by Riddhi J. Shah | 2014 | 98,110 words
This page relates ‘From Kundakundacarya (Kundakunda) to Haribhadrasuri’ of the study on the Yogadrstisamuccaya: a 6th-century work on Jain Yoga authored by Haribhadra Suri consisting of 228 Sanskrit verses. The book draws from numerous sources on traditional Yoga. Three important topics are stipulated throughout this study: 1) nature of liberation, 2) a liberated soul, and 3) omniscience.—This section belongs to the series “The Jain Yoga Tradition—A Historical Review”.
We have a galaxy of revered self-realized Jain scholars right form Kundakundācārya [i.e., Kundakunda Acharya] to Ācārya Tulsi, who have gifted us valuable treatises on yoga which are living evidences of their original thinking and personal experience.
The works of Kundakundācārya, Pūjyapāda and Jinabhadra contain instructions in meditation and concentration of mind. The works of Haribhadrasūri [i.e., Haribhadra-Suri] deal with various doctrines of yoga and their comparative evaluation. The Jñānārṇava of Śubhacandra and Yogaśāstra of Hemcandrācārya are important works on yoga. Adhyātmasāra, Adhyātmopaniṣad, Jñānasāra are some of the most remarkable treatises on Yoga of Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya. Moreover, his some treatise describes as well as analyse with great details the works of Haribhadrasūri. Its best example is Dvātriṃśad-dvātriṃśikā of Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya.
Apart from these great personalities we have a very long list of Jain authors like Umāsvāti, Yogīndudeva, Rāmasenācārya, Ācārya Amitagati, Bhāskaranandi, Paṇḍita Āśādhara, Rājamalla and Nyāyavijaya who have elaborately written treatises in the Jain yoga tradition.
The most popular and genuine contribution of jainācāryas to the Jain Yoga tradition is the classification of a soul. It is classified into three categories by keeping in mind its inner worthiness. Almost all jainācāryas starting from Kundakundācārya (1st century A.D.) down to Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya (18th century A.D.) have taken into consideration the three categories of a soul.
The classification of a soul into three categories is as follows:
- Extrovert soul = bahirātman;
- Introvert soul = antarātman;
- Supreme soul = paramātman.
The following two verses from Mokṣapāhuḍa of Kundakundācārya classify and define the three categories. The verses are:
1. tipayāro so appā paramaṃtara bahiro hu dehīṇe |
tattha paro jhāijai aṃtovāeṇa cayahi baharippā || 4 ||
2. akkhāṇi bahirappā aṃtarappā hu appasaṃkappo |
kammakalaṃka vimukko paramappā bhaṇṇae devo || ... ||
The soul is pure and perfect in its intrinsic nature. In other words we may say that such state of the soul is nothing but its supreme state. The soul is originally a supreme soul but due to influx and bondage of karmans it assumes the form of an extrovert soul. When a soul realizes its distorted, defiled and obscured state, it exerts itself to get rid of it. At this stage it heads itself towards spirituality. It starts taking the form of an introvert soul. When it attains complete annihilation of all karmans, it is known as a supreme soul. Thus, in other words we may say that it is a journey of purification of the soul to reach the ultimate state. The soul, under the influence of passions (kaṣāya) and activities (yoga), attract the karmic matter which then is inseparably mixed up with it. In Jainism such an association of a soul is beginningless but not endless. When this connection cuts off, the soul experiences liberation. And it is called a supreme state of a soul.
Hence, the three categories of a soul are nothing but the three stages of a soul. A soul’s spiritual journey is to pass through these three stages.
In the time of post canonical literature we find the usage of words like, yoga, yogin, yogastha and paramayoginin the literature of Kundakundācārya who belonged to 1st century A.D. He defines the term Yoga in Niyamasāra his valuable treatise.
