains 17 verses. It is written in Sanskrit and composed in āryā metre. At the end of this work we get the words “ṣoḍaśaṃṣoḍaśakam”. Probably this is the reason why the entire work is called Ṣoḍaśaka; for, nowhere in this work the author has named it so.” [38] Amongst the available Sanskrit works of Haribhadrasūri Ṣoḍaśakaprakaraṇa is the only one composed in āryā metre.On this treatise we get viraraṇa of Yaśobhadra (12th V.S.) and vyākhyā called Yogadīpikā of Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya (18th century A.D.). According to Jaina-granthāvalī (P.164) Dharmasāgara also has commented on the text Ṣoḍaśakaprakaraṇa.In the 20th century A.D. Muni Yaśovijaya has composed a Sanskrit commentary namely Kalyāṇakandalī and vyākhyā namely Ratidāyinī in Gujarati language.

Saṃsāradāvānalastuti

This hymn contains four verses which are composed in four different metres. First verse eulogizes Lord Mahāvīra, second verse sings glory of all the tīrhaṅkaras. The third verse praises the Jain canon and the fourth verse is about the goddess of speech (Sarswati Devī).

Samarāiccakahā

It is popularly known as Samaraiccakahā but in B. H. Dosi’s edition[39] (p. 7) we see that Haribhadrasūri himself has mentioned its name as Samarāiccacariya. The Samarāiccakahā, is a dharmakathā type work. It seems to be the most popular narrative work. It is composed primary in prose in Jain Mahārāśśrī Prakrit strewn with forms of Śaurasenī Prakrit here and there. It is divided into nine sections that narrate the story of nine births of two persons namely Aggisammā & Guṇaseṇa.

Sambohapayaraṇa

This work is in Prakritverses. It is divided into 12 adhikāras. Each section does not have equal number of verses. This text deals with topics such as nature of God, nature of a real preceptor, postures (pratimās) of Jain laity, their vows, leśyās, ālocanā etc. The Sambodhapayaraṇa,[40] published by Jain Granth Prakashaka Sabha, Ahmedabad in 1916 A.D., says that this work is also named as Tattvaprakāśaka and is composed by Haribhadrasūri with an intention to enlighten a female pupil Manoharīyā of Mahattarā Yākini.

Sarvajñasiddhi

This text is a Sanskrit prakraṇa written by Haribhadrasūri and furnished with an auto-commentary by him. Haribhadrasūri has referred his work Sarvajñasiddhi[41] and its auto-commentary[42] in his another work namely inAnekāntajayapatākā.However, the autocommentary of Sarvajñ asiddhi has not been yet published.[43] The text Sarvajñ asiddhi (without auto commentary) has been published in 14 pages along with Hiṃsāṣṭaka of Haribhadrasūri, by R.K. Sanstha, Ratlam, in 1924 A.D.[44]

Syādvādakucodyaparihāra

This work is not obtained and no information pertaining to it is available to us other than its references found in p. 279 and 296 of Part-1, Anekāntajayapatākā edited by H.R.Kapadia. From the name of this text we can infer that it must be a refutation of allegations against syādavāda.

Hiṃsāṣṭaka

Though the name contains aṣṭaka, it is not a part of Haribhadrasūri’s work namely Aṣṭaka. It is an independent and small work of 8 verses in Sanskrit. We are familiar with Haribhadrasūri’s style of writing auto-commentaries but he enhanced Hiṃsāṣṭaka by writing a svopajñ a-avacūri upon it. Hiṃsāṣṭaka is referred by the author in his commentary (p. 24b) on Dasaeyāliya.

Brahmasiddhāntasamuccaya

This work of Haribhadrasūri is referred by the name Brahmasiddhāntasārain Vol. 4, P.237 “jainasāhitya kā bṛhad itihāsa ”.Muni Punyavijaya edited this text and published it in Yogaśatakawhich was also edited by him only. This text contains exposition of certain topics which are also discussed in Ṣoḍaśakaprakaraṇa and Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya by the author himself.

Jijñāsā, advesa etc., discussed in Ṣoḍaśakaprakaraṇa as well asYogadṛṣṭisamuccaya, are also explained in Brahmasiddhāntasamuccaya.

Yogaviṃśikā

Yoga-viṃśikā is seventeenth Vīsiyā (Viṃśikā) of Haribhadrasūri’s treatise Vīsavīsiyā in Prakrit. In this “VīsavīsiyāYogaviṃśikā is titled as “Yogavidhānaviṃśikā” (i.e. Jogavihāṇavīsiyāin Prakrit).The word viṃśikā is added at the end of each visiyā as it can be seen from K. V. Abhyankar’s edition (1932). Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya has written a Sanskrit commentary on Yoga-viṃśikā.In verse 1 of Yogaviṃśikā, Haribhadrasūri has defined term Yoga as an activity, which leads directly to salvation.

The second verse contains five divisions of Yoga. They are:

  1. Sthāna
  2. Uccārana
  3. Artha
  4. Ālambana
  5. Anālambana

Of them the first two comprise “karmayoga” and the last three jñānayoga. Sthāna describes proper pose and uccāraṇa means uttering benedictory chant properly. These two are more physical and gross in nature. The third deals with understanding and grasping the meaning of the chant. Ālambana is concentration on an idol of deity etc. and anālambana is the stage of nirvikalpasamādhi.All performers of these five divisions of Yoga can never have the same intensity of will and efforts. Therefore, according to a performer’s intensity of doing good, his quick action, his persistence, and his accomplishment in Yoga -Haribhadrasūri has given four varieties of the above five divisions of Yoga. These varieties are–icchā, pravṛtti, shtira and siddhi.

