A study of the philosophy of Jainism

by Deepa Baruah | 2017 | 46,858 words

This page describes the brief description of Prameyakamalamartanda from the study of the philosophy of Jainism: one of the oldest religions in India having its own metaphysics, philosophy and ethics. Jainism is regarded as an ethical system where non-violence features as an important ethical value.

Chapter I.g - A brief description of Prameyakamalamārtaṇḍa

Prameyakamalamārtaṇḍa is a comprehensive Sanskrit commentary on Parīkṣāmukhasūtra which is a work on Jaina logic by Māṇikyanandi. It is as if the sun (mārtaṇḍa) to the lotus (kamala) in the form of prameya. As the lotus blooms by the rays of the sun, in the same way, all the objects of knowledge (prameya) will be expressed by this work. In Prameyakamalamārtaṇḍa, all the important topics of Jaina philosophy, i.e., the concept of knowledge, khyātivāda, the doctrine of the self, the theory of karman, liberation, anekāntavāda, syādvāda, nayavāda etc. are discussed.

Prameyakamalamārtaṇḍa is an encyclopedic work on Indian Philosophy. It is a specific work on Indian logic. It has involved the Nyāya, the Vaiśeṣika, the Mīmāṃsā, the Sāṃkhya, the Yoga, the Advaita Vedānta, the Buddhist and the Cārvāka systems. In Prameyakamalamārtaṇḍa, Prabhācandra has not only discussed the Jaina philosophical tenets, but also has refuted all the rival views in order to establish the Jaina view. Prabhācandra systematically presents the pūrvapakṣa views in a thorough and authentic manner. After that he finally establishes the uttarapakṣa views, i.e., the Jaina view.

Prameyakamalamārtaṇḍa is divided into six chapters:

1) In the first chapter, first of all the general definition of pramāṇa or valid knowledge is discussed. After that some theories are discussed which is connected with valid knowledge. Theseare: the kārakasākalyavāda of Jayantabhaṭṭa’s, the sannikarṣa of the Vaiśeṣikas, indṛiyavṛttivāda of the Sāṃkhya-Yoga, jñātṛvyāpāra of Prabhākara, nirvikalpakapratyakṣavāda of the Buddhists, śabdādvaitavāda of Bhartṛhari, suṇyavāda, sākārajñānavāda of the Buddhists, bhūtacaitanyavāda of the Cārvākas etc., are discussed here. Then the theory of error or doubts has been also discussed in this chapter regarding the knowledge of viparyaya, such theories are: akhyātivāda of the Cārvākas, asatkhyātivāda of the Buddhists, prasiddhārthakhyātivāda of the Sāṃkhyas, ātmakhyātivāda of the Yogācāra Buddhists, anirvacanīyakhyātivāda of Advaita Vedāntin, viparītakhyātivāda of the Jainas, smṛtipramoṣavāada of Prabhākara Mīmāṃsākas, etc. are discussed here.

2) In the second chapter, pramāṇvādas are discussed. After that nature of śakti is discussed. Then the abhāvavicāra, sarvajñatvavāda are discussed. After that the Sāṃkhyas prakṛitikartṛtvavāda is discussed. Then the nature and role of God is discussed here. Then the nature of liberation and anekāntavāda as discussed in Jainism is discussed here in this chapter. Then the valid cognition of pratyakṣa and its categories as discussed in Jainism is discussed here.

3) The third chapter deals with the topics of parokṣapramāṇa. In this chapter the definition of parokṣapramāṇa is discussed first of all. After that its categories, i.e., smṛti, tarka, pratyabhijñā, anumāna and āgama which are discussed in Jainism is discussed here.

4) In the fourth chapter, all the categories or padārthas of Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika systems are discussed. Then the categories of Jainism are discussed in this chapter. The size of the self as discussed in Jainism is discussed here.

5) The fifth chapter deals with the hetvābhāsas. In this chapter, the meaning of hetvābhāsa is discussed. Then the divisions of hetvābhāsas etc. are discussed here.

6) Finally, the last chapter deals with the Jaina doctrine of naya and syādvāda and saptabhaṅgīnaya. In this chapter, the nature of naya and its categories are discussed. After that the nature of syādvāda, the saptabhaṅgīnayas are discussed here.

In this way, after thoroughly discussing the philosophical points of view of other systems, Prabhācandra establishes the Jaina view in his Prameyakamalamārtaṇḍa. Thus, the Prameyakamalamārtaṇḍa throws light upon all the salient features of Jainism. From the point of view of Jaina logic also, it is an important work.

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