Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary)

by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626

This page describes supplementary vows of the householder with minor-vows which is verse 7.21 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 21 of the chapter The Five Vows and includes an extensive commentary.

Verse 7.21 - Supplementary vows of the householder with minor-vows

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 7.21:

दिग्देशानर्थदण्डविरतिसामायिकप्रोषधोपवासोपभोगपरिभोगपरिमाणातिथिसंविभागवतसंपन्नश्च ॥ ७.२१ ॥

digdeśānarthadaṇḍaviratisāmāyikaproṣadhopavāsopabhogaparibhogaparimāṇātithisaṃvibhāgavatasaṃpannaśca || 7.21 ||

The householder with minor-vows (aṇuvrata) is also equipped with these supplementary vows: withdrawing from activity with regard to the direction–digvirati, withdrawing from activity with regard to the country–deśavirati, withdrawing from purposeless sin–anartha-daṇḍavirati, periodic concentration–sāmāyikavrata, fasting at regular intervals–proṣadhopavāsavrata, limiting consumable and non-consumable things–upabhogaparibhogapaimāṇavrata, and partaking of one’s food after feeding the ascetic–atithisaṃvibhāgavrata. (21)

Hindi Anvayarth:

अन्वयार्थ: [च] और फिर वे व्रत [दिग्देशानर्थदण्डविरतिसामायिकप्रोषधोपवासोपभोगपरिभोगपरिमाणातिथिसंविभागव्रतसंपन्नः] दिग्व्रत, देशव्रत तथा अनर्थदण्डव्रत ये तीन गुणव्रत और सामायिक, प्रोषधोपवास, उपभोग-परिभोग परिमाण (मर्यादा) तथा अतिथिसंविभागवत ये चार शिक्षाव्रत सहित होते हैं अर्थात् व्रतधारी श्रावक पाँच अणुव्रत, तीन गुणव्रत और चार शिक्षाव्रत, इन बारह व्रतों सहित होता है।

Anvayartha: [ca] aura phira ve vrata [digdeshanarthadandaviratisamayikaproshadhopavasopabhogaparibhogaparimanatithisamvibhagavratasampannah] digvrata, deshavrata tatha anarthadandavrata ye tina gunavrata aura samayika, proshadhopavasa, upabhoga-paribhoga parimana (maryada) tatha atithisamvibhagavata ye cara shikshavrata sahita hote haim arthat vratadhari shravaka pamca anuvrata, tina gunavrata aura cara shikshavrata, ina baraha vratom sahita hota hai |

Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:

Are these the only peculiarities of the householder, or are there others also?

The word ‘virati’–withdrawing from–is added to each of the first three. Thus, it should be read as withdrawing from the direction–digvirati, withdrawing from the country or region–deśavirati, and withdrawing from purposeless sinful activity–anarthadaṇḍavirati. These three are called ‘guṇavrata’ as the word ‘vrata’ is added on to every one of these. Further, the vow of concentration–sāmāyikavrata, fasting at regular intervals–proṣadhopavāsavrata, limiting consumable and non-consumable things–upabhogaparibhoga-paimāṇavrata, and partaking of one’s food after feeding the ascetic–atithisaṃvibhāgavrata, are the other supplementary vows which are called ‘śikṣāvrata’. The householder who observes all these seven vows, besides, of course, the five minor vows mentioned already, is called ‘viratāvirata’, i.e., the one who observes abstinence as well as non-abstinence. It is explained as follows. The directions are east, west, and so on (the eight corners of the compass with the upward and the downward make up ten). Taking a resolve not to participate in activities beyond set limits in the directions, fixing the boundaries with well-known mountains, rivers, villages, towns, etc., is the vow of abstinence with regard to direction–digvirati. Since there is no injury (hiṃsā) caused by the householder to one-or more-sensed living beings beyond the fixed boundaries, he is supposed to observe great vows–mahāvrata–in the area outside his limited area of activity. Though there may be opportunity for gain outside his limited area, he does not direct his thoughts there. Thus he curbs his desire or greed (lobha). The region determined by villages, and so on, is the country or province. Desisting from activity outside the chosen country is the vow of abstinence with regard to the country–deśavirati. As in the previous instance, the householder practising this vow is supposed to observe great vows–mahāvrata–beyond his country. The activity which leads to sin without any advantage to self or others is purposeless sin–anarthadaṇḍa. Withdrawing from such activity is to be free from purposeless sin–anarthadaṇḍavirati. Purposeless sin is of five kinds, namely, evil thought–apadhyāna, preaching of sin–pāpopadeśa, negligent activity–pramādācarita, giving of hurtful things–hiṃsāpradāna, and listening to undesirable stories–aśubhaśruti. Wishing how others may suffer from victory and defeat, punishment, bondage, mutilation, confiscation of their possessions, and so on, is evil thought–apadhyāna. Speaking evil words which incite others to cause suffering to animals, to pursue commerce and activities causing injury to the living beings, and so on, is preaching of sin–pāpopadeśa. Cutting trees, digging the earth, sprinkling water, and so on, without any purpose, is negligent activity–pramādācarita. Giving hurtful things, such as poison, thorn, weapon, fire, rope, whip and stick, is the fourth kind of purposeless sin, i.e., giving of hurtful things–hiṃsāpradāna. Listening to or narrating stories which provoke injury, lust, etc., is the fifth kind, i.e., listening to undesirable stories–aśubhaśruti.

