Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra

by Helen M. Johnson | 1931 | 742,503 words

This page describes Birth-ceremonies presided over by Shakra which is the eighth part of chapter II of the English translation of the Ajitanatha-caritra, contained within the “Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra”: a massive Jain narrative relgious text composed by Hemacandra in the 12th century. Ajitanatha in jainism is the second Tirthankara (Jina) and one of the 63 illustrious beings or worthy persons.

Part 8: Birth-ceremonies presided over by Śakra

Just at that time when Śakra, very resplendent, surrounded by crores of gods and of Apsarases, his power being praised by crores of the best bards, a multitude of virtues being sung at length by a troop of Gandharvas, being fanned with chanris by courtesans at his sides, adorned by a very beautiful white umbrella over his head, was seated comfortably, facing the east, holding an assembly in the assembly-hall Sudharmā in the Saudharmakalpa, his throne shook.

Confused by a fit of temper because of the shaking of his throne, his lower lip trembling like a fire with a quivering flame, terrifying from a deep frown like the sky with a comet that has appeared, his face copper-colored like a must-elephant, his forehead marked by three lines like an ocean with high waves, Vajrabhṛt looked at his thunderbolt, the destroyer of enemies. Observing his anger, General Naigameṣin got up, joined hands in suppliant fashion before him, and said to Prācīnabarhis:

“Against whom is anger on your own part, when I am the executor of your commands? There is no superior and no equal to you among gods, asuras, and mortals. After considering the cause of the shaking of your throne just now, command me, who am the giver of punishment, in regard to it, O master.”

When the general had said this, Śakra gave attention and employed clairvoyant knowledge at once. Hari perceived the birth of the second Tīrthakṛt by clairvoyant knowledge, like dharma by the Jain scriptures, like an object by a light. He thought, “Oh! In Jambūdvīpa in Bharatavarṣa in the city Vinītā the second Jineśvara in this avasarpiṇī is born from Queen Vijayā, the wife of King Jitaśatru. For that reason my throne shook. Shame on these wicked thoughts of mine. May the sin which I, drunk with power, committed be without consequences.”

With this thought Purandara arose, abandoning his lion-throne, foot-stool, and slippers. Śatamakha hastily took several steps, as if starting out, facing the direction of the Tīrthakṛt. Placing his right knee on the ground and bending the left a little, touching the ground with his hands and head, Hari bowed to the Master. After he had praised the Master with the Śakrastava,[1] Pākaśāsana returned to his own place, like the ocean turned back by the shore.

Then Sunāsīra, his body horripilated at once like delight embodied, instructed General Naigameṣin to inform all the gods of the Tīrthaṅkara’s birth and to summon them to its festival, like a householder his own people. The general accepted Pākaśāsana’s command on his head eagerly and went away, like a thirsty man who has drunk water. He struck three times the bell Sughoṣā which has a radius of a yojana, and which was like an immense bell on the neck of the cow of the assembly of Sudharmā. A loud noise arose when it was struck, the guest of the range of hearing of every one, like the noise of the ocean when it was churned. Thirty-two lacs—less one[2]—of other bells rang distinctly also because of its ringing, like calves lowing because of the cow’s lowing. All of Saudharmakalpa seemed to be made of only sound from the loud penetrating sound of the bells. The gods in the palaces, always negligent, awakened at that sound, like lions lying in caves.

“I think Sughoṣā, delighting in a proclamation-drama, has been rung by some god at the command of the king of gods. Certainly the proclamation announcing Vāsava’s command must be beard.” With this expectation the gods remained listening. When the sound of Sughoṣā had died away, Purandara’s general made a proclamation to this effect in a loud voice:

“Attention! Listen, all the gods living in Saudharmakalpa. the lord of the gods commands you all. ‘In the city Ayodhyā in Bharata in Jambūdvīpa, the second Tīrthanātha, the Lord, bestowing benefits on all, was born today from Vijayā, the wife of King Jitaśatru, because of the maturing of good fortune of the world. Now we must go there with our retinues for the Jina’s birth-ceremonies to purify ourselves. You must come here quickly to go there with me with all magnificence and all power.’”

The gods experienced great delight at this proclamation of his, like peacocks at thunder. At once they got into their cars like boats and, crossing the sky like the ocean, the gods went to Śakra.