Haribhadrasūri has classified the adhikārins of yoga into two categories only: 1. Deśavirata Cāritrins 2. Sarvavirata Cāritrins. Aṇukampā, nivvea, saṃvega and pasama are respectively mentioned in verse eight of this book. These four are characteristics (liṅga) of a samyagdṛṣṭi soul.In the fifteenth verse Haribhadrasūri gives a strict caution in performance of Yoga. The author warns that practices of Yoga should be undertaken very properly. Improper observance leads to disaster only.

The four varieties of good practice (sadanuṣṭhāna) are mentioned in verses from seventeen to twenty. They are:

  1. Prīti Anuṣṭhana,
  2. Bhakti Anuṣṭhāna,
  3. Vacana Anuṣṭhāna,
  4. Asaṅga Anuṣṭhāna.

H. R. Kapadia thinks “The topic of this vīsiyā and the style of treating it agree with those of Ṣoḍaśaka.[45]

Yogaśataka

Yogaśataka contains 100 verses as it is suggested in its name. It is written in Prakrit. Haribhadrasūri himself has commented on it, which is in Sanskrit. In second and fourthverse, Haribhadrasūri has defined the term Yoga from definitive stand point (niścaya naya) and practical stand point (vyavahāra naya) respectively.

iha yogodvidhāniścayatovyavahārataśceti| asya lakṣaṇamāha
nicchayao iha jogo saṇṇāṇāīṇa tiṇha saṃbaṃdho|
mokkheṇa joyaṇāo ṇiddiṭṭho jogināhe hiṃ || 2 ||

evaṃ niścayasāratvādyogasyā''dau tanmatena lakṣaṇamabhidhāyādhunāvyavahāramatenābhidhātumāha

vavahārao eso vinneo eyakāraṇāṇaṃ eva|
jo saṃbadhī so vi ya kāraṇa kajjovayārāo || 4 ||

Haribhadrasūri has enumerated four general categories of adhikārins in the 9th verse. They are:

  1. apunarbandhaka,
  2. samyagdṛṣṭi,
  3. deśaviratas,
  4. sarvaviratas.

According to him these four categories do not provide a hard and fast classification. It is so because adhikārins can be classified in innumerable categories keeping in view their individual differences about accumulating karmans etc[46] .Haribhadrasūri emphasizes that in spiritual practices (i.e. yogic performances) one should make efforts according to one’s qualification and appropriateness for such actions. It is said that every seeker should start from the stage where he is and strive only as per one’s capacity; otherwise one would do more harm than good. It is guru only who can determine one’s stage or fitness for Yoga.

The subjects treated in this book are:

  1. Forms of Yoga.
  2. Adhikārins of Yoga.
  3. Preparation (pūrva-sevā) for Yoga.
  4. Stages of Yoga.
  5. The means to rise to a higher yogic stage.
  6. The methods of introspection and similar methods of self-assessment.
  7. Satsaṅga, obedience to guru and other similar means.
  8. The use of pilgrimages etc.
  9. Meditation and other means to get rid of attachment, aversion etc. and to make the mind steady.
  10. Proper food and control on food.
  11. Bhikṣā and the right method for it.

Haribhadrasūri has given four suggestions to raise a seeker himself to the higher stage. They are[47] :

  1. He must do introspection of his behavior and nature.
  2. He must dispassionately listen to other’s remark on himself.
  3. He should pay attention to the process of purification in his physical, mental and oral activities.
  4. He should see minutely the outward signs of his progress and purity.

Yogbindu

This treatise contains 527[48] verses in Sanskrit. It is composed in anuṣṭabha metre. An extensive and detailed commentary has been written on Yogabindu. There exists difference of opinions regarding the author of this commentary. In L. Suili’s edition (1940), published by Jain Granth Prakashak Sabha, the name of the commentator is not mentioned. The commentary can either be written by Haribhadrasūri himself or by an incognito.

At the end of the commentary we get lines:

viraha iti ca bhagavataḥ śrīharibhadrasūreḥ svaprakaraṇāṅka pradyotaka iti|

The usage “bhagavataḥ śrīharibhadrasūreḥ ” is not likely that Haribhadrasūri would use to address himself. If we look upon this expression as an interpolation, we can safely assume this commentary to be composed by Haribhadrasūri himself.[49]

In the Yogabindu Haribhadrasūri has referred to the doctrine of Gopendra[50] and of Kālātīta.[51] The verses 301to307 seem to be taken from some work of this Kālātīta.[52] Certain verses of Yogabindu are quoted elsewhere. H. R. Kapadia [53] has given some instances.

