Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary)

by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626

This page describes the influx of tirthankara name-karma (namakarma) which is verse 6.24 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 24 of the chapter Influx of Karmas and includes an extensive commentary.

Verse 6.24 - The influx of Tīrthaṅkara name-karma (nāmakarma)

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 6.24:

भक्तिरावश्यकापरिहाणिर्मार्गप्रभावना प्रवचनवत्सलत्वमिति तीर्थकरत्वस्य ॥ ६.२४ ॥

bhaktirāvaśyakāparihāṇirmārgaprabhāvanā pravacanavatsalatvamiti tīrthakaratvasya || 6.24 ||

The influx (āsrava) of the Tīrthaṅkara name-karma (nāmakarma) is caused by these sixteen: purity of right faith–darśanaviśuddhi, reverence–vinayasampannatā, observance of vows and supplementary vows without transgression–śīlavratānaticāra, ceaseless pursuit of knowledge–abhīkṣṇa jñānopayoga, perpetual fear of the cycle of existence–saṃvega, giving gifts (charity)–tyāga, practising austerities according to one’s capacity–tapa, removal of obstacles that threaten the equanimity of ascetics–sādhusamādhi, serving the meritorious by warding off evil or suffering–vaiyāvṛttya, devotion to the Omniscient Lord–arhatbhakti, devotion to the chief preceptors–ācāryabhakti, devotion to the preceptors–bahuśrutabhakti, devotion to the Scripture–pravacanabhakti, practice of the six essential daily duties āvaśyakāparihāṇi, propagation of the teachings of the Omniscient Lord–prabhāvanā, and fervent affection for one’s brethren following the same path–pravacanavatsalatva. (24)

Hindi Anvayarth:

अन्वयार्थ: [दर्शनविशुद्धिः] 1-दर्शनविशुद्धि, [विनयसम्पन्नता] 2-विनयसम्पन्नता, [शीलव्रतेष्वनतीचारः] 3-शील और व्रतों में अनतिचार अर्थात् अतिचार का न होना, [अभीक्ष्णज्ञानोपयोगः] 4-निरन्तर ज्ञानोपयोग, [संवेगः] 5-संवेग अर्थात् संसार से भयभीत होना, [शक्तितस्त्यागतपसी] 6-7-शक्ति के अनुसार त्याग तथा तप करना, [साधुसमाधिः] 8-साधुसमाधि, [वैयावृत्त्यकरणम्] 9-वैयावृत्त्य करना, [अहंदाचार्यबहुश्रुतप्रवचनभक्तिः] 10-13-अर्हत्आचार्य-बहुश्रुत (उपाध्याय) और प्रवचन (शास्त्र) के प्रति भक्ति करना, [आवश्यकापरिहाणिः] 14-आवश्यक में हानि न करना, [मार्गप्रभावना] 15-मार्ग प्रभावना और [प्रवचनवत्सलत्वम्] 16-प्रवचन-वात्सल्य [इति तीर्थकरत्वस्य] ये सोलह भावना तीर्थंकर-नामकर्म के आस्रव का कारण हैं।

Anvayartha: [darshanavishuddhih] 1-darshanavishuddhi, [vinayasampannata] 2-vinayasampannata, [shilavrateshvanaticarah] 3-shila aura vratom mem anaticara arthat aticara ka na hona, [abhikshnajnanopayogah] 4-nirantara jnanopayoga, [samvegah] 5-samvega arthat samsara se bhayabhita hona, [shaktitastyagatapasi] 6-7-shakti ke anusara tyaga tatha tapa karana, [sadhusamadhih] 8-sadhusamadhi, [vaiyavrittyakaranam] 9-vaiyavrittya karana, [ahamdacaryabahushrutapravacanabhaktih] 10-13-arhatacarya-bahushruta (upadhyaya) aura pravacana (shastra) ke prati bhakti karana, [avashyakaparihanih] 14-avashyaka mem hani na karana, [margaprabhavana] 15-marga prabhavana aura [pravacanavatsalatvam] 16-pravacana-vatsalya [iti tirthakaratvasya] ye solaha bhavana tirthamkara-namakarma ke asrava ka karana haim |

Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:

1. Darśanaviśuddhi: Faith in the path to liberation characterized by detachment, as preached by Lord Jina, is purity of faith. Right faith has been described already.

It is characterized by eight qualities,

  1. freedom from doubt (niḥśaṅkitatva),
  2. freedom from worldly desire (niḥkāṅkṣitā),
  3. freedom from revulsion (nirvicikitsitatva),
  4. freedom from superstitions (amūḍhadṛṣṭitā),
  5. development of one’s spiritual capacity (upabṛṃhaṇa),
  6. ensuring steadiness of right faith and conduct (sthitikaraṇa),
  7. joy and affection towards those following the path (vātsalya), and
  8. propagation of the true path (prabhāvanā).

2. Vinayasampannatā: Reverence is homage to the three-jewels (ratnatraya) which lead to liberation and the preceptors and the rest who initiate others to the path to liberation.

3. Śīlavratānaticāra: Faultless observance, without transgressions, of the vows of non-injury, etc., and the supplementary vows such as giving up anger, etc., which safeguard the vows.

4. Abhīkṣṇa jñānopayoga: Incessant cultivation of knowledge of the soul and other categories of substances is ceaseless pursuit of knowledge.

5. Saṃvega: It is the perpetual fear of the cycle of existence, or transmigration.

6. Tyāga: Charity is of three kinds, namely,

  1. gift of pure food (āhāradāna),
  2. gift of dispelling fear (abhayadāna), and
  3. gift of right knowledge (jñānadāna).

The giving of these to others according to one’s capacity is charity.

7. Tapa: Practising austerities according to one’s capacity is voluntary affliction of the body in conformity with the Scripture.

8. Sādhu-samādhi: When the treasury is on fire, attempts are made to extinguish it, as it benefits all. Similarly, the ascetic is the seat of rare virtues of vows and minor vows. Hence any obstacles that threaten the equanimity of ascetics are removed.

9. Vaiyāvṛttya: When suffering is imminent to the virtuous ascetics, it is warded off by proper methods.

10-13. Arhatbhakti, ācāryabhakti, bahuśrutabhakti, pravacana-bhakti: Devotion is the worship of the Omniscient Lord, the chief preceptors, the preceptors, and the Scripture.

14. Āvaśyakāparihāṇi: It is performance of the six essential duties at proper times.

15. Prabhāvanā: It is propagation of the teachings of Lord Jina by means of knowledge, austerities, gift, and worship.

16. Pravacanavatsalatva: It is love and affection, similar to the tender love of the cow for her calf, for one’s brethren.

These sixteen observances, severally as well as together, are causes of the influx (āsrava) of the name-karma (nāmakarma) which leads to incarnation as the Tīrthaṅkara.

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