Descriptions of Śakra’s car

Hari instructs an Ābhiyogika named Pālaka, “Make a car to go to the Master.” He created the car a hundred thousand yojanas long and wide and five hundred yojanas high, like another Jambūdvīpa; with light from jeweled walls like the ocean with high coral; with golden finials like Mānasa with erect lotuses; with long flags like a body marked with tilakas; with variegated jeweled spires like a mountain-crest with lofty peaks; beautiful with jeweled pillars like tying-posts of Śrī’s elephant; inhabited by puppets resembling other Apsarases; adorned with rows of little bells like an actor who had taken cymbals; marked with pearl-svastikas like the sky with constellations; beautiful with wolves, bulls, men, kinnaras, elephants, haṃsas, forest-creepers, and lotus-tendrils.

In three directions it had three flights of stairs like long waves of cascades flowing down a large mountain. In front of the flights of steps were jeweled arches, sisters, as it were, of the beauty of a whole row of rainbows. Its middle part was level and smooth like the face of an. āliṅgipuṣkara,[3] like a mirror, like a lampstand.[4] Painted with soft, beautiful, five-colored paintings, the floor looked as if strewn with peacock-feathers. Inside of it there was a theater-pavilion, a play-house of Śrīs, like a royal palace inside a city. Inside of it there was a jeweled platform, eight yojanas long and wide and four yojanas high. On it was an excellent jeweled lion-throne, like a large, pure jewel in a large ring. Above it shines a canopy, brilliant with silver, giving the impression of autumn-moonlight that had become congealed. Hanging to its center was a diamond hook, and hanging from it was a pearl-wreath of one kumbhika.[5] Like younger brothers of this one, in the four directions there were strings of pearls measuring half a kumbha. Slowly rocked by a gentle wind, they gleamed, thieves of the beauty of the pleasure-swing of the Śrī of Sunāsīra.

To the northeast, north, and northwest of Śakra’s large jeweled lion-throne were the thrones of the eighty-four thousand Sāmānika-gods, beautiful with jewels, equal in number (to the gods). To the east, the eight seats of the eight wives of Indra resembled jeweled pleasure-balconies of Kamalā. In the southeast were the seats of the twelve thousand gods of the inner assembly. In the south were the fourteen thousand seats in succession of Śakra’s middle assembly. In the southwest were the sixteen thousand seats of the gods of the outer assembly. Behind Śakra’s lofty lion-throne were the seats of the seven generals. In each of the four directions from Śakra’s throne were the seats of the eighty-four thousand bodyguards. Such a car was produced simultaneously with Śakra’s command. For the accomplishment of the desires of the gods is effected by the (mere) thought.

Saṅkrandana, eager to go to the Jina, made his uttaravaikriya form having various jewels. With his eight queens, creepers[6] giving the nectar of loveliness, and with the large troops of actors and Gandharvas, Hari, delighted, circumambulated the best of cars and entered it by the east jeweled stairs. Vāsava sat down on the jeweled lion-throne, facing the east, like a lion on the crag of a mountain peak. The queens of Biḍaujas adorned their own seats successively like marālīs adorning lotuses. The eighty-four thousand Sāmānika-gods entered the car by the north stairs. They seated themselves on their respective thrones, like other incomparable images of Vajrin.[7] Other gods and goddesses entered the car by the west stairs and sat down on the proper seats.

In front of Hari seated on the lion-throne were the eight auspicious things,[8] as if each one had been made by one of the eight wives. Near them were the umbrella, vase, full pitcher, etc. For the signs of sovereignty are companions like a shadow. At the front (of the car) was a large flag-staff, a thousand yojanas high, provided with hundreds of little flags, like a tree with shoots. In front of it were five of Hari’s generals[9] and Ābhiyogika-gods attending carefully to their own duties. So Śakra, surrounded by crores of magnificent gods, his magnificence being praised by clever bands of celestial bards, entertained by the plays, gestures, and concerts constantly performed by the bands of actors and musicians; the flag-staff drawn ahead by five armies; splitting the universe, as it were, with the noise of the musical instruments ahead; wishing to descend to the earthy came by car by an oblique path to the north of Saudharma-heaven.

