Kalpa-sutra (Lives of the Jinas)

by Hermann Jacobi | 1884 | 24,941 words | ISBN-10: 8120801237 | ISBN-13: 9788120801233

The English translation of the Kalpa Sutra of Bhadrabahu, which represents one of the Cheda-sutras in Shvetambara Jainism. Traditionally dated to the 4th-century BCE, it contains the biographies of Mahavira and Parshvanatha, two of the twenty-four Tirthankaras. Alternative titles: Kalpa-sūtra (कल्प-सूत्र) or Kalpasūtra (कल्पसूत्र, kalpasutra)...

Life of Mahavira, Lecture 5

In that night in which the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra was born, there was a divine lustre originated by many descending and ascending gods and goddesses, and in the universe, resplendent with one light, the conflux of gods occasioned great confusion and noise. (97)[1]

In that night in which the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra was born, many demons in Vaiśramaṇa’s service belonging to the animal world, rained down on the palace of king Siddhārtha one great shower of silver, gold, diamonds, clothes, ornaments, leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, garlands, perfumes, sandal, powder, and riches. (98)[2]

After the Bhavanapati, Vyantara, Jyotiṣka, and Vaimānika gods had celebrated the feast of the inauguration of the Tīrthakara’s birthday, the Kṣatriya Siddhārtha called, at the break of the morning, together the town policemen and addressed them thus: (99)

‘O beloved of the gods, quickly set free all prisoners in the town of Kuṇḍapura, increase measures and weights, give order that the whole town of Kuṇḍapura with its suburbs be sprinkled with water, swept, and smeared (with cowdung, &c.) that in triangular places, in places where three or four roads meet, in courtyards, in squares, and in thoroughfares, the middle of the road and the path along the shops be sprinkled, cleaned, and swept; that platforms be erected one above the other; that the town be decorated with variously coloured flags and banners, and adorned with painted pavilions[3]; that the walls bear impressions in Gośīrṣa, fresh red sandal, and Dardara[4] of the hand with outstretched fingers; that luck-foreboding vases be put on the floor, and pots of the same kind be disposed round every door and arch; that big, round, and long garlands, wreaths, and festoons be hung low and high; that the town be furnished with offerings, &c. (see § 32, down to) smelling box; that players, dancers, rope-dancers, wrestlers, boxers, jesters, story-tellers, ballad-singers, actors[5], messengers[6], pole-dancers, fruit-mongers, bag-pipers, lute-players, and many Tālācaras[7] be present. Erect and order to erect thousands of pillars and poles, and report on the execution of my orders.’ (100)

When the family servants were thus spoken to by king Siddhārtha, they--glad, pleased, and joyful, &c. (see § 58)--accepted the words of command, saying, ‘Yes, master!’

Then they set free all prisoners, &c. (see § 100, down to) pillars and poles. Having done this, they returned to king Siddhārtha, and laying their hands on their heads, reported on the execution of his orders. (101 )

The king Siddhārtha then went to the hall for gymnastic exercises, &c. (see §§ 60 and 61[8]). (After having bathed) the king accompanied by his whole seraglio 4, and adorned with flowers, scented robes, garlands, and ornaments, held during ten days the festival in celebration of the birth of a heir to his kingdom; (it was held) under the continuous din and sound of trumpets, with great state and splendour, with a great train of soldiers, vehicles, and guests, under the sound, din, and noise of conches, cymbals, drums, castanets, horns, small drums, kettle drums, Murajas, Mṛdaṅgas, and Dundubhis[9], which were accompanied at the same time by trumpets[10]. The customs, taxes, and confiscations were released, I buying and selling prohibited, no policemen were allowed to enter houses, great and small fines were remitted, and debts cancelled. Numberless excellent actors performed[11] and many Tālācaras were present, drums sounded harmoniously, fresh garlands and wreaths were seen everywhere, and the whole population in the town and in the country rejoiced and was in full glee. (102)

When the ten days of this festival were over, the king Siddhārtha gave and ordered to be gives hundreds and thousands and hundred-thousands of offerings to the gods, gifts, and portions (of goods); he received and ordered to be received hundreds, thousands, and hundred-thousands of presents. (103)[12]