The preposition ‘sam’ means ‘to become one’. For instance, ghee merges–becomes one–with the thing mixed. To merge or become one is ‘samaya’. That, which has oneness as its object, is ‘sāmāyika’. Thus, to become one with the self is ‘sāmāyika’. For the time and within the place of his concentration, the householder practising ‘sāmāyika’ observes great vows–mahāvrata–since he is free from minute (sūkṣma) and gross (sthūla) injury (hiṃsā), and other demerits. It is argued that, in that case, the householder should be deemed having perfect restraint–sakalasaṃyama. But it is untenable as there is the rise of the karmas which destroy complete restraint. In that case he should not be called as observing great vows–mahāvrata. No. He is called as observing great vows–mahāvrata–figuratively. It is like the generality says figuratively that the auspicious month ‘caitra’ prevails year-round for the royal household.

The word ‘proṣadha’ refers to the holy days in the lunar month. Abstaining from the pleasures of the five senses, and dwelling in the self in deep concentration is fasting (upavāsa). It means giving up the four kinds of food. Fasting during ‘proṣadha’ is ‘proṣadhopavāsa’. That is, fasting on the eighth and the fourteenth days of the lunar cycle. The fasting householder discards bodily upkeep, such as bath, perfume, garlands and ornaments, and spends time in a sacred place like the abode of a saint, a temple, or earmarked lonely apartment. He spends time listening to or making others listen to the holy discourses and contemplating on the contents of the Scripture, while refraining from all worldly activities (ārambha).

Consumable things–upabhoga–are foods, drinks, perfumes, garlands of flowers, and so on, which can be enjoyed only once. Bedspreads, garments, ornaments, beds, chairs, houses, carriages, cars, and so on, are non-consumable things–paribhoga–as these can be enjoyed repeatedly. A limit is placed by the householder on possession of these things of upabhoga and paribhoga; this is called upabhogaparibhogapaimāṇavrata.

The householder who desires to avoid gross injury–trasahiṃsā–must abstain from honey, meat and wine, permanently. He must also renounce things like flowers of ‘ketakī’ and ‘arjuna’, ginger, radish, etc., which are seats of infinite organisms and are fit to be called infinite-bodied (anantakāya). Very little advantage is derived from these in spite of considerable injury (hiṃsā) caused. With regard to cars, carriages, ornaments, etc., the householder decides what is desirable and what is not. And thus he renounces the things undesirable for a limited period or for lifetime, according to his capacity.

He who moves from place to place without transgressing his self-control (saṃyama) is called the guest (atithi). Or, the guest (atithi) is one who comes on any date without prior intimation. Four things are offered to the guest–food, implements, medicine and shelter. Faultless food must be offered by the householder to the genuine ascetic treading the path to liberation and earnest in practising restraint (saṃyama), with a pure heart. Implements, such as the Scripture, which promote right faith, and so on, must be presented to him. Proper medicine must be arranged for. Shelter must also be provided with great devotion.

The term ‘ca’–‘and’–at the end of the sūtra is intended to include the householder’s duty mentioned next.

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