Filled with crores of gods, the car Pālaka looked like a moving Saudharma-heaven, as it descended. The best of cars, divine, surpassing thought in speed, traversed numberless continents and oceans in a moment. The car, like a Saudharma on earth, a pleasure-abode of the gods, arrived at the continent Nandīśvara. When he had arrived at its southeast mountain, Ratikara, Purandara quickly contracted the car. Gradually contracting the car more and more, Hari arrived at the city Vinītā in Bharata in Jambūdvīpa. He circumambulated the Master’s birth-house three times with the car. The Master’s estate is the same as the Master. Hari stopped the car in the northeast at a distance, like a vassal his conveyance at the palace. Purandara entered the Master’s birth-chamber, his figure contracted from devotion, like a servant belonging to a noble family. Sahasrākṣa bowed to the Tīrthakṛt and the Tīrthakṛt’s mother as soon as he saw them, esteeming his eyes fortunate. After he had circumambulated the Master and Vijayā, had bowed, and paid homage to them, with hands joined respectfully, he said:

“Hail to you, bearing a jewel in your womb, purifying the universe, mother of the world, bestowing a light on the world for seeing the good. O mother, you alone are blessed, by whom the second Tīrthakṛt, benefactor to aH, was borne, like a kalpa-tree by the earth. I, Lord of Saudharma, have come here to celebrate the Master’s birth-festival. O mother, you must not be afraid.”

With these words, Sahasrākṣa gave a sleeping-charm, created an image of the Tīrthakṛt, and placed it at the Queen’s side. Then Śakra instantly created five Śakras from himself. The gods can have any form they like, one or many. Among these, one Śakra, with sprouts of bristling hair burst forth,[10] made pure in body as in mind from devotion, bowed, said, “Allow me,” and took the Jineśvara with lotus-hands anointed with gośīrṣa-sandal. The second one stayed behind and carried an umbrella, over the Master’s head, giving the appearance of a full moon over a mountain. Two Haris carried chauris at his sides like heaps of merit in visible form gained from the sight of the Master. One, swinging a thunderbolt like a door-keeper, went in advance looking at the Master, his head turned a little. The Sāmānikas, the Pāriṣadyas, the Trāyastriṃśas, and other gods also circled round the Lord like bees around a lotus. Hari, carrying the Master of the World carefully, arrived at Mt. Meru with the intention of holding the birth-festival.

The gods ran after the Master, knocking each other over in rivalry, like deer running after a song.[11] The sky appeared crowded with clusters of blooming blue lotuses in the form of gods looking at the Master from afar from the comers of their eyes. Again and again the gods approached the Blessed One from afar and looked at him, like misers looking at their money. The gods flying towards (the Master) at the same time struck each other with an impact like waves of the ocean. The planets, constellations, and stars assumed the form of a multitude of flowers in front of the Master as he went through the sky with Śakra as a vehicle. Puruhūta went in a moment to the rock Atipāṇḍukambalā on the summit of Meru in the south of the peak. The Lord-of-the-east sat down, facing the east, on the top of the jeweled lion-throne, holding the Lord on his own lap.

Just then the Indra of Īśānakalpa became aware of the birth of the All-knowing by means of clairvoyant knowledge because of the shaking of his throne. Like Śakra, he abandoned his lion-throne, etc., took seven or eight steps, and bowed to the Lord of the World. At his command General Laghuparākrama rang the loud-toned bell Mahāghoṣā. Its sound filled twenty-eight lacs of palaces, like the sound of the ocean with high waves filling the mountain-caves on the shore. The gods of these palaces awakened at its sound like sleeping kings at the sound of the conch at daybreak. When the sound of the bell Mahāghoṣā had died away, the general made a proclamation as follows in a voice deep as thunder: “In the city Vinītā in Bharata in Jambūdvīpa the Lord, the second Tīrthakṛt, has been born of Vijayā and Jitaśatru. Your lord will go to Meru for his birth-ceremony. Therefore, hasten, O gods, to go with your master.” At this loud proclamation all the gods went at once into the presence of the Lord of Aiśāna, as if drawn by a charm.

Then Īśāna, the Indra of the northern “half,[12] holding a trident, wearing jeweled ornaments like a living Ratnagiri, wearing white garments, wearing a wreath, with a large bull as a vehicle, attended by crores of gods, Sāmānikas, etc., entered the car Puṣpaka with his retinue and left Aiśānakalpa quickly by the southern path. After traversing numberless continents and oceans in a moment the Indra of Aiśāna arrived at the continent Nandīsvara. There he contracted his car, etc., at the northeast mountain Ratikara, like winter contracting the day. Gradually contracting it without loss of time, he went like a pupil to the feet of the Lord of the World on Sumeru.