They are:

  • Verses 126 to 130 of Yogabindu are quoted in the commentary on Dharmabindu (I, 19).
  • Verse 449 and 450 are quoted by Guṇaratnasūri in his commentaryTarkarahasyadīpikā (p. 429) on Ṣaḍdarśanasamuccaya (v. 41)

Haribhadrasūri has divided the progress of spiritual development into five grades. They are:

  1. Adhyātma
  2. Bhāvanā
  3. Dhyāna
  4. Samatā and
  5. Vṛttisaṅkṣaya

Adhyātma, bhāvanā, dhyāna and samatā are named as samprajñāta samādhi and vṛttisaṅkṣaya as asamprajñāta.[54] During the span of verses 405 to 417, Haribhadrasūri gives the most appropriate example of the prog-bits and the frog-ashes to explain the concept of samprajñāta and asamprajñāta samādhis respectively.

The verses 37 and 38 sing the glory of Yoga. In these verses Haribhadrasūri compares Yoga with the wish-tree (kalpataru) or the wish-diamond (cintāmaṇi). Yoga is the chief among all religions and yoga itself is success. Yoga alone can lead to the ultimate reality.

In Yogabindu Haribhadrasūri has expounded subjects like–prowess of Yoga, preliminary performances (pūrva-sevā), eulogy of scriptures, three karaṇas-yathāpravṛtti etc., characteristics of a soul who is a rejoicer of worldly existence (Bhavābhinandi), spiritual enlightenment, liberation and so on. Yogabindu also contains the subjects like refutation of the Maheśavādins and the Puruṣādvaitins.

Anuyogadvāravivṛti or Śiṣyahitā

A commentary on a Jain canon Aṇuogaddāra is named as Śiṣyahitā. Haribhadrasūri has explored the meaning of the original text and a chūrṇi written upon it in his commentary. It deals with exposition of tattva, pramāṇa nikṣepa, naya etc.

Āvaśyakasūtravivṛti

This is also named as Śiṣyahitā by Haribhadrasūri. It is a commentary of 22,500 verses upon the Āvassayasūtra along with nijjutti (niryukti). This commentary by Haribhadrasūri is preceded by at least two commentaries. They are:

  1. Āvaśyakasūtrabṛhadvṛtti by Haribhadrasūri.
  2. A commentary by Ācārya Jinabhaṭa.

calagacchapaṭṭāvalī mentions that the extent of Āvaśyakabṛhadvṛtti is 84,000 verses. This commentary is bigger than the commentary namely Śiṣyahitā on Āvaśyakasūtra written by Haribhadrasūri himself but the earlier one is now unavailable to us.[55] The Āvaśyakabṛhadvṛtti is referred by Maladhārī Hemacandra (V.S. 1164) in his ṭippaṇaka namely Āvaśyakapradeśavyākhyā (p. 2a) to Āvassayasūtra and by Upādhyāya Samayasundara (17th A.D.) in his Sāmācāriśataka composed in V.S. 1681 (= 1624 A.D.). Moreover,the commentary written by Ācārya Jinabhaṭa on Āvaśyakasūtra has been referred by Haribhadrasūri in his Śiṣyahitā. Colophon of Śiṣyahitā contains words “jinabhaṭanigadānusāriṇaḥ ”is interpreted to show the indebtedness of Haribhadrasūri to Ācārya Jinabhaṭa whose commentary on Āvassayasūtra he utilized while composing Śiṣyahitā. [56] In Śiṣyahitā we get Prakrit passages, which seem to be extracted from Āvassayacuṇṇi.Śiṣyahitā contains elucidation of Jhāṇasaya (i.e. Jhāṇājjayaṇaor Dhyānaśataka) of Jinabhadragaṇi.

Caityavandanasūtravṛtti or Lalitavistarā

It is a commentary to Ceiyavandaṇasutta (i.e. Caityavandanasūtra), which includes Paṇivāyasutta (śakrastava), Aṇṇattha (kāusagga) sutta, Logassa, Siddhatthava etc. In the concluding portion of this work Haribhadrasūri had mentioned Lalitavistarā as the name of this commentary. The extent of Lalitavistarā is about 1545 and the extent of its Pañjikā written by Municandrasūri is about 2155 verses.The commentary Lalitavistarā may remind us one of the Buddhist work namely Lalitavistarā. It is written in “Gāthā–Sanskrit” a mixture of Sanskrit and Avahaṭṭha[57] . “It seems that other Jain commentators who have named their commentary as Śiṣyahitā are indebted to Haribhadrasūri for this name.”[58]

Verses quoted from Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya in Lalitavistarā

  • The verses 3-10 of Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya are quoted on pp. 13a, 13b, 13b, 14a, 14b, 14b, 14b & 15a of Lalitavistarā.
  • The verses 25, 12 and 13 of the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya are quoted on pp. 11b, 16b and 16b respectively of Lalitavistarā.
  • On p. 43b of the LalitavistarāAvadhūtācārya of Yogimārga is being referred.It is a matter of further research whether this Avadhūtācārya is the same as Bhagavad Avadhūta of Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya.[59]

Jīvājīvābhigamasūtralaghuvṛtti

From its name we know that is a commentary on Jīvājīvābhigama. Its colophon says:—

samāptā jīvābhigamādhyayanaśāstrapradeśaṭīkā kṛtiharibhadrācāryasyeti|

Śiṣyabodhinī or Daśavaikālikaṭīkā

Śiṣyabodhinī is a commentary on Dasaveyāliya and its Nijjutti (niryukti). It contains various stories in Prakrit. For instance, on pp. 54b-55a we have a story about a group of Kārpaśikas.Śiṣyabodhinī deals with internal as well as external austerities, meditation, five great vows, fourteen stages of spiritual development (guṇasthānas) etc. in great details.