“vivarīyābhiṇivesaṃ paricattā joṇhakahiyattaccesu |
jo juṃjadi appāṇaṃ ṇiyabhāvo so have jogo || 139 || ”
However, it is interesting to note that Kundakundācārya uses the term yogin for an antarātmā or a samyagdṛṣṭi soul. He defines “a yogin as an ascetic who is indifferent to the body, without distraction, without attachment, without paraphernalia, and who is absorbed in the true self.”  He also says that “by knowing and always experiencing paramātman a yogin, who is poised in meditation, attains nirvāṇa”.  The word paramayogin is used for such a yogin by Kundakundācārya in his work Mokṣapāhuḍa. The work contains 106 verses and is also called Yogapāhuḍa as it imparts knowledge about the path which leads one to the achievement of emancipation in Jain Yoga tradition. In his this treatise Kundakundācārya very cleverly mentions the scope of activities of a true yogin. He says that, “the yogin sleeps where worldly affairs are concerned and remains awake in the buseness of self; he who is awake in worldly affairs sleeps where the business of the self is concerned.” (and hence the later one is not called yogin.). The similar type of verse is found in the treatise Adhyātmasāra of Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya.
The verse is,
“yā niśā sakalabhūtagaṇānāṃdhyānino dinamahotsavaeṣaḥ |
yatra jāgrati ca te'bhiniviṣṭādhyānino bhavati etra suṣuptiḥ || 17.3 || ”
Moreover, Kundakundācārya uses the word yogastha to convey the meaning of dhyānstha. Such usage indicates a gentle switch over, from the term dhyāna (traditionally used in Jainism) to the term yoga, made by Kundakundācārya in Jain literature. He says that, the divine Jina has said that a yogin, poised in meditation (joyattho=yogastha), causes stoppage of the inflow of karman and shedding of the accumulated one.
Thus, the two greatest contributions made by Kundakundācārya to Jain Yoga tradition are as follows:
1. The employment of the word yogin to identify a soul who strives for salvation and puts sincere efforts to attain the same.
2. The application of the term yogastha to convey the meaning of dhyānastha.
Here, we would also like to refer the following two verses from the treatise Niyamasāra of Kundakundācārya. These verses describe the ascetic who has very high regards for Yoga.
The verses are:
1. rāyādīparihāre appāṇaṃ jo du juṃjade sāhū |
so jogabhattigutto idarassa ya kiha have jogo || 137 ||
2. savvaviyappabhāve appāṇaṃ jo du jujade sāhū |
so jogabhattijutto idarassa ya kiha have jogo || 138 ||
Pūjyapāda (who is also known as Devanandi) flourished in the later quarter of the fifth century A.D. He wrote two treatises namely Samādhiśataka and Iṣṭopadeśa. The three-fold classification of a soul is explained in a very scholarly manner in his treatises. Pujyapāda uses a term yogin for an aspirant who aspires to acquire self-realization as well as who has experienced self-realization.
Apart from the three-fold classification of a soul the treatises Iṣṭopadeśaand Samādhiśataka, of Pūjyapada, impart knowledge pertaining to develop concentration, to attain eternal bliss and so on.
The following verse of Iṣṭopadeśa shows the way to obtain eternal bliss through yoga:
jāyate paramānandaḥ kaścid yogena yoginaḥ || 47 || ”
The following verse from Samādhiśataka throws light on a new aspect of yoga:
“evaṃtyaktvā bahirvācaṃtyajedantaraśeṣataḥ |
eṣaḥ yogaḥ samāsena pradīpaḥ paramātmanaḥ || 17 || ”
Moreover, the treatise Iṣṭopadeśa instructs a yogin in the following manner. The verse is:
The treatise Jhāṇajjhayaṇam, which is also known as Dhyānaśataka,is composed by Jinabhadrakṣamāśramaṇa (6th century A.D.). It is a manual on dhyāna in Prakrit language which has 105 gāthās. It is commented upon by Haribhadrasūri. Some scholars attribute it to be the work of Bhadrabāhu (5th century A.D.) the author of Āvaśayakaniryukti. Jhāṇajjhayaṇam stands out to be the major contribution among the works dealing with Jain Yoga. This work had been quoted in full by the author of the Avacūrṇi on Āvaśyakasūtra. From the name of this treatise we come to know that it deals with the concept and nature of meditation in great detail. A few selected verses of Jhāṇajjhayaṇam explain importance of meditation. They also define a role that the meditation plays in one’s spiritual journey.