Sanatkumāra, Brahmā, Śukra, and Prāṇata with the gods awakened by Naigameṣin who rang the bell Sughoṣā, arriving at Nandīśvara by the north path like Śakra, contracted their cars, etc., at the southeast Ratikara. They went into the presence of the Blessed One who was seated on Śakra’s lap on the peak of Meru, like constellations into the presence of the moon.

Māhendra, Lāntaka, Sahasrāra, and Acyuta with gods awakened by Mahāghoṣā and Laghuparākrama went to Nandīśvara by the south path like Īśāna, and contracted their cars, etc., at the northeast Ratikara. Then they went joyfully to the Master on the peak of Mt. Kañcana (Meru), like travelers in a forest to a tree with much fruit.

Then in the city Camaracañcā, the ornament of the south row,[13] Camara’s throne in Sudharmā trembled. Knowing by clairvoyant knowledge the purifying birth of the Tīrthakṛt, he took seven or eight steps, and bowed to the Jineśvara. At once at his command the general of the infantry, Drama, struck the sweet-toned bell Oghasvarā. When the sound of Oghasvarā had ceased and the proclamation had been made, the Asuras came to Camara like birds to a tree in the evening. The Ābhiyogika-gods, at the command of Camarendra, created in an instant a car measuring fifty thousand yojanas (square). Adorned with a large indradhvaja five hundred yojanas high, the car looked like a boat with a mast.

With sixty-four thousand Sāmānikas, thirty-three Trāyastriṃśas, four Lokapālas, five queens together with their retinues, three assemblies, and seven armies, seven generals, with body-guards to the number of four times the Sāmānikas, and also other Asurakumāras, he got into his car, went in a moment to Nandīśvara, and contracted his car at his[14] Ratikara, like Śakra. He went to the Master’s feet on the peak of Mt. Meru with the speed of the current of the Jāhnavī to the eastern ocean.

In the city Balicañcā, the ornament of the north row, Bali knew the birth of the Arhat by clairvoyant knowledge from the trembling of his throne. At his command the general of the infantry, Mahādruma, quickly struck the bell Mahaughasvarā three times. When the sound of the hell had died away, as before he made the proclamation which was like a stream of nectar to the ears of the Asuras. By that proclamation the Asuras came from all directions to Bali, like haṃsas to Mānasa at the sound of a cloud.[15] Together with the former number of queens, etc., sixty-thousand Sāmānikas and four times as many body-guards, by means of a car of the preceding dimensions and an indradhvaja like the preceding, after going to Ratikara of Nandīśvara, he arrived at the peak of Meru.

Dharaṇendra, Hari, Veṇudeva, Agniśikha, Velamba, Sughoṣa, Jalakānta, Pūrṇa, and Amita, the Indras respectively of the Nāga-, Vidyut-, Suparṇa-, Agni-, Vāyu-, Megha-, Sarasvat-, Dvīpa-, and Dikkumāras, belonging to the southern row; and those of the northern row, Bhūtānanda, Hariśikha, Veṇudārin, Agnimāṇava, Prabhañjana, Mahāghoṣa, Jalaprahha, Avaśiṣṭa, and Amitavāhana knew the birth of the Jina by clairvoyant knowledge from the trembling of their thrones. Then the bells, Meghasvarā, Krauñcasvarā, Haṃsasvarā, Mañjusvarā, Nandisvarā, Nandighoṣā, Susvarā, Madhurasvarā, and Mañjughoṣā, belonging respectively to the Nagas, etc., of the two divisions of the Bhavanapatis, rang, struck three times by generals named Bhadrasena belonging to Dharaṇa, etc., and by those named Dakṣa belonging to Bhūtānanda, etc.[16] Then all the Nāgas, etc., of the two rows came instantly each to his own Indra, like horses to their own stables. At their command their respective Ābhiyogika-gods created at once cars variegated with jewels and gold, twenty-five thousand yojanas square, with indradhvajas of two hundred and fifty yojanas. Each one attended by six queens, six thousand Sāmānikas and four times as many body-guards, and others, Trāyastriṃśas, etc., like Camara and Bali, they got into their cars and went to Meru to the Master.

The lords of the Piśācas, Bhūtas, Yakṣas, Rakṣases, Kinnaras, Kimpuruṣas, Ahis, and Gandharvas: Kāla, Surūpa, Pūrṇabhadra, Bhīma, Kinnara, Satpuruṣa, Atikāya, and Gītarati respectively, belonging to the south row, and these belonging to the north row: Mahākāla, Apratirūpa, Māṇibhadra, Mahābhīma, Kimpuruṣa, Mahāpuruṣa, Mahākāya, Gītayaśas, knowing the birth of the Arhat from the shaking of the thrones in both rows, had their bells, Mañjusvarā and Mañjughoṣā respectively, rung by their respective generals. When the sound of the bells had died away and the proclamation had been made by the generals, the Vyantaras, Piśācas, etc., went to their respective Indras. The Indras, surrounded by the gods except the Trāyastriṃśas and Lokapas—for they, like the sun and moon, do not have Trāyastriṃśas and Lokapas—each one attended by four thousand Sāmānikas and sixteen thousand body-guards, entered their cars created by their respective Ābhiyogika-gods and went to Meru to the Blessed One.

Likewise, the sixteen Indras of the eight classes of Vyantaras, the Aṇapannikas,[17] etc., occupying both north and south rows, like the Indras of the Piśācas, etc., knowing the birth of the Jina by the shaking of their thrones as before, had Mañjusvarā and Mañjughoṣā struck and the proclamation made by their respective generals and, accompanied each by his own Vyantaras, got into their cars created by the Ābhiyogikas and with the Sāmānikas, etc., as before went into the presence of the Jina.

Innumerable Suns and Moons with retinues also came to the Jina on Meru, like sons to a father. Thus sixty-four Indras, independent, (but) as if they were subject to another, came together in haste with devotion from desire for the Master’s birth-festival.

The Indra of the eleventh and twelfth heavens[18] instructed the Ābhiyogika-gods to bring the paraphernalia for the bath. The Ābhiyogikas went off in the northeast quarter, made a powerful samudghāta[19] and thus created pitchers, made of gold, silver, jewels, gold and silver, gold and jewels, silver and jewels, gold, silver and jewels, and clay, one thousand and eight of each kind. They made an equal number of vases, mirrors, dishes, vessels, earthen vessels, jewel boxes, and flower-baskets without loss of time, as if they had been taken from a store-room. The gods took the pitchers energetically and went to the Ocean of Milk, like drawers of water to a pool. Like clouds they took up easily water from the Ocean of Milk with the pitchers with deep bubbling-sounds like loud auspicious cries. They took white and red day-blooming lotuses, night-blooming white and blue lotuses, sahasrapattras and śatapattras.[20]

Approaching the ocean Puṣkaroda, like sea-faring merchants an island, they took very rapidly lotuses, etc. The gods took water, etc., from the tīrthas, Māgadha, etc.,[21] of Bharata- and Airavatakṣetra. Like heated travelers, they took clay and lotuses from the rivers, Gaṅgā, etc., from the pools, Padma, etc. They took herbs, perfumes, flowers, white mustard, and saffron from all the principal mountain-ranges, from all the Vaitāḍhyas, from all the provinces and all the Vakṣāra Mts., from the Deva- and Uttarakurus, from Bhadraśāla, Nandana, Saumanasa, and Pāṇḍaka encircling Sumeru, and from the mountains, Malaya, Dardura, etc. The gods mixed all these materials together, like doctors mixing medicines and perfumers mixing perfumes. After obtaining all this, they went to the Master, as if rivaling Acyutendra’s mind in zeal.

Then, full of devotion, the Indra of Āraṇa- and Acyuta-kalpa, surrounded by ten thousand Sāmānika-gods, thirty-three Trāyastriṃśas, four Lokapālas, three assemblies, seven armies and generals, and forty thousand bodyguards, with a scarf wrapped around his mouth, throwing down first a handful of flowers, together with the gods he took the one thousand and eight pitchers anointed with sandal, their mouths covered with blooming lotuses. Acyuta emptied the pitchers on the Master’s head, making their mouths bowed like himself with a high degree of devotion. From contact with the Master the water, though pure, became exceedingly pure. For a jewel is more brilliant in a gold ornament. The pitchers, articulate from the pouring forth of the stream of water, appeared to be reciting prayers in the ceremony of the Master’s bath. Then the great flood of water issuing from the pitchers formed a confluence with the stream of the Master’s loveliness. The water, spreading over the Master’s gold-colored limbs, looked like the water of the Gaṅgā spreading over beds of golden lotuses. With the pure, beautiful water pouring over his body, the Lord looked as if he had on an upper garment.

