Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary)

by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626

This page describes the annihilation of all karmas is liberation (moksha) which is verse 10.2 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 2 of the chapter Liberation and includes an extensive commentary.

Verse 10.2 - The annihilation of all karmas is liberation (mokṣa)

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 10.2:

बन्धहेत्वभावनिर्जराभ्यां कृत्स्नकर्मविप्रमोक्षो मोक्षः ॥ १०.२ ॥

bandhahetvabhāvanirjarābhyāṃ kṛtsnakarmavipramokṣo mokṣaḥ || 10.2 ||

Owing to the absence of the cause of bondage (bandha) and with the functioning of dissociation (nirjarā) of karmas, the annihilation of all karmas is liberation (mokṣa). (2)

Hindi Anvayarth:

अन्वयार्थ: [बन्धहेत्वभावनिर्जराभ्यां] बन्ध के कारणों (मिथ्यात्व, अविरति, प्रमाद, कषाय और योग) का अभाव तथा निर्जरा के द्वारा [कृत्स्नकर्मविप्रमोक्षो मोक्षः] समस्त कर्मों का अत्यन्त नाश हो जाना सो मोक्ष है।

Anvayartha: [bandhahetvabhavanirjarabhyam] bandha ke karanom (mithyatva, avirati, pramada, kashaya aura yoga) ka abhava tatha nirjara ke dvara [kritsnakarmavipramoksho mokshah] samasta karmom ka atyanta nasha ho jana so moksha hai |

Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:

How is liberation achieved? And what is the nature of liberation?

No new karmas flow in owing to the absence of causes such as perverted-faith (mithyādarśana), and so on. And the already acquired karmas fall off gradually in the presence of causes that lead to dissociation (nirjarā) of karmas. ‘Owing to the absence of the cause of bondage and the functioning of dissociation’ indicates the case denoting cause. Therefore, liberation is the total destruction of all karmas at the same time, after levelling down the duration of all the remaining three karmas to that of the age-karma. The disappearance of karmas is of two kinds, namely, that affected by one’s effort–yatnasādhya, and that accomplished without one’s effort–ayatna-sādhya. In case of the soul with the last body (i.e., one who is to attain liberation in that birth itself), the life-karmas (āyuḥkarma) leading to life in hell, heaven and the plant-and animal-world are non-existent. This non-existence is not the result of any effort, for these are already absent. The disappearance brought about by effort is described now. In someone of the four stages, commencing from that of the vowless right-believer–asaṃyatasamyagdṛṣṭi, seven subtypes of karmas are destroyed in any one stage. Further, in the ninth stage of spiritual development, checking of gross-passions–anivṛttibādarasāmparāya–sixteen subtypes of karmas are destroyed simultaneously.

The sixteen subtypes are:

  1. deep-sleep–nidrā-nidrā,
  2. heavy-drowsiness–pracalā-pracalā,
  3. somnambulism–styānagṛddhi,
  4. the infernal state of existence–narakagati,
  5. the plant and animal state of existence–tiryañcagati,
  6. birth as being with one-sense–ekendriyajāti,
  7. two-sense dvīndriyajāti,
  8. three-sense–trīndriyajāti,
  9. four-sense–caturindriya-jāti,
  10. migratory form tending to infernal existence–narakagatiprāyo-gyānupūrvī,
  11. migratory form tending to plant and animal existence–tiryañcagatiprāyogyānupūrvī,
  12. body emitting a warm splendour–ātapa,
  13. body emitting a cold lustre–udyota,
  14. body of a one-sensed-being–sthavara,
  15. subtle body–sukṣma śarīra, and
  16. common body–sādhāraṇa śarīra.

After that, in the same stage, eight subtypes of passions (kaṣāya) are destroyed. Again, therein, the neuter-sex-inclination–napuṃsakaveda, and the female-sex-inclination–strīveda–are destroyed, in that order. At one stroke, six quasi-passions (nokaṣāya) are also destroyed therein. Then the male-sex-inclination–puruṣaveda, gleaming (saṃjvalana) anger–krodha, pride–māna, and deceitfulness–māyā, are destroyed completely one by one in the same stage. Gleaming (saṃjvalana) greed–lobha–disappears at the end of the tenth stage of sūkṣmasāmparāya–checking of even minute passions. Sleep–nidrā, and drowsiness–pracalā, are destroyed in the last but one instant of the twelfth stage of kṣīṇakaṣāya (vītarāga chadmastha)–destroyed delusion. The five subtypes of knowledge-covering (jñānāvaraṇa), the four subtypes of perception-covering (darśanāvaraṇa) and five subtypes of obstructive (antarāya) karmas are also destroyed in the last instant of this stage.