Nandyadhyayanaṭīkā

This is the name by which a commentary on Nandīsūtra is referred to in its colophon. Haribhadrasūri has mentioned Jinabhadragaṇi, Siddhasena[60] and Vṛddhācārya[61] on p. 52 of his commentary on Nandīsūtra.Haribhadrasūri mentioned these three great Ācāryas in the context of representing their three different views about the two upayogas namely kevalajñāna and kevaladarśana.Haribhadrasūri’s commentary on Nandīsūtra contains certain passages, which tally with that of Nandīcuṇṇi.

Piṇḍaniryuktivivṛti

It is a commentary written on Piṇḍanijjutti in Sanskrit. We do not have any information whether this commentary is available or not. Only from Viragaṇi’s commentary on Piṇḍanijjutti, it is learned that Haribhadrasūri had commenced to compose it.[62]

Pradeśavyākhyā

It is a commentary on one of the Uvaṅgas namely Paṇṇavaṇā. It is written in Sanskrit. Since all 36 payas of the commentary ends with the phrase “prajñāpanāpradeśavyākhyā ”, it is called Pradeśavyākhyā. Here the commentator Haribhadrasūri refers himself as pupil of Ācārya Jinabhaṭa.

Pradeśavākyā opens with the following verse:

rāgādivadhyapaṭahaḥ suralokaseturānanda dundubhirasatkṛ ta vañcitānām|
saṃsāracārakapalāyanakālaghaṇṭā jainaṃ vacastadiha kona bhajetvidvāna? ||

Ḍupaḍupikā

This commentary of Haribhadrasūri is written to elucidate Tattvārthasūtra along with its bhāṣya. The whole commentary, which was composed by Haribhadrasūri, is not available to us for an unknown reason. What we have is a composition of at least three different persons. In this composition up to V1.23 is of Haribhadrasūri and named as Ḍupaḍupikā. From the explanation of Vinayasampannatā of VI.23 till X.6 is written by Yaśobhadrasūri and the rest is by a pupil of Yaśobhadrasūri whose name is not known to us.[63]

Pañcasūtrakavyākhyā

It is a Sanskrit commentary on a Prakrit treatise Pañcasuttaga (Pañcasūtraka) that is written by an anonymous writer. It has five sections and each of them has a significant title. The commentary by Haribhadrasūri elucidates the text and contains quotations in Sanskrit as well as Prakrit.

Nyāyāvatāravṛtti

It is Haribhadrasūri’s commentary on Siddhasena Divākara’s Nyāyāvatāra. This commentary is noted as “nyāyāvatārasūtraṃ siddhasenīyaṃ tadvṛttirhāribhadrī|” in the Bṛhatśippaṇikā and also in Caturviṃśatiprabandha (p. 52).

Vargakevalikasūtravṛtti

A manuscript of Vaggakevaliyasutta (SanskritVargakevalikasūtra) was given by a Jain householder named Vāsuki, who was a resident of Banaras, to Haribhadrasūri with an intention to explain its contents. Haribhadrasūri composed a commentary on it on request of the Jain leaders. This text’s content was about foretelling the future. Due to the fear of this knowledge being misused, the Jain leaders requested Haribhadrasūri to destroy the same. This is what we learn from Kahāvalī.[64]

Nyāyapraveśakavyākhyā

Haribhadrasūri wrote a commentary namely Śiṣyahitā on Nyāyapraveśaka. Nyāyapraveśaka was composed in order to facilitate the study of Diṅnāga’s Nyāyadvāra. Dr. Satishchandra Vidhyabhusana etc. attribute Nyāyapraveśaka to Diṅnāga while scholars like Prof. Ui etc.,on the strength of Chinese evidence, attribute it to Śaṅkarasvāmin, a disciple of Diṅnāga.[65] By writing a commentary upon Nyāyapraveśaka Haribhadrasūri served directly to the cause of the Buddha logic.

IV. Chronology of works of Ācārya Haribhadrasūri:

Likewise the life story and date, the question as in which order Haribhadrasūri composed his several works is still unsolved. Two scholars namely K. V. Abhyankara[66] and H. R. Kapadia[67] have tried to arrange works of Haribhadrasūri in chronological order. Abhyankara’s arrangement of Haribhadrasūri’s works is broadly generalized whereas Kapadia has considered the arrangement made by Abhyankar as only a rough indication. Kapadia has indulged into deeper research and tried to put works of Haribhadrasūri by considering quotations given by Haribhadrasūri himself in his works.

Haribhadrasūri’s works which deal with the four anuyogas.:

  • Anekāntajayapatākā, Dhammasaṅgahaṇī etc come under the class of dravyānuyoga.
  • Kṣetrasamāsavṛtti deals with gaṇitānuyoga.
  • Dharmabindu, Pañ cavattuga etc. that of caraṇakaraṇānuyoga.
  • Samarāiccakahā, Kathākośa, Dhuttakkhāṇa, Munipaticaritra, Yaśodharacaritra and Viraṅgadakathā in dharmakathānuyoga.

V. ‘Names’ of works of Haribhadrasūri:

Haribhadrasūri frequently uses same word ending while naming certain works. Such words are three:

1. “Siddhi”–name of works which end with a word “siddhi” are:

  1. Anekāntasiddhi,
  2. Ātmasiddhi,
  3. Dharmalābhasiddhi,
  4. Paralokasiddhi,
  5. Bhāvanāsiddhi,
  6. Sarvajñ asiddhi.