The parents of the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra celebrated the birth of their heir on the first day, on the third day they showed him the sun and the moon, on the sixth day they observed the religious vigil; after the eleventh day, when the impure operations and ceremonies connected with the birth of a child had been performed, and the twelfth day had come, they prepared plenty of food, drink, spices, and sweetmeats, invited their friends, relations, kinsmen, agnates, cognates, and followers, together with I the Jñātṛka Kṣatriyas. Then they bathed, made offerings (to the house-gods), and performed auspicious rites and expiatory acts, put on excellent, lucky, pure court-dress, and adorned their persons with small but costly ornaments. At dinner-time they sat down on excellent, comfortable chairs in the dining-hall, and together with their friends, relations, kinsmen, agnates, cognates and followers, and with the Jñātṛka Kṣatriyas they partook, ate, tasted, and interchanged (bits) of a large collation of food, drink, spices, and sweetmeats. (104)

After dinner they went (to the meeting hall[13]) after having cleansed their mouths and washed; when perfectly clean, they regaled and honoured their friends, &c. (see § 104, down to) Jñātṛka Kṣatriyas with many flowers, clothes, perfumes, garlands, and ornaments. Then they spoke thus to their friends, &c.: (105)

‘Formerly, O beloved of the gods, when we had begotten this our boy, the following personal, reflectional, desirable idea occurred to our mind: “From the moment that this our boy has been begotten, our silver increased, our gold increased, &c. (see § 91, down to) Vardhamāna. Now our wishes have been fulfilled, therefore shall the name of our boy be Vardhamāna.”’ (106, 107)[14]

The Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra belonged to the Kāśyapa gotra. His three names have thus been recorded: by his parents he was called Vardhamāna; because he is devoid of love and hate, he is called Śramaṇa (i.e. Ascetic); because he stands fast in midst of dangers and fears, patiently bears hardships and calamities, adheres to the chosen rules of penance, is wise, indifferent to pleasure and pain, rich in control, and gifted with fortitude, the name Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra has been given him by the gods. (108)[15]

The Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra’s father belonged to the Kāśyapa gotra; he had three names: Siddhārtha, Śreyāṃsa, and Jasaṃsa, &c. (see Ācārāṅga Sūtra II, 15, § 15, down to) Śeṣavatī and Yaśovatī. (109)

The Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra--clever, with the aspirations of a clever man, of great beauty, controlling (his senses), lucky, and modest; a Jñātṛ Kṣatriya, the son of a Jñātṛ Kṣatriya; the moon of the clan of the Jñātṛs; a Videha, the son of Videhadattā, a native of Videha, a prince of Videha--had lived thirty years in Videha when his parents went to the world of the gods (i.e. died), and he with the permission of his elder brother and the authorities of the kingdom[16] fulfilled his promise. At that moment the Laukāntika gods, following the established custom, praised and hymned him with these kind, pleasing, &c. (see § 47, down to) sweet, and soft words: (110)

‘Victory, victory to thee, gladdener of the world! Victory, victory to thee, lucky one! Luck to thee, bull of the best Kṣatriyas! Awake, reverend lord of the world! Establish the religion of the law which benefits all living beings in the whole universe! It will bring supreme benefit to all living beings in all the world!’

Thus they raised the shout of victory. (111) Before the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra had adopted the life of a householder (i.e. before his marriage) he possessed supreme, unlimited[17], unimpeded knowledge and intuition. The Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra perceived with this his supreme unlimited knowledge and intuition that the time for his Renunciation[18] had come. He left his silver, he left his gold, he left his riches, corn, majesty, and kingdom; his army, grain, treasure, storehouse, town, seraglio, and subjects; he quitted and rejected his real, valuable property, such as riches, gold, precious stones, jewels, pearls, conches, stones, corals, rubies, &c.; he distributed presents through proper persons, he distributed presents among indigent persons. (112)[19]

In that period, in that age, in the first month of winter, in the first fortnight, in the dark (fortnight) of Mārgaśiras, on its tenth day, when the shadow had turned towards the east and the (first) Pauruṣī[20] was full and over, on the day called Suvrata, in the Muhūrta called Vijaya, in the palankin Candraprabhā, (Mahāvīra) was followed on his way[21] by a train of gods, men, and Asuras, (and surrounded) by a swarm of shell-blowers, proclaimers, pattivallas, courtiers, men carrying others on the back, heralds, and bell bearers. They praised and hymned him with these kind, pleasing, &c. (see § 47, down to) sweet and soft words: (113)

