Kalpa-sutra (Lives of the Jinas)

by Hermann Jacobi | 1884 | 24,941 words | ISBN-10: 8120801237 | ISBN-13: 9788120801233

The English translation of the Kalpa Sutra of Bhadrabahu, which represents one of the Cheda-sutras in Shvetambara Jainism. Traditionally dated to the 4th-century BCE, it contains the biographies of Mahavira and Parshvanatha, two of the twenty-four Tirthankaras. Alternative titles: Kalpa-sūtra (कल्प-सूत्र) or Kalpasūtra (कल्पसूत्र, kalpasutra)...

Life of Parshva

In that period, in that age lived the Arhat Pārśva, the people’s favourite[1], the five most important moments of whose life happened when the moon was in conjunction with the asterism Viśākhā: in Viśākhā he descended (from heaven), and having descended thence, entered the womb (of his mother); in Viśākhā he was born; in Viśākhā, tearing out his hair, he left the house and entered the state of houselessness; in Viśākhā he obtained the highest knowledge and intuition, called Kevala, which is infinite, supreme, unobstructed, unimpeded, complete, and full; in Viśākhā he obtained final liberation. (149)

In that period, in that age, in the first month of summer, in the first fortnight, the dark (fortnight) of Caitra, on its fourth day, the Arhat Pārśva, the people’s favourite, descended from the Prāṇata Kalpa[2], where he had lived for twenty Sāgaropamas, here on the continent Jambūdvīpa, in Bharatavarṣa, in the town of Benares; and in the middle of the night when the moon was in conjunction with the asterism Viśākhā, after the termination of his allotted length of life, divine nature, and existence (among the gods), he took the form of an embryo in the womb of the queen Vāmā, wife of Aśvasena, king (of Benares). (150)

The knowledge of the Arhat Pārśva, the people’s favourite, (about this) was threefold, &c. (repeat §§ 3-95 after making the necessary substitutions, and omitting what exclusively applies to Mahāvīra, all down to) comfortably carried her unborn child. (i51)

In that period, in that age the Arhat Pārśva, the people’s favourite[3]--after the lapse of nine months and seven and a half days, in the second month of winter, in the third fortnight, the dark (fortnight) of Pauṣya, on its tenth day, in the middle of the night when the moon was in conjunction with the asterism Viśākhā--(Vāmā), perfectly healthy herself, gave birth to a perfectly healthy boy. (152)

In that night in which the Arhat Pārśva, the people’s favourite, was born, &c. (repeat §§ 97-107 with the necessary alterations, all down to) therefore shall the name of our boy be Pārśva[4]. (153, 154)

The Arhat Pārśva, the people’s favourite, clever, with the aspirations of a clever man, of great beauty, controlling his senses, lucky, and modest, lived thirty years as a householder. Then the Laukāntika gods, following the established custom, addressed him with these kind, pleasing, &c., sweet, and soft words: (155)

‘Victory, victory to thee, gladdener of the world!’ (see § 111, down to) Thus they raised the shout of victory. (156) Before the Arhat Pārśva, the people’s favourite, had adopted the life of a householder, &c. (see § 112, down to) indigent persons.

In the second month of winter, in the third fortnight, the dark (fortnight) of Pauṣya, on its eleventh day, in the middle of the night, riding in his palankin called Viśālā, followed on his way by a train of gods, men, and Asuras, &c. (Pārśva) went right through the town of Benares to the park called Aśramapada, and proceeded to the excellent tree Aśoka. There, &c. (see § 116, down to) five handfuls.

When the moon was in conjunction with the asterism Viśākhā, he, after fasting three and a half days without drinking water, put on a divine robe, and together with three hundred men he tore out his hair, and leaving the house entered the state of houselessness. (157)

The Arhat Pārśva, the people’s favourite, for eighty-three days neglected his body, &c. (see § 117, down to) animals. (158)

Thereafter the Arhat Pārśva, the people’s favourite, was houseless, circumspect, &c. (see §§ 1 18-120, down to) meditated upon himself for eighty-three days.

During the eighty-fourth day--it was in the first month of summer, in the first fortnight, the dark (fortnight) of Caitra, on its fourth day, in the early part of the day, when the moon was in conjunction with the asterism Viśākhā--Pārśva, under a Dhātaki tree, after fasting two and a half days without drinking water, being engaged in deep meditation, reached the infinite, &c. (see § 120, down to) highest knowledge and intuition called Kevala, &c. (see § 121, down to) moment. (159)

The Arhat Pārśva, the people’s favourite, had eight Gaṇas and eight Gaṇadharas (enumerated in a Śloka):

Śubha and Āryaghoṣa, Vasiṣṭha[5] and Brahmacārin, Saumya and Śrīdhara, Vīrabhadra and Yaśas. (160)

The Arhat Pārśva, the people’s favourite, had an excellent community of sixteen thousand Sramaṇas with Āryadatta[6] at their head; (161) thirty-eight thousand nuns with Puṣpacūlā at their head; (162) one hundred and sixty-four thousand lay votaries with Suvrata at their head; (163) three hundred and twenty-seven thousand female lay votaries with Sunandā at their head; (164) three hundred and fifty sages who knew the fourteen Pūrvas, &c. (see § 138); (165) fourteen hundred sages who were possessed of the Avadhi knowledge; one thousand Kevalins; eleven hundred sages who could transform themselves, six hundred sages of correct knowledge, one thousand male and two thousand female disciples who had reached perfection, seven hundred and fifty sages of vast intellect, six hundred professors, and twelve hundred sages in their last birth. (166)

The Arhat Pārśva, the people’s favourite, instituted two epochs in his capacity of a Maker of an end: the epoch relating to generations and the epoch relating to psychical condition; the former ended in the fourth generation, the latter in the third year of his Kevaliship. (167)

In that period, in that age the Arhat Pārśva, the people’s favourite, lived thirty years as a householder, eighty-three days in a state inferior to perfection, something less than seventy years as a Kevalin, full seventy years as a Śramaṇa, and a hundred years on the whole.

When his fourfold Karman[7] was exhausted and in this Avasarpiṇī era the greater part of the Duḥshamasuṣamā period had elapsed, in the first month of the rainy season, in the second fortnight, the light (fortnight) of Śrāvaṇa, on its eighth day, in the early part of the day when the moon was in conjunction with the asterism Viśākhā, (Pārśva), after fasting a month without drinking water, on the summit of mount Sammeta, in the company of eighty-three persons, stretching out his hands, died, &c. (all down to) freed from all pains. (168) Since the time that the Arhat Pārśva, the people’s favourite, died, &c. (all down to) freed from all pains, twelve centuries have elapsed, and of the thirteenth century this is the thirtieth year. (169)

_______________________

End of the Life of Pārśva.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

Purisādāṇīya, explained: who is to be chosen among men because of his preferable karman.

[2]:

This is the tenth world of the gods.

[3]:

As regards the construction of this passage compare § 96, note 1.

[4]:

This name was given him because before his birth his mother, lying on her couch, saw in the dark a black serpent crawling about. This is the account given by the commentator, who forgets to tell us how it comes to bear on the name Pārśva.

[5]:

C. has Visiṭṭha, i.e. Viśiṣṭa.

[6]:

Āriyadinna in the original.

[7]:

See § 147.

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