The verses are:
a. Just as the disease–cause is cured by procedures like fasting, purging and drugging; even so the disease of karman is cured by yogic procedures like meditation, fasting and so on.
b. Stoppage and dissociation constitute the path for emancipation, and for these two austerities is the path, meditation is the chief aspect of austerity and therefore this (meditation) is the cause of emancipation.
It is Haribhadrasūri who composed valuable treatises on Yoga. His works on Yoga are mainly four. They are:
Moreover, his treatise Ṣoḍaśaka also contains certain chapters pertaining to Yoga.
However, they do not give us any new information which is not given in the above four works. Out of four yoga works three have been described in brief in the chapter two of the thesis. Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya is not dealt in chapter two for a reason that the chapter three to six contain analysis of it. Here we would like to present unique contribution of Haribhadrasūri to Jain Yoga. Therefore we will not repeat general information pertaining to his four yoga-works. Among his outstanding contributions to Jain Yoga tradition the definition of the term yoga, given by him, stands unparalleled.
Haribhadrasūri defines yoga as that which joins one to liberation. It is Haribhadrasūri who defined the term yoga for the first time in this way. Eventhough the usage of the term yoga is found in the canons as well as the literature of Kundakundācārya and others, no where it is defined in the manner it is defined by Haribhadrasūri. In Jainism the definition given by Haribhadrasūri is accepted by all jainācāryas without exception.
In Yogaviṃśikā Haribhadrasūri defines the term yoga as follows. It is,
“mukkheṇa joyaṇāo, jogo savvo vi dhammavāvāro |
parisuddho vinneo,............................. || 1 || ”
“All pure religious performances are to be treated as yoga when they lead one to liberation…..”
It is Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya, who is well known as laghu Haribhdra, has extended the meaning of word “dhammavāvāro ” used in the definition of yoga given by Haribhadrasūri.
In the vṛtti on Pātañjala Yogadaṛśana Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya says that,
“samitiguptidhāraṇaṃ dhamarv yāpāratvameva yogatvam |”
He considers three self-restraints and five self-regulations as the best Yoga. This is what he says in his treatise Dvātriṃśad-dvātriṃśikā.
The lines are:
In the auto-commentary on it is said that,
......| na tu, samiti-guptivibhinnasvabāvo yoga-padārtho'tirikta ko'pi vidyata iti || 30 || 
These lines state that there does not exist any substance namely Yoga which is different from (three) self-restraint and (five) self–regulation.
puṇyasaṃjñānabhedena, dharmo'pidvividho mataḥ |
saṃsāre sukhasampattiḥ, puṇyadharmmeṇa jāyate || 2.7 ||
samyagjñānakriyārūpaḥ, dvitiyo dharmma uccate |
samyagdarśanajñānena, saha cāritrarūpakaḥ || 2.8 ||
yato'bhyudayaniḥśreyasvarūpo dharma ucyate |
vaiśeṣikaiḥ samākhyāta, virodho nā'tra saṃbhava || 2.9 ||
To elaborate the term Yoga Haribhadrasūri has explained it from a definitive stand-point (niścaya naya) as well as a practical stand-point (vyavahāra naya). The following two verses from Yogaśataka describe the word yoga as such:
a. Yoga from definitive stand-point :
nicchayao iha jogo saṇṇāṇāīṇa tiṇha saṃbaṃdho |
mokkheṇa joyaṇāo ṇiddiṭṭho jogināhehiṃ || 2 ||
b. Yoga from practical stan-point :
vavahārao eso vinneo eyakāraṇāṇaṃ pi |
jo saṃbadhī so vi ya kāraṇa kajjovayārāo || 4 ||
Each and every religious performance can be called yoga if the performance results into the direct or indirect cause of attainment of liberation. It is possible only when one performs all religious activities from within. Such performance makes religious activities pure in all respects.