Among these Indras and gods some, burdened with a load of devotion, lifted the full pitchers and brought them to the bathers. Some stood making shade; some holding chauris, incense-burners, flowers, and perfumes. Some recited the bath-ritual; some gave cries of “Hail!”; others beat drums, holding drum-sticks. Some, their cheeks and mouths puffed out, blew conches; others struck cymbals together. Some beat gongs with solid jeweled sticks; others beat drums with violent clamor. Some danced like (professional) dancers, keeping time to hand-clapping as music; others danced in a peculiar manner like slave-clowns for amusement. Some sang like (professional) singers with poetic compositions, with postures, etc.; some made desultory sounds in the throat like cowherds. Some played the thirty-two roles with dramatic modes;[22] some flew up and some flew down. Some rained jewels and others gold; some ornaments and others powdered sandal. Some rained wreaths, flowers, and fruit; some gave skilful leaps; some roared like lions. Some neighed like horses, others trumpeted like elephants, others creaked like chariots, and others made the three noises. Some shook Mt. Mandara by stamping their feet; others split the earth by blows with their hands. Some made a repeated outcry with great joy; others sang rāsakas,[23] moving in a circle. Some blazed artificially; others cried for amusement; some thundered deeply; and others flashed like lightning.

While the gods were acting in these various ways from delight, the Lord of Acyuta joyfully bathed the Blessed One. Placing his folded hands on his head like an ornament, he cried, “Hail! Hail” aloud, sincerely devoted. He dried the Master’s body with a devadūṣya-cloth with a gentle hand, like a skilled masseur. Representing great joy, like a dancer Acyuta led a dance with the gods before the Lord of Three Worlds. Then Acyuta anointed the Lord’s body with gośīrṣa-sandal and worshipped him with divine and earthly flowers. The pitcher, throne, mirror, śrīvatsa, svastika, nandyāvarta, powder-box, and fish—these eight auspicious things, the Indra of Āraṇa and Acyuta designed before the Lord with dazzling, silver, unbroken rice. Absorbed in devotion, he threw down a knee-deep pile of flowers of five colors, like pieces of twilight clouds. Then Acyuta, holding an incense-burner, burned incense, making the sky appear decorated with raised arches with pillars of smoke. While the incense was being thrown up, a deep-toned bell, which looked like Mahāghoṣā on a small scale, was rung by the chief-gods. Hari himself waved the light-vessel before the Master, the circle of its high flame resembling the beauty of the stellar circle.

Then the Lord of Acyuta, horripilated from joy, withdrew seven or eight steps, bowed, and began a hymn of praise as follows:


“O Lord, whose body covers the sky with the color of a piece of pure gold, whom does not your body with shining purity put to shame, as it were? The eyes of goddesses become bees on your body which is always fragrant without being perfumed, like a wreath from a coral tree. The broods of serpents in the form of diseases, O Lord, do not approach your body, as if overcome by the wealth of enjoyment of divine nectar. Since you are like an image reflected in a mirror, why speak of the disappearance of exuding perspiration from your body? Not only is your mind free from passion (rāgamukta), O dispassionate one, but the blood (rakta) in your body is like a stream of milk. We can tell another characteristic of yours, O Lord, since even your flesh, O Lord, is pure, free from malodor, not disgusting. Bees abandon wreaths of flowers produced on land and sea and follow the fragrance of your breath. Your duration of existence causes extraordinary astonishment since assimilation and elimination of food are not perceptible by touch and sight.”[24]

After this hymn of praise to the Lord, Acyuta withdrew a little and stood with folded hands, devoted to service, with firm devotion.

Sixty-two other Indras and their retinues bathed the Lord of the World in turn in the same way as the Lord of Acyuta. When they had recited a hymn of praise, had bowed, and withdrawn in the same way, with folded hands they sat near the Lord like devoted servants.

Then the Vāsava of the second heaven quickly made himself five-fold, like the Indra of Saudharmakalpa, with extreme devotion. One sat down on the lion-throne, which resembled Aiśāna-heaven, on Atipāṇḍukambalā which has the shape of a half-moon. Carefully he transferred the Teacher of the World to his own lap from Śakra’s lap, as if from one chariot to another. Another carried a white umbrella over the Master’s head and two others carried chauris at the Lord’s sides. The fifth stood in front of the Lord of the World, holding a trident, like a door-keeper, charming with a noble figure.

