by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626
This page describes the reality (‘tattva’) which is verse 1.4 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 4 of the chapter Right Faith and Knowledge and includes an extensive commentary.
Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 1.4:
जीवाजीवात्रवबन्धसंवरनिर्जरामोक्षास्तत्त्वम् ॥ १.४ ॥
jīvājīvātravabandhasaṃvaranirjarāmokṣāstattvam || 1.4 ||
अन्वयार्थ: [जीवाजीवात्रवबन्धसंवरनिर्जरामोक्षाः] 1. जीव, 2. अजीव, 3. आस्रव, 4. बन्ध, 5. संवर, 6. निर्जरा और 7. मोक्ष-यह सात [तत्त्वम्] तत्त्व हैं।
Anvayartha: [jivajivatravabandhasamvaranirjaramokshah] 1. jiva, 2. ajiva, 3. asrava, 4. bandha, 5. samvara, 6. nirjara aura 7. moksha-yaha sata [tattvam] tattva haim |
Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:
The soul (jīva) is characterized by consciousness (cetanā). Consciousness has knowledge (jñāna), etc., as its signs. The non-soul (ajīva) has characteristics opposite to the soul (jīva). The inflow of auspicious (śubha) and inauspicious (aśubha) karmic matter into the soul is influx (āsrava). The intermingling in the same space-points (pradeśa) of the soul and the karmas is bondage (bandha). The blockage of influx (āsrava) of karmic matter into the soul is stoppage (saṃvara). Separation or falling off of a part of karmic matter from the soul is dissociation (nirjarā). The complete annihilation of all karmic matter bound with the soul is liberation (mokṣa). These are described in detail later on. The soul (jīva) is mentioned first in the sūtra as all fruits are experienced by it. The non-soul (ajīva) is mentioned next as it is of service to the soul (jīva). Influx (āsrava) is mentioned next as it concerns both the soul (jīva) and the non-soul (ajīva). Bondage (bandha) comes next as it follows influx (āsrava). As there is no bondage for one who is well shielded, hence stoppage (saṃvara) is the opposite of bondage (bandha); stoppage, therefore, is mentioned next to bondage. Dissociation (nirjarā) takes place after stoppage (saṃvara) and hence it is mentioned next. As liberation (mokṣa) is the final outcome, it is mentioned last.
Merit (puṇya) and demerit (pāpa) must be included in the sūtra as some learned commentators have spoken of nine categories. No, it is not necessary; these–merit (puṇya) and demerit (pāpa)–are implied in influx (āsrava) and bondage (bandha). But then the mention of influx (āsrava), etc., is also unnecessary as these are included in the soul (jīva) and the non-soul (ajīva). No, it is not unnecessary. Liberation (mokṣa) is the main theme of the work so these must be mentioned. Liberation (mokṣa) is preceded by the cycle of births and deaths and influx (āsrava) and bondage (bandha) are the main causes of transmigration. Stoppage (saṃvara) and dissociation (nirjarā) are the chief causes of liberation. Hence these are mentioned severally.