The religious activities are :
- Attendance on the preceptor
- To desire, to listen and so on the sacred texts by following allies practices.
- To obey the scriptural injunctions as well as prohibitions as per one’s capacities.
Jainism gives much importance to the three attributes viz. right faith, right knowledge and right conduct. In Tattvārthasūtra we get an aphorism which says, “right faith, right knowledge and right conduct are the path to liberation.”  In Jainism path means attainment of the three attributes and final goal means liberation. Śubhacandra, in his treatise Jñānārṇava, states that meditation does not yield liberation if practiced without acquiring purity of the three attributes. Śubhacandra says that the three attributes is the cause of liberation and one can attain liberation by acquiring these three attributes. Moreover, he also says that when a soul obtains the three attributes properly, the liberation undoubtedly comes to him.
Haribhadrasūri, being a jainācārya, has followed Jain tradition as well as his predecessors. While defining the term yoga from definitive stand-point, he has stated togetherness of three attributes in a soul causes concerned soul’s connection to liberation. What Umāsvāti has said in 1.1., Tattvārthasūtra, the same is said by Haribhadrasūri differently in above mentioned verse of Yogaśataka.
It is well known that the Jain traditional meaning of the term yoga (activities of mind, speech and body) implies auspicious activities and inauspicious activities. In order to negate inauspicious activities Haribhadrasūri says that only those activities, which are conducive to liberation, are considered to be the yoga. This is how he selected auspicious mental vocal and bodily activities. Again he specifies that it is religious activities and not ordinary. It is the auspicious, pure religious activities, which causes accumulation of meritorious deeds, realization of three attributes, practicing of meditation and ultimately results into the attainment of liberation (i.e. the state of ayoga). Thus, we may say Haribhadrasūri’s definition of the term yoga given from practical stand-point corresponds, with Jain traditionally accepted definition of the word yoga. However, we must say that Haribhadrasūri has done so without much using, the Jain technical terms.
The most outstanding and praise worthy, contribution of Haribhadrasūri, to Jain Yoga tradition, is the characterization of a soul who has entered the last round of matter reception (carmāvarta). Such a soul attains the state of Apunarbandhaka. It is fact that Jainism asks for right-faith (samyagdarśana) (attainment of fourth guṇasthāna) as a prerequisite to become eligible for acquiring liberation. Once a soul obtains right faith his all religious performances unfailingly result into the attainment of liberation. Even the introvert type of soul (antarātman) is called so if he has obtained right faith. Therefore, majority jainācāryas seem to be fond of describing the character, nature and spiritual values of a samyagdṛṣṭi soul. However, the stage which is exactly one step below the state of right faith seems to be thrown into oblivion. The fact is the apunarbandhaka soul, who is going to achieve right faith very soon by doing last yathāpravṛtti karaṇa as well as apūrvakaraṇa needs more guidance and intense care than a samyagḍṛṣṭi soul on the way of spirituality.
It is Haribhadrasūri who has allotted first four yogadṛṣṭis, for a carmāvartin and apunarbandhaka soul, in his treatise Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya. In Yogaśataka as well as Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya Haribhadrasūri defines an apunarbandhaka soul. Haribhadrasūri, on one hand, draws out the most distinct characteristics of such a soul and one the other hand he shows the path of acquiring higher qualities and virtues to obtain right faith. Haribhadrasūri discriminates well a rejoicer of worldly existence from a beholder of first four yogadṛṣṭis, though both lack right faith, in his treatise Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya. Haribhadrasūri, thus, has provided direction for spiritual growth to a soul who needs it the most. It seems to be the most unique contribution of Haribhadrasūri to the Jain Yoga tradition.