And seventy-two subtypes of non-obscuring karmas are destroyed in the last but one instant of the Omniscient-without-vibration (the fourteenth stage of ayogakevalī).

These are the karmas:

  • one of the two feeling-karmas–vedanīya,
  • the celestial state of existence–devagati,
  • the five bodies (the physical–audārika śarira,
  • the transformable–vaikriyika śarira,
  • the projectable–āhāraka śarira,
  • the electric–taijasa śarira,
  • and the karmic–kārmaṇa śarira),
  • the five bindings– bandhana,
  • the five molecular interfusion–saṃghāta,
  • the six structure–saṃsthāna,
  • the chief and secondary parts of the physical body–audārika śarira aṅgopāṅga,
  • the chief and secondary parts of the transformable body–vaikriyika śarira aṅgopāṅga,
  • the chief and secondary parts of the projectable body–āhāraka śarira aṅgopāṅga,
  • the six firmness of the joints–saṃhanana,
  • the five auspicious complexions–praśastha varṇa,
  • the five inauspicious complexions–apraśastha varṇa,
  • the two odours–gandha,
  • the five auspicious tastes praśastha rasa,
  • the five inauspicious tastes–apraśastha rasa,
  • the eight touches–sparśa,
  • tendency (transmigrating force) towards the celestial state of existence–devagatiprāyogyānupūrvī,
  • neither heavy nor light–agurulaghu,
  • self-annihilation–upaghāta,
  • annihilation by others–paraghāta,
  • respiration–ucchvāsa,
  • pleasant gait–praśastha vihāyogati,
  • unpleasant gait–apraśastha vihāyogati,
  • incomplete development–aparyāpta,
  • individual body–pratyeka śarīra,
  • firmness of the frame–sthira,
  • infirm frame–asthira,
  • attractiveness of form–śubha,
  • unattractiveness of form–aśubha,
  • bad-tempered–durbhaga,
  • melodious voice–susvara,
  • unmelodious voice–duḥsvara,
  • lustreless body–anādeya,
  • obscurity–ayaśaḥkīrti,
  • formation of the body–nirmāṇa,
  • and low family–nīcagotra.

The remaining thirteen subtypes of karmas are destroyed in the last instant of the fourteenth stage of ayogakevalī–Omniscient-without-vibration.

These are:

  • one of the two feeling-karmas–vedanīya,
  • human lifetime–manuṣyāyuḥ,
  • the human state of existence–manuṣyagati,
  • birth as a being with five senses–pañcendriyajāti,
  • tendency towards the human state of existence–manuṣyagatiprāyogyānupūrvī,
  • mobile-being–trasa,
  • gross body–bādara,
  • completion (of the organs)–paryāpta,
  • good-tempered–subhaga,
  • lustrous body–ādeya,
  • renown–yaśaḥkīrti,
  • Lordship–Tīrthakaratva, and
  • high family–uccagotra.

There are a total of one hundred and forty-eight subtypes of karmas. In case of the caramaśarīrī, the one who will attain liberation in the same birth, these three, life as an infernal being–narakāyuḥ, life as a plant or animal–tiryañcāyuḥ, and life as a celestial being–devāyuḥ, do not exist. The karmas of these subtypes, the fourfold assimilative–āhārakacatuṣka and the Lordship–Tīrthakaratva, exist in some. The remaining subtypes of karmas must exist in all. With the rise in spiritual stages–guṇasthāna–the causes of bondage of karmas are annihilated (kṣaya), and the karmas bound previously are dissociated (nirjarā). With utter destruction of all karmas, the soul gets liberated; it attains liberation (mokṣa). Liberation implies complete destruction of the material-karmas (dravyakarma), quasi-karmas (nokarma), and psychic-karmas (bhāvakarma). The worldly soul is with bondage of karmas; it is thus dependent from a certain point of view. The same soul, on utter destruction of all karmas, becomes independent. This explains the liberation (mokṣa) of the soul.

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