Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary)

by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626

This page describes right faith (samyagdarshana) which is verse 1.2 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 2 of the chapter Right Faith and Knowledge and includes an extensive commentary.

Verse 1.2 - Right faith (samyagdarśana)

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 1.2:

तत्त्वार्थश्रद्धानं सम्यग्दर्शनम् ॥ १.२ ॥

tattvārthaśraddhānaṃ samyagdarśanam || 1.2 ||

Belief in substances, ascertained as these are, is right faith (samyagdarśana). (2)

Hindi Anvayarth:

अन्वयार्थ: [तत्त्वार्थश्रद्धानं] तत्त्व (वस्तु) के स्वरूप सहित अर्थ-जीवादि पदार्थों की श्रद्धा करना [सम्यग्दर्शनम्] सम्यग्दर्शन है।

Anvayartha: [tattvarthashraddhanam] tattva (vastu) ke svarupa sahita artha-jivadi padarthom ki shraddha karana [samyagdarshanam] samyagdarshana hai |

Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:

This sūtra defines right faith.

Tattva’ is the ‘nature’ (bhāva) of the substance (padārtha); the nature of the substance, as it is, is ‘tattva’. ‘Artha’ means ‘ascertainment’. The compound ‘tattvārtha’ means ascertainment of the substance, as it is. Or, ‘tattvārtha’ means ascertainment of the nature (bhāva) of the substance as the two, the nature (bhāva) and the substance (padārtha), are not distinct from each other. Belief in what has been ascertained as the nature of the substance is right faith (samyag-darśana).

As this treatise is concerned about the path to liberation, the meaning of the word ‘darśana’ is taken as ‘faith’ or ‘belief’ rather than ‘seeing’. Faith or ‘darśana’–ascertainment of substances–is a characteristic of the soul (ātmā) and when faith becomes right it is called ‘samyagdarśana’. Right faith is the cause for the attainment of liberation (mokṣa). Right faith is the subject only of potential (bhavya) souls. Seeing is the function of the eyes and it is common to living beings; it is not appropriate to consider it helpful in the attainment of liberation (mokṣa).

Right faith (samyagdarśana) is of two kinds–with-attachment (sarāga), and without-attachment (vītarāga). Right faith with-attachment (sarāga samyagdarśana) is characterized by signs such as tranquility–praśama; incessant fear of worldly existence–saṃvega; compassion for the worldly beings–anukampā; and keen intellect based on the teaching of the Scripture and the preceptor–āstikya. The man with ‘āstikya’ believes that the substances–souls and non-souls–exist, that the universe is without beginning and end, that no entity is the creator of the universe, and that the substance undergoes transformation due to its own nature although there is the presence of the cause-and-effect (nimitta-naimittika) relationship with other substances. Right faith without-attachment (vītarāga samyag-darśana) is solely the purity of the soul.

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