Footnotes and references:
jo dehe ṇiravekkho ṇiddaṃdo ṇimmamo ṇirāraṃbho|
ādasahāve surao joī so lahai nivvāṇaṃ || 12 ||
jaṃ jāṇiūṇa joī joattho joiūṇa aṇavarayaṃ|
avvābāhamaṇaṃtaṃ aṇovamaṃ lahai nivvāṇaṃ || 3 ||
jo sutto vavahāre so joī jaggae sakajjāmi |
jo jaggadi vavahāre so sutto appaṇo kajje || 3 ||
savvāsavaṇiroheṇa kammaṃ khavadi saṃcidaṃ|
joyattho jāṇae joī jiṇadeveṇa bhāsiyaṃ || 30 ||
It is also known as Samādhitantra. In Jain literature we find three jainācāryas who wrote a treatise namely Samādhitantra. They are: (a) Kundakundācārya (b) Pujyapāda (c) Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya.
(a) bahirantaḥ paraśceti tridhātmā sarvadehiṣu |
upeyāttatra paramaṃ, madhyopāyātbahistyajeta ् || 4 ||
(b) bahirātmā śarīrādau jātātmabhrāntirāntaraḥ|
cittadoṣātmavibhrāṃtiḥ paramātmā'tinirmalaḥ || 5 ||
See verses from 39 to 42 of Iṣṭopadeśa.
ti-payāro appā muṇahi parū aṃtarū bahirappu |
para jāyahi aṃtara-sahiu bāhirū cayahi ṇibhaṃtu || 6 ||
jaha rogāsayasamaṇaṃ visosaṇavireyaṇosahavihīhiṃ |
taha kammāmapasamaṇaṃ jhāṇāṇasaṇāijogehiṃ || 101 ||
[_12_]saṃvaraviṇijjarāo mokkhassa paho tavo paho tāsi ṃ |
jhāṇaṃ ca pahāṇaṃgaṃ tavassa so mokkhaheūyaṃ || 97 ||
saṃvaraviṇijjarāo mokkhassa paho tavo paho tāsi ṃ |
jhāṇaṃ ca pahāṇaṃgaṃ tavassa so mokkhaheūyaṃ || 97 ||
See, line: 1 to 5, pg: 1261, Part: 4, Dvātriṃśad-dvātriṃśikā.
The togetherness of three attributes viz. right knowledge, right faith and right conduct in one soul brings about the concerned soul’s connection to liberation. It is this coming together of right knowledge etc. in one soul that is called Yoga from the definitive stand-point.
Those spiritual performances or religious activities, which are causes of any of the three attributes, are also to be understood as Yoga. This is the Yoga defined by practical stand-point.
gurū viṇao sussūsāiyā ya vihiṇā u dhammasatthesu |
taha cevāṇuṭṭhāṇaṃ vihi-paḍisehesu jahasattiṃ || 5 ||
etto cciya kāleṇaṃ ṇiyamā siddhī pagiṭṭharūvāṇaṃ|
saṇṇāṇāīṇa tahā jāyai aṇubaṃdhabhāveṇa || 6 ||
samyagdarśanajñānacāritrāṇi mokṣamārgaḥ| - 1.1.
triśuddhipūrvakaṃ dhyānamāmananti manīṣiṇaḥ |
vyarthaṃsyāttāmanāsādya tadevātra śarīriṇām || 6.3 ||
ratnatrayamanāsādya yaḥ sākṣāddhyātumicchati|
khapuṣpaiḥ ku rūte mūḍhaḥ sa vandhyāsutaśekharam || 6.4 ||
samyagjñānādikaṃ prāhujirnā muktenirbandhanam|
tenaiva sādhyate siddhiryasmāttadarthibhiḥsphu ṭam || 3.11 ||
tribhirevāpavargaśrīrghanāśleṣaṃ prayacchati || 6.1 ||