2. Samuccaya:

  1. Śāstravārtāsamuccaya,
  2. Ṣaḍdarśanasamuccaya,
  3. Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya,
  4. Brahmasiddhāntasamuccaya.

3. Bindu:

  1. Dharmabindu,
  2. Yogabindu,
  3. Lokabindu.

There is no work other than Anekāntajayapatākā of Haribhadrasūri that ends with a word patākā. If we throw a cursory glance at the list of Jain works, we may find hardly one such work namely Ārādhanāpatākā [68] that ends with a word patākā. Moreover amongst the Non-Jain works on erotic there is one work namely Guṇapatākā.[69]

Resemblance of names of Haribhadrasūri’s works with Buddhist Works:

Haribhadrasūri composed a work namely Sarvajñ asiddhi. Its name may remind us of three Buddhist works with similar name.[70]

They are:

  1. Sarvajñasiddhikārikā,
  2. Sarvajñasiddhikārikā,
  3. Sarvajñ asiddhisaṅkṣepa.

Out of these three works though the first two works are same by name, they are composed by two different Buddhist scholars. One is written by Kalyāṇarakṣita (700 A.D.) who was the teacher of Dharmottara.[71] The second one is authored by Ratnakīrti. The third work is composed by Śankaranandana.One more work namely Lalitavistarā of Haribhadrasūri may remind us a Buddhist work namely Lalitavistara.[72]

* Some of the Buddhist works have suggested the corresponding names to Haribhadrasūri for his works.The Buddhist works namely Hetubindu and Nyāyabindu seem to be instrumental in naming Dharmabindu, Yogabindu of Haribhadrasūri. Another Buddhist work Nyāyapraveśa by name might be instrumental in the naming of Anekāntavādapraveśa of Haribhadrasūri.

What Haribhadrasūri adopted from Vedic tradition?

* The concept of aṣṭaka is found in vedic tradition. There are eight aṣṭakas in Ṛgveda and three in Taittiriya Brāhmaṇa.[73]

* The title Ḍupaḍupikā given to commentary on the Tattvārthasūtra written by Haribhadrasūri may remind us one of Kumārila’s Tup-śīkā on Śābarabhāṣya.[74]

VI. List of works of Ācārya Haribhadrasūri with and without the word viraha:

The idea of being a monk who desires bhavaviraha has taken place in Haribhadrasūri’s life. Also the loss of his two nephews, who were also his disciples, brought deeper viraha (separation) in life of Haribhadrasūri. Moreover, we are also informed in the incident of a layman Lalliga how people used to address Haribhadrasūri as a Bhavavirahasūri. Thus, words like viraha, virahāṅka, bhavaviraha etc. have become an identity of Haribhadrasūri. Works of Haribhadrasūri, which are characterized by a word viraha,[75] are presented here.

In Dharmabindu it is said:

satata duḥkha virahā-datyaṃta sukha saṃgataḥ|
tiṣṭatyayogo yogīndro, vandyastri jagatīśvaraḥ ||

In Aṣṭakaprakaraṇa:

aṣṭakākhyaṃ prakaraṇaṃ kṛtvā yatpuṇyamarjitam |
virahāttena pāpasya bhavantu sukhino janāḥ ||

In Lalitavistarā :

kṛtvā prakaraṇametadyadavāptaṃ kiñcidiha mayā ku śalam|
bhavavirahabījamanaghaṃ labhatāṃ bhavyo janastena ||

Saṃsāradāvānalastuti:

bhava viraha varaṃ dehi me devi sāram” 4 thstuti

In Śāstravārtāsamuccaya:

kṛtvā prakaraṇametadyadavāptaṃ kiṃ cidiha mayā ku śalam|
bhavavirahabījamanadyaṃ labhatāṃ bhavyojanasten ||
10 ||

In Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya:

yogyebhyastu prayatnena, deyo'yaṃ vidhinānvitaiḥ|
mātsaryaviraheṇoccaiḥ śreyovighnapraśāntaye ||
228 ||

In Ṣoḍaśakaprakaraṇa:

ete pravacanataḥ khalu samṛddhṛtā mandamatihitārthaṃ tu|
ātmānusmaraṇāya ca bhāvā bhavavirahasiddhiphalāḥ ||
16 ||

In Yogabindu:

samuddhṛtyārgitaṃ puṇyaṃ yadenaṃ śubhabhāvataḥ|
bhavāndhyavirahāttena janaḥstādyogalocanaḥ ||
526 ||

In Anekāntajayapatākā:

kṛtvā prakaraṇa metadyadavāptaṃ ku śalamiha mayā tena|
mātsaryaduḥkhavirahādguṇānurāgī bhavatu lokaḥ ||
10 ||

In Dhammasaṅgahaṇī :

kāūṇa pagaraṇamiṇaṃ pattaṃ jaṃ ku salamiha mayā teṇaṃ|
dukkhavirahāo bhavvā labhaṃtu jiṇadhammasaṃbodhiṃ |
|”

In Uvaesapaya:

jāiṇimayahariyāe raitā ete u dhammaputteṇaṃ|
haribhaddācarieṇaṃ bhavavirahaṃ icchamāṇeṇaṃ ||

In Pañcāsaga:

jamhā eso suddho aṇiyāṇo hoi bhāviyamaīṇaṃ|
tamhā kareha sammaṃ jaha viraho hoi kammāṇaṃ ||
44 ||

Among his predecessors Haribhadrasūri has gained reputation by the usage of word viraha. Following are instances where other Ācāryas have introduced the word viraha as a characteristic mark of Haribhadrasūri.

