Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra

by Helen M. Johnson | 1931 | 742,503 words

This is the English translation of the Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Charita (literally “The lives of the sixty-three illustrious People”), a Sanskrit epic poem written by Hemachandra in the twelfth century. The work relates the history and legends of important figures in the Jain faith. These 63 persons include: the twenty four tirthankaras , the t...

Appendix 1.2: types of karma

Karma has 4 sources:

  1. Mithyātva.
  2. Avirati.
  3. Kaṣāya.
  4. Yoga.

It is of two kinds.

  1. Nikācita.
  2. Śithila.

Nikācita is karma very firmly bound which must be experienced. (Sthānāṅgasūtra 296, p. 222b)

Śithila is “loose” karma that may be destroyed.

There are 148 divisions of karma. The following classification is based on the Jaina Gem Dictionary pp. 131 ff., with some alterations.

I. 5 Jñānāvaraṇīya, Knowledge-obscuring.

  1. Mati-jñānāvaraṇīya, Sensitive knowledge-obscuring.
  2. Śruta-jñānāvaraṇīya, Scriptural knowledge-obscuring.
  3. Avadhi-jñānāvaraṇīya, Visual knowledge-obscuring.
  4. Manaḥparyaya-jñānāvaraṇīya, Mental knowledge-obscuring.
  5. Kevala-jñānāvaraṇīya, Perfect knowledge-obscuring.

II. 9 Darśanāvaraṇīya Conation-obscuring.

  1. Cakṣu-darśanāvaraṇīya, Ocular conation-obscuring.
  2. Acakṣu-darśanāvaraṇīya, Non-ocular conation-obscuring.
  3. Avadhi-darśanāvaraṇīya, Visual conation-obscuring.
  4. Kevala-darśanāvaraṇīya, Perfect conation-obscuring.
  5. Nidrā, Sleep.
  6. Nidrā-nidrā, Deep sleep.
  7. Pracalā, Drowsiness.
  8. Pracalā-pracalā, Heavy drowsiness.
  9. Styānarddhi, Somnambulism.

III. 2 Vedanīya, Feeling.

  1. Sāta-vedanīya, Pleasure-feeling; that which brings pleasure.
  2. Asāta-vedanīya, Pain-feeling; that which brings pain.

IV. 28 Mohanīya, Deluding.

3 Darśana-mohanīya, Right-belief-deluding.

  1. Mithyātva, Wrong belief.
  2. Samyagmithyātva (miśra), Right-wrong belief; mixed wrong and right belief.
  3. Samyaktva-prakṛti, Right belief.

25 Cāritra-mohanīya. Right-conduct-deluding.

16 Kaṣāya, Passions.

4 Anantānubandhi, Error-feeding passions.

  1. Krodha, Anger.
  2. Māna, Pride.
  3. Māyā, Deceit.
  4. Lobha, Greed.

4 Apratyākhyānāvaraṇīya, Partial-vow-preventing passions, the same four as above.

4 Pratyākhyānāvaraṇīya, Total-vow-preventing passions, the same four as above.

4 Sañjvalana, Perfect-conduct-preventing passions, the same four as above. This is the slightest degree of passion and co-exists with self-restraint of a high order.

9 Nokaṣāya or Akaṣāya, Quasi-passions; slight or minor passions.

  1. Hāsya, Laughter; risible or laughter-producing.
  2. Rati, Indulgence.
  3. Arati, Ennui; dissatisfaction.
  4. Śoka, Sorrow.
  5. Bhaya, Fear.
  6. Jugupsā, Disgust; aversion. Hiding one’s own, and publishing other people’s short-comings.
  7. Strīveda, Feminine inclination.
  8. Puṃveda, Masculine inclination.
  9. Napuṃsakaveda, Common sex inclination.

V. 4 Āyu, Age-Karma.

  1. Nārakāyu, Hellish age.
  2. Tiryañcāyu, Sub-human age.
  3. Manuṣyāyu, Human age.
  4. Devāyu, Celestial age.

VI. 93 Nāma, Body-making Karma.

4 Gati, Condition; Condition of existence.

  1. Nāraka, Hellish.
  2. Tiryañc, Sub-human.
  3. Manuṣya, Human.
  4. Deva, Celestial.

5 Jāti, Genus of beings.

  1. Ekendriya, One-sensed.
  2. Dvīndriya, Two-sensed.
  3. Trīndriya, Three-sensed.
  4. Caturindriya, Four-sensed.
  5. Pañcendriya, Five-sensed.

