Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary)

by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626

This page describes two classes of the five-sensed beings which is verse 2.24 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 24 of the chapter Category of the Living and includes an extensive commentary.

Verse 2.24 - Two classes of the five-sensed beings

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 2.24:

संज्ञिनः समनस्काः ॥ २.२४ ॥

saṃjñinaḥ samanaskāḥ || 2.24 ||

The five-sensed beings with the mind (mana) are called ‘saṃjñī’. (24)

Hindi Anvayarth:

अन्वयार्थ: [समनस्काः] मनसहित जीवों को [संज्ञिनः] सैनी कहते हैं।

Anvayartha: [samanaskah] manasahita jivom ko [samjninah] saini kahate haim |

Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:

Thus, the mundane (saṃsārī) souls are of two kinds–the trasa and the sthāvara. On the basis of the senses, they are of five kinds. Now the two classes of the five-sensed beings are mentioned.

The mind (mana) has been described earlier. Those that are endowed with the mind are called ‘saṃjñī’. From this it follows that the other transmigrating souls are not endowed with the mind; they are ‘asaṃjñī’. It is contended that the adjective ‘samanaskaḥ’ in the sūtra is unnecessary as the function of the mind is the investigation of the good and the bad and ‘saṃjñī’ also means the same. But it is not so. The word ‘saṃjñā’ is used in many senses like the name, the knowledge, and the desire for food. Thus the word ‘saṃjñī’ would extend to all souls having such attributes. To exclude such an interpretation, ‘samanaskaḥ’–those with the mind–is mentioned. By this, even in the absence of the functioning of the mind–discriminating between the good and the bad–in embryonic stage, in unconscious state and in sleep, it is proper to call those endowed with the mind as ‘saṃjñī’.

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