1. While commenting on Pañcāsaga (Pañcāśaka), Abhayadevasūri (Navāṅgīśīkākāra) said:

iha ca virahaśabdena śrīharibhadrācāryakṛ tatā prakaraṇasya sūcitā virahāṅkatvāttasyaiti|

2. In his Pañjikā on Haribhadrasūri’s Lalitavistarā, Municandrasūri said:

iha viraha iti yākinīmahattarāsūnorācārya haribhadrasya

3. At the end of commentary (written by an incognito) onHaribhadrasūri’s Yogabindu, we see that a word viraha is introduced as a mark of Haribhadrasūri.

The words are:

viraha iti ca bhagavataḥ śrīharibhadrasūreḥ prakaraṇāṅkadyotakaḥ iti|

4. In Prabandhakoṣa, its author Rājaśekhara said:

tatprathamaṃ yākinīdharmasūnuriti haribhadragrantheṣvante'bhūt, 1444 punabharva virahaḥ iti|

The following are those works of Haribhadrasūri which do not contain the word virahaat the end. They are:

  1. Śīkā of Daśavaikālika,
  2. Āvasyakavṛtti,
  3. Prajñāpanāpradeśavyākhyā,
  4. Samarāiccakahā,
  5. Lokatattvanirṇaya etc.

VII. Epithets given to Ācārya Haribhadrasūri

Haribhadrasūri was given the title of Yugapradhānācārya during his lifetime. In the contemporary time Sukhalal Sanghvi has attached the epithet of “Samadarśī” to Haribhadrasūri. Moreover, S. M. Desai (p.2) has introduced Haribhadrasūri as “Yogi Haribhadrācārya.”

VIII. Glory of Ācārya Haribhadrasūri

We would like to conclude the chapter by quoting verses that sing glory of Haribhadrasūri.Jineśvarasūri (V. S. 1080) wrote “Haribhadra Sūri Kṛta aṣṭaka vṛtti.” It contains a verse, which sings glory of Haribhadrasūri.

The verse is:

sūryaprakāśyaṃkva nu maṇḍalaṃ divaḥ
khadyotakaḥkvāsya vibhāsanodyataḥ|
kva dhīśa gamyaṃ haribhadra sadvacaḥ
kvādhīrahaṃ tasya vibhāsanodyataḥ ||

Vādidevasūri (V. S. 1160) in his Syādvāda-ratnākara has praised Haribhadrasūri along with Siddhasena Divākara. It is:

śrī siddhasena haribhadra pramukhā prasiddhāste,
sūrayo mayi bhavantu kṛ pā prasādāḥ|
yeṣāṃ vimaśृ ya satataṃ vividhānnibandhān
,
śāstraṃ cikīrṣati tanu pratibho'pi mādṛk ||

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

Vol: II Intro., P. XVII–AJP.

[2]:

It is also known as Śhrāddhavidhiprakaraṇa. To see the usage of this name view its 3rd edition, edited by Muni Vairagyarati vijaya and Prashamrati vijay and published in Pune by Pravachana Prakashan, 2005.

[3]:

It is also known as Śrāddhavidhikaumudī.

[4]:

1444prakaraṇakṛtśrīharibhadrasūrayo'pyāhu lalitavistarāyāma

[5]:

Upadeśaprasśda was composed in V.S. 1843 (= 1786 A.D.). It is mentioned in the praśasti of this text.

[6]:

Extacted from Haribhadrasuricaritram by Pt. Hargovind Das T. Sheth, Line–3, P. 20.

[7]:

Haribhadrasuricaritram by Pt. Hargovind Das T. Sheth, line: 1, P. 20.

[8]:

See P. 52, Prabandhakośa.

[9]:

mahat pravacanavātsalyamavalambamānaścaturdaśa prakaraṇaśatāni cakāraiti|

[10]:

prakaraṇacaturdaśaśatīsamuttuṅgaprāsāda paramparāsūtraṇaikasūtra - dhārairagādhasaṃsāravāridhi - nimajjajjantujātasamuttāraṇa - pravaṇapradhānadharma-pravahaṇapravartana - karṇadhārairbhagavattīrthakarapravacanā - vitathatattvaprabodhaprasūtapravaraprajñāprakāśatiraskṛ ta - samastatīrthikaṃ cakrapvādapracāreḥprastutaniratiśayasyādvāda vicāraiḥ śrīharibhadrasūribhiḥ

[11]:

amamasvāmicaritra mahākāvya (prathamasarga) “stomi śrī haribhadraṃ taṃ yenārhadgīrmahattarā|
   –caturdaśaprakaraṇasatyā'gopyata mātavṛ t || 99 ||

[12]:

yāvada grantharathāścaturdaśaśatī śrīhāribhadrā ime vatarn te kila pāriyātrikatayā siddhyadhvayāne'ṅginām|
tāvatpuṣparathaḥ sa eṣa samarādityasya mannimirtaḥ saṃkṣepastadanuplavaḥ pracaratu krīḍākṛ te dhīmatām ||
69 ||