5. Śarīra, bodies.

  1. Audārika, Physical.
  2. Vaikriyika, Mutable.
  3. Āhāraka, Emanating.
  4. Taijasa, Electric.
  5. Kārmaṇa, Karmic.

3. Aṅgopāṅga, Limbs; limbs and minor limbs.

  1. Audātika, Physical.
  2. Vaikriyika, Mutable.
  3. Āhāraka, Emanating.

1 Nirmāṇa, Formation; proper formation of limbs and minor limbs.

5 Bandhana, Bondage; molecular bondage; 5 names according to 5 kinds of bodies.

5 Saṅghāta, Interfusion; molecular interfusion; 5 names according to 5 kinds of bodies.

6 Saṃsthāna, Figure; figure of the body.

  1. Samacaturasra, Symmetrical; perfect symmetry all round.
  2. Nyagrodhaparimaṇḍala, Banyan-like; short in lower but large in upper extremities like a banyan-tree.
  3. Sādi, Tapering; like a snake-hole. Broad in lower but short in the upper extremities. Reverse of the last.
  4. Kubjaka, Hunchback.
  5. Vāmana, Dwarf.
  6. Huṇḍaka, Unsymmetrical.

6 Saṃhanana, Skeleton; or osseous structure.

  1. Vajra-ṛṣabha-nārāca-saṃhanana, Adamantine nerves, joints and bones. Adamantine nerves, joints (or amphiarthrodial articulation when the bones are slightly movable and united by an intervening substance), and bones.
  2. Ṛṣabha-nārāca-saṃhanana, Adamantine joints and bones.
  3. Nārāca-saṃhanana, Joints and bones; ordinary amphiarthrodial articulation, and bones.
  4. Ardha-nārāca-saṃhanana, Semi-joints and bones with joints and bones more weakly articulated than in nārāca-saṃhanana.
  5. Kīlikā-saṃhanana, Jointed bones; synarthrodial articulation in which bones are immovable and directly united.
  6. Sevārta-saṃhanana, Loosely jointed bones; diarthrodial articulation, in which bones may be more or less freely movable, when the articular surfaces are covered with smooth cartilage, and surrounded by a fibrous capsule.

8 Sparśa, Touch.

  1. Kaṭhora, Hard.
  2. Komala, Soft.
  3. Guru, Heavy.
  4. Laghu, Eight.
  5. Rūkṣa, Rough.
  6. Snigdha, Smooth
  7. Śīta, Cold.
  8. Uṣṇa, Hot.

5 Rasa, Tastes.

  1. Tikta, Pungent.
  2. Kaṭuka, Bitter.
  3. Kaṣāya, Astringent. Saline.)
  4. Amla, Acid.
  5. Madhura Sweet.

2 Gandha, Smell.

  1. Sugandha, Sweet-smelling; fragrant.
  2. Durgandha, Evil-smelling; malodorous.

5 Varṇa, Color.

  1. Kṛṣṇa, Black.
  2. Nīla, Blue.
  3. Rakta, Red.
  4. Pīta, Yellow.
  5. Śukla, White.

4 Ānupūrvī, Migratory form; the power of retaining the form of the last incarnation during transmigration, i.e., the passage from one to another condition of existence.

  1. Nāraka, Hellish.
  2. Tiryañc, Sub-human.
  3. Manuṣya, Human.
  4. Deva, Celestial.

E.g., Devānupūrvī means the power of retaining the last form, whatever it was, in going to the celestial condition of existence.

1 Agurulaghu, Not-heavy-light; neither too heavy to move, nor too light to have stability.

1 Upaghāta, Self-destructive; having a self-destructive limb or organ,

1 Parāghāta, Destructive of others; possessing a limb or organ fatal to others,

1 Ātapa, Hot light; radiant heat; possessed of a brilliant body, which is hot to others but not to the possessor, as the gross radiant earth-bodied beings in the sun.

