Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary)

by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626

This page describes the five kinds of conduct (caritra) which is verse 9.18 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 18 of the chapter Stoppage and Shedding of Karmas and includes an extensive commentary.

Verse 9.18 - The five kinds of conduct (cāritra)

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 9.18:

सामायिकच्छेदोपस्थापनापरिहारविशुद्धिसूक्ष्मसाम्पराय यथाख्यातमिति चारित्रम् ॥ ९.१८ ॥

sāmāyikacchedopasthāpanāparihāraviśuddhisūkṣmasāmparāya yathākhyātamiti cāritram || 9.18 ||

Equanimity–sāmāyika, reinitiation–chedopasthāpanā, purity of non-injury–parihāraviśuddhi, slight passion–sukṣmasāmparāya, and perfect-conduct–yathākhyāta, are the five kinds of conduct (cāritra). (18)

Hindi Anvayarth:

अन्वयार्थ: [सामायिकच्छेदोपस्थापनापरिहारविशुद्धिसूक्ष्मसाम्पराययथाख्यातम्] सामायिक, छेदोपस्थापना, परिहारविशुद्धि, सूक्ष्मसाम्पराय और यथाख्यात [इति चारित्रम्] इस प्रकार चारित्र के 5 भेद हैं।

Anvayartha: [samayikacchedopasthapanapariharavishuddhisukshmasamparayayathakhyatam] samayika, chedopasthapana, pariharavishuddhi, sukshmasamparaya aura yathakhyata [iti caritram] isa prakara caritra ke 5 bheda haim |

Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:

The five causes of stoppage (saṃvara)–control–gupti, carefulness–samiti, virtue–dharma, contemplation–anuprekṣā, and conquest by endurance–parīṣahajaya–have been described. Now the causes of stoppage (saṃvara) that constitute conduct (cāritra) are mentioned in the next sūtra.

Now self-restraint (saṃyama) has been mentioned among the ten moral virtues (dharma) or duties. And that itself is conduct (cāritra). Hence it is meaningless to mention conduct (cāritra) again. But this objection is not valid. Though it is included among the ten virtues, conduct (cāritra) is described at the end in order to indicate that it is the direct cause of liberation. Equanimity–sāmāyika–has been described earlier (see sūtra 7-21). It is of two kinds–with and without time limit. Study (svādhyāya), etc., are for a limited time. Restraint in roaming (īryāpatha), etc., are without time limit; that is, the ascetic has to observe these throughout his lifetime. Sometimes, owing to carelessness (pramāda), the ascetic deviates from his vows and commits injury, and so on. When he is installed again in his vows, according to the rules, that is called the conduct of reinitiation–chedopasthāpanā. Or chedopasthāpanā connotes the removal of mental impurity. Refraining from injury (hiṃsā) to living beings is ‘parihāra’. ‘Parihāraviśuddhi’ is purity of conduct (cāritra) emana-ting from refraining from injury (hiṃsā).

The conduct (cāritra) in which passions (kaṣāya) are present only in negligible quantity is conduct (cāritra) with slight passion–sukṣmasāmparāya. On the subsidence (quiescence) or destruction (kṣaya) of the entire deluding (mohanīya) karmas, the soul is characterized by its inherent nature–ātmasvabhāva.[1] And this is called perfect or ideal conduct (athā- khyātacāritra). This has been described by those in the previous stages of conduct, but has not hitherto been experienced by them prior to destruction or subsidence of deluding (mohanīya) karmas. This arises on the destruction or subsidence of the entire deluding karmas, as the meaning of ‘atha’ is immediate succession. Or, the alternative reading is ‘yathākhyāta’. That is, the nature of the soul manifests just as it ought to be. The word ‘iti’ must be understood in the sense of completion. That is, it indicates that from perfect conduct follows the total destruction of all karmas.

The five kinds of conduct in the sūtra are mentioned in order of their superiority.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

The state of the soul when it is rid of (moha) and agitation (kṣobha) is its own-nature (ātmasvabhāva)–sāmya. (see ‘Pravacanasāra’, verse 1-7).

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