[13]:

caturdaśaśatagranthagranthanāyāsalālasam|
hāribhadraṃ manohāribhadraṃ bhadraṃ karotu naḥ ||
4 || 
   - śāntināthacaritra

[14]:

punariha ca śatonamugradhīmānprakaraṇasārdhasahasrameṣa cakre |
jinasamaya varopadeśaramyaṃ dhruvamiti santatimeṣa tāṃ ca me ne ||
205 ||

[15]:

Bṛhadvṛtti namely tarka rahasyadīpikā on Ṣaḍdarśanasamuccaya
caturdaśaśatasaṃkhyaśāstraracanājanitajagajjantu mahopakāraḥ śrīharibhadrasūriḥ|

[16]:

pālitto vṛddhavādī kaviku latilakaḥ siddhaseno divākṛdvidyāsiddhastathāryaḥ khapuṭagurūrūmāsvātiko mallavādī|
sūriḥ śrī hāribhadraḥsvaparasamayavidbappabhaṭṭiḥ prasiddhaḥ siddharṣirdevasūriḥ ku maranapṛ nato hemasūriśca jīyāt ||
1 ||

itīmaṃ maharṣiku lakanāmno granthasyaślokaṃvyāku rvanharibhadra padavyākhyāne “haribhadraḥ śrīvṛddhagacche caturdaśa śatagranthagranthanatatparaḥitivyāhārpīt|

[17]:

caudasasasayapayaraṇagonirūddhadoso sayā hayapaoso|
haribhaddo hariyatamo harivva jāo jugappavaro ||
55 ||

[18]:

See p. 13a-19a of Dhammasaṃgahaṇī published in Bombay, Devendra Lalbhai Pustakoddhar, No.42

[19]:

See p.“Haribhadra Ka Samay Nirṇaya

[20]:

See introduction to AJP. Vol. II, P. XVI to LXXI.

[21]:

Read P. 6 of Introduction to Samarāiccakahā by Jacobi.

[22]:

The following examples are extracted from Anekāntajayapatākā Vol. II, ed. by Prof. H.R. Kapadia, Introduction, p. XVII, Fn. 1. Several Europeans have been authors of a vast number of works. Their instances are as follows:

[23]:

Their names are extracted from the treatise Anekāntajayapatākā edited by H.R.Kapadia, Part-2, Intoduction, p. xvii, fn. 1.

[24]:

P. 50, Shree Jain Satya Prakasha, dīpotsavīaṃka, 7th year.

[25]:

This was composed to fecillitate the study of Nyāyadvāra (equated with Nyāyamukha) of Diṅnāga. Depending upon Tibetian evidence Dr. Satishchandra Vidyabhushan, Vidhushekhara Bhattacharaya and Dr. Keith attribute Nyāyapraveśaka to Diṅnāga, while on the strength of Chinese evidence, Prof.Ui,Sugiura, Tucci, Tubianski and Mironov to Śaṅkarasvāmin, a disciple of Diṅnāga. Vide A.B.Dhruv’s intro. (p. vi) to Nyāyapraveśaka.

[26]:

Those works are referred which are mentioned by Prof. H. R. Kapadia in his intro. Of vol II of AJP.

[27]:

See p. 9-10, Part-1, vol. XVII of Descriptive catalogue of Jaina Manuscripts.

[28]:

Pg XXII of Intro of Vol. 2 of Anekāntajayapatāka)

[29]:

See page XXIV of Vol. 2, intro., Anekāntajayapatākā.

[30]:

Page 171 of Jaina Granthāvalī.

[31]:

gosabhaṇio ya thi (vi) hī iya aṇavarayaṃ tu ciṭṭhanāṇassa|
bhavaviraha bīyabhūo jāyai cāsti pariṇāmo ||
120 || 
   - darśanasaptatikāprakaraṇaṃsamāptaṃ|

[32]:

namiūṇa vaddhamāṇaṃ sāvagadhammaṃ samāsao vocchaṃ|
sammattāi bhāvatthasaṃgayaṃ suttanīie ||

[33]:

Vol. 2 Anekāntajayapatākā., Introduction, p. XXVII.

[34]:

See Ānekāntajayapatākā edited by H.R.Kapadia, Part-2, Introduction, p.xxviii.

[35]:

dharmasaṃgrahaṇyanekāntajayapatākāpaṃcavastukopadeśapadalagnaśuddhilokatattvanirṇamayogabindudharmi bandapuṃcāśakaṣoḍaśakāṣṭakādi - prakaraṇāni caturdaśaśatamitāni pūrvaśrutavyavacchedakālānaṃtaraṃ paṃcapaṃcāśatāvarṣaiḥ divaṃgataiḥ śrī haribhadrasūribhirvicaritāni.”

[36]:

P. VXXIV, Vol. 2, intro., Anekāntajayapatākā.

[37]:

P. XLIII, Vol. 2 Anekāntajayapatākā, intro.

[38]:

P. XLIV, intro. of Vol-2 Ankekāntajayapatakā.

[39]:

B. H. Dosi has edited this work alng with Sanskrit rendering and published it in two parts in 1938 and 1942 A.D. respectively.