Then the Indra of Saudharmakalpa had the materials for the bath brought quickly by the Ābhiyogika-gods. He, exceedingly skilful, created four crystal bulls like four more Crystal Mountains[25] in the four directions from the Lord. Bight dazzling streams of water, white as the moon’s rays, shot up from the eight horns of the four bulls. After shooting up, they unite in one stream at the top like rivers, and fall on the Lord of the World like the ocean. In this way he bathed the Lord. The powerful, like poets, declare themselves in an indirect way. Like the Indra of Acyuta he made the drying, anointing, worship, and eight auspicious objects according to rule. After he had praised the Lord with the Śakrastava and had bowed to him, he began a hymn of praise in a voice choking from joy.


“Hail! Lord of the Three Worlds. Hail! alone kind to all. Hail! cloud for the new shooting-up of the creeper of merit, Lord of the World. O Master, you have descended to the earth from the palace Vijaya to please this earth, like a river-stream from a mountain. The brilliant triad of three knowledges, like seed of the tree of emancipation, is perfected in you at birth, like coolness in water. O Lord of Three Worlds, whoever carry you always in their hearts always face good fortune like an image in a mirror. By good fortune you have become a physician, effecting cures of creatures suffering from the powerful diseases of karma. Like desert-travelers, we are not at all satisfied with the taste of the nectar of your sight, O Lord of Three Worlds. May this world travel on the road with you as a guide, like a chariot with a charioteer, like a ship with a helmsman, O Lord of the World. Our own power now has its purpose accomplished by our approach at the time for service at your lotus-feet, O Blessed One.”

After reciting a hymn of praise with a hundred and eight ślokas beginning with these, Prācīnabarhis made himself five-fold as before. One took the Lord, one the umbrella, two the chauris, and one Śakra was in front as before, carrying the thunderbolt. Then he, going at will like the mind, humble-minded, went with his retinue to the city Vinītā to the house of Jitaśatru. Immediately he took up the Tīrthakṛt’s image and laid the Tīrthanātha at Lady Vijayā’s side. He put a pair of ear-rings like the sun and moon and devadūṣya-clothes, smooth, soft, and cool on the Lords’ pillow. On the Lord’s canopy Śakra fastened a śrīdāmagaṇḍaka adorned with gold-leaf,[26] like a sun descending from the sky. Beautiful necklaces and half-necklaces made of gems and jewels were put on it by Hari to amuse the lord’s eyes. He took the sleeping-charm from Queen Vijayā, he who resembled the moon for the night-blooming lotus and the sun for the dayblooming lotus.

At the command of Vaiśravaṇa who had been ordered by Śakra, the Jṛmbhaka-gods went to Jitaśatru’s house. They rained thirty-two crores each of wrought and unwrought gold, and of jewels; and thirty-two iron seats and thrones. They made a rain of ornaments, like Maṇyaṅga-trees, and a rain of garments, like Anagna-trees.[27] They made a rain of leaves, of flowers, of fruit, as if they had gathered all of the forests, Bhadraśāla, etc. They made a rain of garlands of flowers of various colors, like Citrāṅga-trees. They rained perfume and purifying powdered sandal, like south winds raining powdered cardamom, etc., that had been blown up (in the air). They made a very heavy rain of treasure, like Puṣkarāvarta-clouds a rain of water.

At the command of Pākaśāsana ruling Saudharma the Ābhiyogikas made a proclamation as follows: “Attention! listen carefully, all Vaimānika-, Bhavanādhipati-, Jyotis-, and Vyantara-gods. ‘If anyone thinks anything improper about the Arhat or his mother, his head will burst into seven pieces, like a cluster of arjaka-blossoms.”[28]

Then all the gods and asuras with their Indras went from the peak of Meru to Nandīśvara, their joy blooming forth suddenly. After bowing to the Blessed One the Indra of Saudharma went instantly from Jitaśatru’s house to the continent Nandīśvara. There on the eastern Mt. Añjana, he held an eight-day festival to the eternal images of the Arhats in the eternal temples. Śakra’s four Lokapālas, delighted, held an eight-day festival on the four Dadhimukha mountains. On the northern Mt. Añjana the Indra of Īśāna held an eight-day festival to the eternal images of the Arhats in the eternal temples. His Lokapālas, like the preceding, held an eight-day festival to the statues of Ṛṣabha, etc.,[29] on the Dadhimukha mountains. The Indra Camara held an eight-day festival on the southern Mt. Añjana, and his Lokapas on the four Dadhimukha mountains. The Indra Bali held an eight-day festival on the western Mt. Añjana, and his Lokapālas on the Dadhimukha mountains. Then the gods and asuras, their duties discharged, went from the best of continents, like a meeting-place, to their respective abodes.

