Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary)

by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626

This page describes the living-substratum (jiva-adhikarana) which is verse 6.8 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 8 of the chapter Influx of Karmas and includes an extensive commentary.

Verse 6.8 - The living-substratum (jīva-adhikaraṇa)

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 6.8:

आद्यं संरम्भसमारम्भारम्भयोगकृतकारितानुमतकषाय विशेषैस्त्रिस्त्रिस्त्रिश्चतुश्चैकशः ॥ ६.८ ॥

ādyaṃ saṃrambhasamārambhārambhayogakṛtakāritānumatakaṣāya viśeṣaistristristriścatuścaikaśaḥ || 6.8 ||

The first, living-substratum (jīvādhikaraṇa) of influx (āsrava), is of three kinds in terms of planning (saṃrambha), preparation (samārambha) and commencement (ārambha); of three kinds in terms of (three kinds of) ‘yoga’; of three kinds in terms of doing (kṛta), causing it done (kārita) and approval (anumata); of four kinds in terms of (four kinds of) passions (kaṣāya). All these, with their combinations, are of one hundred and eight kinds. (8)

Hindi Anvayarth:

अन्वयार्थ: [आद्यं] पहला अर्थात् जीव अधिकरण-आस्रव [संरम्भसमारम्भारम्भयोग, कृतकारितानुमतकषायविशेषैः च] संरम्भ-समारम्भ-आरम्भ, मन-वचन-कायरूप तीन योग, कृत-कारित-अनुमोदना तथा क्रोधादि चार कषायों की विशेषता से [त्रिः त्रिः त्रिः चतुः] 3 x 3 x3 x4 [एकशः] 108 भेदरूप है।

Anvayartha: [adyam] pahala arthat jiva adhikarana-asrava [samrambhasamarambharambhayoga, kritakaritanumatakashayavisheshaih ca] samrambha-samarambha-arambha, mana-vacana-kayarupa tina yoga, krita-karita-anumodana tatha krodhadi cara kashayom ki visheshata se [trih trih trih catuh] 3 x 3 x3 x4 [ekashah] 108 bhedarupa hai |

Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:

The living (jīva) substratum (adhikaraṇa) is described first.

Formulating a plan to commit violence, etc., is planning (saṃrambha). Collecting necessary materials for its execution is preparation (samārambha). Commencement of it is ‘ārambha’. The threefold activity (yoga) has already been explained as bodily-activity (kāyayoga), speech-activity (vacanayoga) and thought-activity (mano-yoga). To perform an action by oneself is doing (kṛta). To get it performed by another is causing it done (kārita). Endorsement of what has been done by another is approval (anumata). Anger (krodha), pride (māna), deceitfulness (māyā) and greed (lobha) are the four passions (kaṣāya). The word ‘viśeṣa’ differentiates one thing from another. It is added to every term: planning, preparation, and so on. The substratum of the living comprises combination of all these–the first of three kinds, the second of three kinds, the third of three kinds, and the fourth of four kinds.

The living-substratum (jīvādhikaraṇa) due to planning (saṃrambha) is of thirty-six kinds as under: bodily-planning (kāya-saṃrambha) is of twelve kinds: anger-doing-bodily-planning (krodha-kṛta-kāya-saṃrambha), pride-doing-bodily-planning (māna-kṛta-kāya-saṃrambha), deceitfulness-doing-bodily-planning (māyā-kṛta-kāya-saṃrambha), greed-doing-bodily-planning (lobha-kṛta-kāya-saṃrambha), anger-others-bodily-planning (krodha-kārita-kāya-saṃrambha), pride-others-bodily-planning (māna-kārita-kāya-saṃrambha), deceitfulness-others-bodily-planning (māyā-kārita-kāya-saṃrambha), greed-others-bodily-planning (lobha-kārita-kāya-saṃrambha), anger-approval-bodily-planning (krodha-anumata-kāya-saṃrambha), pride-approval-bodily-planning (māna-anumata- kāya-saṃrambha), deceitfulness-approval-bodily-planning (māyā-anumata-kāya-saṃrambha), and greed-approval-bodily-planning (lobha-anumata-kāya-saṃrambha). Similarly, the living-substratum (jīvādhikaraṇa) due to speech-planning (vacana-saṃrambha) is of twelve kinds, and due to thought-planning (mana-saṃrambha) too is of twelve kinds. These make up thirty-six.

In the same manner, there are thirty-six kinds of the living-substratum (jīvādhikaraṇa) due to preparation (samārambha), and another thirty-six kinds due to commencement (ārambha). All three add up to one hundred and eight. The term ‘ca’ is intended to include the subtypes of each of the passions (kaṣāya): that which leads to endless worldly existence (anantānubandhī), that which hinders partial self-discipline (apratyākhyāna), that which hinders complete self-discipline (pratyākhyāna), and that which hinders perfect right-conduct (saṃjvalana).

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