[40]:

iti śrī saṃbodhaprakaraṇaṃ tattvaprakāśakanāmaśvetāmbarācārya - śrīharibhadrasūribhiryākinī - mahattarāśiṣyaṇīmanoharī - yāprabodhanārthamitiśreyaḥ|
   –p. 9ab

[41]:

, arthaleśasya kasya cittatrānupraveśāyogāditi nirloṭhitamidaṃ sarvajñasiddhau|....
   –Anekāntajayapatākā edited by H.R.Kapadia, Part-2,p.49, line-7.

[42]:

a.... |prakārāntareṇa vacanasāphalyaṃ nayaparikalpanāvyudāsaśca sarvajñasiddhiṭīkāto vijñeya iti|...
   –Ibid,Part-1,p.6,line-8.

b.... |yuktyayogāditi| yuktyayogaścaleśatodarśita eva| viṣeśastu sarvajñasiddhiṭīkāto'vaseyaḥ|...
   –Ibid, Part-1,p.116,line-16.

[43]:

P. LI, Vol II, Anekāntajayapatākā.

[44]:

See 4th Fn. P. L, vol-2 Anekāntajayapatākā.

[45]:

P. XXXVII, intro. vol- 2, Anekāntajayapatākā.

[46]:

|tahatahaṇiyattapagaī ahigāroṇega bheo tti || 9 || 
   –Yogaśataka.–for details see auto. Com. Of Yogaśataka, verse-9.

[47]:

niyaya sahāvāloyaṇa-jaṇavāyāvagama-jogasuddhīhiṃ|
uciyattaṃṇāūṇaṃ nimittao sahapayaṭṭejā||39||

   –Yogaśataka.

[48]:

The late Dr. Suali has stated in the preface of his edition (1940) that the numbering of the verses must be increased by one after v. 352, this number having been repeated twice.

[49]:

See p. XXXIII, Vol II, Introduction. Anekāntajayapatākā.

[50]:

In verse 100th and 200th.

[51]:

In verse 300th.

[52]:

P. XXXIII. Vol. II, Intro., Anekāntajayapatākā

[53]:

See Anekāntajayapatākā edited by H.R. Kapadia, vol-2, Inrtoduction, p. xxxii.

[54]:

samādhireṣaevānyaiḥsamprajñāto'bhidhīyate|
samyakprakarṣarūpeṇa
, vṛttyarthajñānastathā || 419 || 
asamprajñātaeṣo'pi
, samādhirñīyateparaiḥ|
nirūddhāśeṣavṛttyādittatsavarūpānuvedhataḥ ||
421 ||

[55]:

See point 8 & 9, P. LIV, Intro. Vol 2, Anekāntajayapatākā.

[56]:

See p. 4, Sanskrit preface to Kotyācārya’s com. on Visesāvassayabhāsa by Ānandasagara Sūri.

[57]:

See P. 5, “prācīna gujarātī sāhitya māṃ vṛttaracanā ”by Mr. B. J. Sandesara, and also. See p. 253-254, Vol II, A history of Indian Literature.

[58]:

See 2nd fn. P. LIII, Vol II, Intro., Anekāntajayapatākā.

[59]:

See, Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya (2010), edited by Shilacandrasūri,p.11, line:24.

[60]:

(note: “Siddhasena, here referred to is not to be confounded with Siddhasena Divākara referred to on p. 60, for, his view tallies with that of Vṛddhācārya.”–P. LXI, Vol. II, Intro, AJP.)

[61]:

See fn: 7, P. LX, Intro, Vol: II, Anekāntajayapatākā.

[62]:

See Vol: XVII, Part: 3, P. 385 of Descriptive catalogue of Jaina manuscripts.

[63]:

See P. LXIII for details, Intro. Vol. II. Anekāntajayapatākā.

[64]:

Also see Vol. I, No. 3, Vs. 1982 = 1925 A.D.) of “Jaina Yuga” namely “āpaṇāṃ prābhṛto ”an article by Kalyāṇavijaya.

[65]:

Fn. 6, p. LXVI, Intro, vol II, Anekāntajayapatākā.

[66]:

P. 7, Introduction. To his edition of Vīsavīsiyā.

[67]:

P. LXXII, Intro., vol II of his edition of Anekāntajayapatākā.

[68]:

Fn. 2 p. XVIII, Vol. II, Introduction. Anekāntajayapatākā edited by Prof. H. R. Kapadia.

[69]:

A note on this is published in the Indian Historical Quarterly, Vol. XVII, Part-II, P. 166-187.

[70]:

See fn. 2, P. LI, Vol. II, Anekāntajayapatākā edited by Prof. Kapadia.

[71]:

P. 154, Part-II, Bu-ston’s History of Buddhism.

[72]:

Fn. 2, P. LVII, Vol-II, Anekāntajayapatākā edited by Prof. Kapadia.

[73]:

Fn. 1 P. XXIII, Vol-II, Anekāntajayapatākā edited by Prof. Kapadia.

[74]:

Fn. 1, P. LXIII, Vol-II, ibid.

[75]:

Pt. Hargovind Das T. Sheth, in his work Haribhadrasurīcaritra, has listed such works of Haribhadrasūri Muni Kalyanavijaya has also referred them in his introduction To Dhammasaṅgahaṇī, Part-2, P. 19Ā-21Ā.

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