Footnotes and references:


See I, n. 166.


I.e., Sughoṣā.


Evidently the same as āliṅgimṛdaṅga. See I, p. III.


Dīpakamalli. Cf. mallikā, 4. 185, ‘lampstand,’ and malli, PE, s.v. Evidently some kind of round lampstand is meant. The translation of dīpamallī, 1. 2. 359, obviously unsatisfactory, must be corrected accordingly.


See I, n. 152.


Amṛtavallī, the Cocculus cordifolius (MW).


The ed. reads: rūpadvīpāntarāṇīvāpratirūpāṇi vajriṇaḥ. The MSS. read: rūpadhiyān0 which must, I think, be emended to rūpadheyān0.


See I, n. 153.


The generals of the nāṭyānīka and gandharvānīka were with śakra.


I.e., his hair erect from joy.


Deer’s love of music is proverbial.


Corresponding to Saudharma in the south.


The south row of the Bhavanavāsins. See below Chap. III.


I.e., the southeast.


See I, n. 47.


I.e., the bells of the north and south rows of each division of the Vyantaras had the same name; the generals of the north row of all classes were named Bhadrasena, and of the south row Dakṣa.


These are the same as the Aprajñaptikas of 3. 525. See PE, PH, and Rājendra sub Aṇapaṇṇiya, Aṇavaṇṇiya, and Aṇapanniya; Pravac. 1131, p. 333a; and Aup. 24. PH Sanskritizes the word as Aṇapannika and Aṇaparṇika. K., p. 275, has Ṛṇaparṇi.


Acyuta, the Indra of Acyuta- and Āraṇakalpa.


I.e., a vaikriyasamudghāta. See I, n. 157.


Some varieties of lotus.


Prabhāsa and Varadāma. See below, Chap. IV.


See I, n. 235.


I have not been able to ascertain the characteristics of the rāsaka. It is a ‘kind of song.’ M.C. defines rasa as ‘a sort of song in the Hindoostanee language.’ Rāsaka is also used for the circular dance itself.


These are the 4 inborn atiśayas. See I, n. 11, and Abhi. 1. 57 ff.


See Chap. III.


I am still unable to explain the prākāra of the text and have retained, faute de mieux, the translation of the Pk. of the sources (I, n. 167). Certainly the earlier commentators took suvaṇṇapayara to equal suvarṇapratara and to mean suvarṇapatra, ‘gold-leaf.’ In addition to previous references, see Rājendra, sub suvaṇṇapayaraga, where the same explanation is given with ref. to Jīv., sūtra 125 and commentary on it on p. 181. ĀvaHH, p. 14a, glosses ‘suvarṇṇapratara-maṇḍitam’ as ‘hemavicchittibhir vibhūṣitam.’ Vicchitti (PH and Rājendra, s.v.) seems to mean ‘pattern, design.’ KSK 44, p. 56a (in another connection) defines kaṇagapayara as ‘kanakapratara’ and further as ‘suvarṇapatra,’ but adds that others interpret it as ‘kanakaprakara.’ Prakara would not be an impossibility in our compound (adorned with a quantity of gold), but that does not account for prākāra which seems too well established to be a copyist’s error. Prof. W. Norman Brown (JAOS 52, p. 88) suggests that prākāra might be taken as a derivate of prakāra, ‘sort,’ to mean ādi, based on Pk. pagāra (PH s.v.). This would be quite intelligible, but assumes that Hem. departed from his sources. This, of course, he may have done, but generally in such descriptions he follows the āgamas very closely. There is also the possibility (which also assumes that Hem. departed from his sources) that prākāra should be taken just as it is, with the idea of a fluted ball, or perhaps raised patterns could conceivably be called ‘prākāra,’ which would fit, to some extent, the vicchitti of ĀvaHH. Muni Jayantavijayaji favors this idea.


For the wishing-trees, see I, pp. 94 f.


See I, n. 170.


See I, p. 366 and n. 404.

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