Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary)

by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626

This page describes two kinds of subsidential disposition (aupashamika-bhava) which is verse 2.3 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 3 of the chapter Category of the Living and includes an extensive commentary.

Verse 2.3 - Two kinds of subsidential disposition (aupaśamika-bhāva)

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 2.3:

सम्यक्त्वचारित्रे ॥ २.३ ॥

samyaktvacāritre || 2.3 ||

The two kinds of subsidential (aupaśamika) disposition (bhāva) are subsidential belief (aupaśamika samyaktva) and subsidential conduct (aupaśamika cāritra). (3)

Hindi Anvayarth:

अन्वयार्थ: [सम्यक्त्व] औपशमिक सम्यक्त्व और [चारित्रे] औपशमिक चारित्र-इस प्रकार औपशमिकभाव के दो भेद

Anvayartha: [samyaktva] aupashamika samyaktva aura [caritre] aupashamika caritra-isa prakara aupashamikabhava ke do bheda

Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:

What are the two kinds of characteristics arising from subsidence (upaśama)?

Right belief and right conduct have already been explained. How do these become subsidential (aupaśamika)? Conduct-deluding (cāritra-mohanīya) karmas are of two kinds, the kaṣāyavedanīya and the nokaṣāyavedanīya. When the following seven, the four kaṣāya-vedanīya–anger (krodha), pride (māna), deceitfulness (māyā) and greed (lobha)–of the anantānubandhī type (leading to endless worldly existence), together with the three kinds of faith-deluding (darśana-mohanīya) karmas–samyaktva (slightly clouding right belief), mithyātva (wrong belief) and samyagmithyātva (mixed right and wrong belief)–subside, subsidential belief (aupaśamika samyaktva) arises.

How can karmas subside in case of the eternal misbeliever who is subject to passions (kaṣāya) arising from karmas? It is on the basis of the attainment of favourable-time (kālalabdhi), etc. The first kālalabdhi is with regard to time. The potential soul (with capacity for liberation) bound by karmas becomes capable of attaining the first stage of right belief (prathama samyaktva) when there is the residue of time known as half-time of whirling-round matter (ardhapudgala parivartana). When the residue of time is more than this, that soul is not capable of attaining the first stage of right belief (prathama samyaktva). The second kālalabdhi is with regard to the duration of karmas. The first stage of right belief is not attained when the duration of karmas is either at the maximum or at the minimum. If so, when is it attained? The suitability for the first stage of right belief arises when the karmas of less than koṭākoṭi sāgaropama duration are bound, and when, owing to the purification of the soul, the existing karmas also are of duration of koṭākoṭi sāgaropama less numerable thousand sāgaropama. The third kālalabdhi is with regard to birth (bhava). The worthy soul endowed with the five senses and the mind (saṃjñī), fully developed (paryāptaka) and purified (sarvaviśuddha), attains the first stage of right faith–subsidential belief (aupaśamika samyaktva). Besides, recollection of the previous births is also among the causes.

Subsidential conduct (aupaśamika cāritra) arises on the subsidence of all the deluding (mohanīya) karmas. Right belief–samyaktva–is mentioned first as it is the basis of right conduct (cāritra).

Let's grow together!

For over a decade, this site has never bothered you with ads. I want to keep it that way. But I humbly request your help to keep doing what I do best: provide the world with unbiased truth, wisdom and knowledge.

Let's make the world a better place together!

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: