by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626
This page describes twenty-one kinds of audayika-bhava which is verse 2.6 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 6 of the chapter Category of the Living and includes an extensive commentary.
Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 2.6:
गतिकषायलिंगमिथ्यादर्शनाज्ञानासंयतासिद्ध लेश्याश्चतुश्चतुस्त्र्येकैकैकैकषड्भेदाः ॥ २.६ ॥
gatikaṣāyaliṃgamithyādarśanājñānāsaṃyatāsiddha leśyāścatuścatustryekaikaikaikaṣaḍbhedāḥ || 2.6 ||
The disposition (bhāva) due to the fruition of karmas–audāyika–is of twenty-one kinds: states of existence–gati, passions–kaṣāya, sex–liṅga, wrong-belief–mithyādarśana, wrong-knowledge–ajñāna, non-restraint–asaṃyama, imperfect-disposition–asiddha, and colouration–leśyā, which are of four, four, three, one, one, one, one and six kinds, respectively. (6)
अन्वयार्थ: [गति] तिर्यंच, नरक, मनुष्य और देव-यह चार गतियाँ, [कषाय] क्रोध, मान, माया, लोभ-यह चार कषायें, [लिंग] स्त्रीवेद, पुरुषवेद और नपुसंकवेद-यह तीन लिंग, [मिथ्यादर्शन] मिथ्यादर्शन [अज्ञान] अज्ञान [असंयत] असंयम [असिद्ध] असिद्धत्व तथा [लेश्याः] कृष्ण, नील, कापोत, पीत, पद्म और शुक्ल-यह छह लेश्यायें, इस प्रकार [चतुः चतुः त्रि एक एक एक एक षड् भेदाः] 4+4+3+1+1+1+1+6=21, इस प्रकार सब मिलाकर औदयिकभाव के 21 भेद हैं।
Anvayartha: [gati] tiryamca, naraka, manushya aura deva-yaha cara gatiyam, [kashaya] krodha, mana, maya, lobha-yaha cara kashayem, [limga] striveda, purushaveda aura napusamkaveda-yaha tina limga, [mithyadarshana] mithyadarshana [ajnana] ajnana [asamyata] asamyama [asiddha] asiddhatva tatha [leshyah] krishna, nila, kapota, pita, padma aura shukla-yaha chaha leshyayem, isa prakara [catuh catuh tri eka eka eka eka shad bhedah] 4+4+3+1+1+1+1+6=21, isa prakara saba milakara audayikabhava ke 21 bheda haim |
Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:
The twenty-one kinds of disposition consequent on the fruition (udaya) of karmas are described next.
States of existence (gati) are four: infernal existence (narakagati), subhuman existence (tiryañcagati), human existence (manuṣyagati) and celestial existence (devagati). On the fruition of name-karma (nāmakarma) of infernal existence (narakagati), the disposition of infernal being is manifested; hence, infernal existence (narakagati) is due to the fruition of karmas–audāyika. Similarly it should be understood in regard to the other three states of existence (gati).
The passions (kaṣāya) are of four kinds:
The karma which rouses anger (krodha) on its fruition (udaya) is anger-rousing karma. Similarly it should be understood in regard to the other three passions (kaṣāya).
The sexes (liṅga) are of three kinds:
- the male-feeling (puruṣaveda),
- the female-feeling (strīveda) and
- the neuter-feeling (napuṃsakaveda).
The rise of the female-feeling occurs on the fruition of karmas of the female sex. Similarly it should be understood in regard to the other two sexes. Wrong-belief (mithyādarśana) is one. Wrong-belief in reality is the result of the fruition of karmas of wrong belief (mithyādarśana). Wrong-knowledge (ajñāna) means non-cognition of objects. The rise of knowledge-obscuring (jñānāvaraṇīya) karmas causes non-cognition of objects; it is thus audāyika. The rise of intense karmas–sarvaghāti spardhaka–of conduct-deluding type gives rise to non-restraint (asaṃyama). Hence, non-restraint (asaṃyama) is audāyika. Imperfect-disposition (asiddha) arises on the fruition of karmas in general; it is thus audāyika.
Colouration (leśyā) is of two kinds,
- material-colouration (dravyaleśyā) and
- psychical-colouration (bhāvaleśyā).
As this chapter deals with the psychical-factors of the soul, it does not delve into material-colouration (dravyaleśyā). Psychical-colouration (bhāvaleśyā) is the source or cause of vibratory activity of the soul on rise of the passions (kaṣāya); it is thus audāyika.
It is of six kinds:
Now, it is mentioned in the Scripture that there is the presence of white colouration (śuklaleśyā) in case of those with subsided delusion (upaśānta-kaṣāya), with destroyed delusion (kṣīṇa-kaṣāya), and the Omniscient-with-vibration (sayogakevalī). It cannot be so since their passions (kaṣāya) are either subsided or destroyed. It is not a contradiction. From the point of view of the previous colouration of disposition due to past passions, conventionally, it is said that the same is present, owing to presence of activity in them. In case of the Omniscient-without-activity (ayogakevalī), there is no colouration as all activity is absent.