1 Udyota, Cold light; phosphorescence; cold light, like moonshine.

1 Ucchvāsa, Respiration.

2 Vihāyogati, Movement; capacity for moving in space.

  1. Śubha, Graceful.
  2. Aśubha, Awkward.

1 Pratyeka śarīra, Individual body; a body enjoyable by one soul only.

1 Sādhāraṇa śarīra, Common body; possessed and enjoyable by many souls, as a potato,

1 Trasa, Mobile, with bodies having 2, 3, 4 or 5 senses.

1 Sthāvara, Immobile, with bodies having one sense only, i.e., the sense of touch.

1 Subhaga, Amiable; amiable personality, even though not beautiful,

1 Durbhaga, Unprepossessing; unprepossessing, even though beautiful.

1 Susvara, Sweet-voiced; musical.

1 Duḥsvara, Harsh-voiced,

1 Śubha, Beautiful (body),

1 Aśubha, Ugly (body).

1 Sūkṣma, Fine (body)—uncuttable and all-pervasive.

1 Bādara, Gross (body).

1 Paryāpta, Developable; capacity for developing the body fully.

1 Aparyāpta, Undevelopable; incapacity for developing the body fully.

1 Sthira, Steady (circulation of blood, bile, etc.).

1 Asthira, Unsteady.

1 Ādeya, Impressive; appearance such as may affect others.

1 Anādeya, Non-impressive; dull appearance.

1 Yaśaḥkīrti, Fame; bringing good fame.

1 Ayaśaḥkīrti, Notoriety; bringing bad name, even if one does good actions.

1 Tīrthakara, A Tīrthaṅkara’s career with all its grandeur when he preaches and completes his ministry.

VII. 2 Gotra, Family-determining.

  1. Ucca, High.
  2. Nīca, Dow.

VIII. 5 Antarāya, Obstructive of

  1. Dāna, Charity.
  2. Lābha, Gain.
  3. Bhoga, Enjoyment, enjoyment of consumable things.
  4. Upabhoga, Re-enjoyment, enjoyment of non-consumable things.
  5. Vīrya, Power; exercise of one’s capacities.

These are universally recognized; but sometimes the number 158 is given, which includes 15, instead of 5, under bandhananāmakarma. It should be kept in mind that all jīvas in saṃsāra have taijasa and kārmaṇa bodies.

15 bandhanas:

The 15 bandhanas are as follows:—

  1. 1 Audārika-śarīra with itself.
  2. 2 Audārika-śarīra with taijasa-śarīra.
  3. 3 Audārika-śarīra with kārmaṇa0
  4. 4 Vaikriya-śarīra with itself.
  5. 5 Vaikriya-śarīra with taijasa0
  6. 6 Vaikriya-śarīra with kārmaṇa0
  7. 7 Āhāraka-śarīra with itself.
  8. 8 Āhāraka-śarīra with taijasa0
  9. 9 Āhāraka-śarīra with kārmaṇa0
  10. 10 Audārika-śarīra with taijasa0 and kārmaṇa0
  11. 11 Vaikriya-śarīra with taijasa0 and kārmaṇa0
  12. 12 Āhāraka-śarīra with taijasa0 and kārmaṇa0
  13. 13 Taijasa-śarīra with itself.
  14. 14 Taijasa-śarīra with kārmaṇa0
  15. 15 Kārmaṇa-śarīra with itself.

See Karma Granthas I. 36, pp. 39 ff.

3 phases of karma:

There are 3 phases of karma:

  1. Bandha, the taking of new karma.
  2. Udaya, the maturing of karma, (karma-vipāka).
  3. Sattā, the karma already in existence.

Out of the total of 148, only 120 are concerned in bandha. Miśra and samyaktva (of mohanīya) and 26 of the nāmakarmas (5 bandhana; 5 saṅghāta; and 16 of the 20 divisions of varṇa, rasa, gandha, sparśa) are not taken. In udaya 122 are concerned. Miśra and samyaktva are included. All 148 are concerned in sattā. The following Tables are based on Karma Granthas II and the Guṇasthānakramāroha It is to be noted that in accordance with the texts the Tables are made from a negative point of view. That is, unless otherwise specifically stated, the karmas named are the ones no longer involved and are to be subtracted from the preceding number.

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