‘Victory, victory to thee, gladdener of the world! Victory to thee, lucky one! Luck to thee! with undisturbed knowledge, intuition, and good conduct conquer the unconquered Senses; defend the conquered Law of the Śramaṇas; Majesty, conquering all obstacles, live in Perfection; put down with thy devotion Love and Hate, the (dangerous) wrestlers; vigorously gird thy loins with constancy and overcome the eight Karmans, our foes, with supreme, pure meditation; heedful raise the banner of content, O Hero! in the arena of the three worlds gain the supreme, best knowledge, called Kevala, which is free from obscurity; obtain the pre-eminent highest rank (i.e. final liberation) on that straight road which the best Jinas have taught; beat the army of obstacles! Victory, victory to thee, bull of the best Kṣatriyas! Many days, many fortnights, many months, many seasons, many half-years, many years be not afraid of hardships and calamities, patiently bear dangers and fears; be free from obstacles in the practice of the law!’

Thus they raised the shout of victory. (114)

Then the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra--gazed on by a circle of thousands of eyes[22], praised by a circle of thousands of mouths, extolled by a circle of thousands of hearts, being the object of many thousands of wishes, desired because of his splendour, beauty, and virtues, pointed out by a circle of thousands of forefingers, answering with (a salam) of his right hand a circle of thousands of joined hands of thousands of men and women, passing along a row of thousands of palaces, greeted by sweet and delightful music, as beating of time, performance on the Vīṇā, Tūrya, and the great drum, in which joined shouts of victory, and the low and pleasing murmur of the people; accompanied by all his pomp, all his splendour, all his army, all his train, by all his retinue, by all his magnificence, by all his grandeur, by all his ornaments, by all the tumult, by all the throng, by all subjects, by all actors, by all time-beaters, by the whole seraglio; adorned with flowers, scented robes, garlands, and ornaments, &c. (see § 102, down to) which were accompanied at the same time by trumpets--went right through Kuṇḍapura to a park called the Ṣaṇḍavana of the Jñātṛs and proceeded to the excellent tree Aśoka. (115) There under the excellent tree Aśoka he caused his palankin to stop, descended from his palankin, took off his ornaments, garlands, and finery with his own hands, and with his own hands plucked out his hair in five handfuls. When the moon was in conjunction with the asterism Uttaraphalgunī, he, after fasting two and a half days[23] without drinking water, put on a divine robe, and quite alone, nobody else being present, he tore out his hair and leaving the house entered the state of houselessness. (116)[24]

The Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra for a year and a month wore clothes; after that time he walked about naked, and accepted the alms in the hollow of his hand. For more than twelve years the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvira neglected his body and abandoned the care of it; he with equanimity bore, underwent, and suffered all pleasant or unpleasant occurrences arising from divine powers, men, or animals. (117)[25]

Henceforth the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra was houseless, circumspect[26] in his walking, circumspect in his speaking, circumspect in his begging, circumspect in his accepting (anything), in the carrying of his outfit and drinking vessel; circumspect in evacuating excrements, urine, saliva, mucus, and uncleanliness of the body; circumspect in his thoughts, circumspect in his words, circumspect in his acts[27]; guarding his thoughts, guarding his words, guarding his acts, guarding his senses, guarding his chastity; without wrath, without pride, without deceit, without greed; calm, tranquil, composed, liberated, free from temptations[28], without egoism, without property; he had cut off all earthly ties, and was not stained by any worldliness: as water does not adhere to a copper vessel, or collyrium to mother of pearl (so sins found no place in him); his course was unobstructed like that of Life; like the firmament he wanted no support; like the wind he knew no obstacles; his heart was pure like the water (of rivers or tanks) in autumn; nothing could soil him like the leaf of a lotus; his senses were well protected like those of a tortoise; he was single and alone like the horn of a rhinoceros; he was free like a bird; he was always waking like the fabulous bird Bhāruṇḍa[29], valorous like an elephant, strong like a bull, difficult to attack like a lion, steady and firm like Mount Mandara, deep like the ocean, mild like the moon, refulgent like the sun, pure like excellent gold[30]; like the earth he patiently bore everything; like a well-kindled fire he shone in his splendour.

These words have been summarised in two verses:

A vessel, mother of pearl, life, firmament, wind, water in autumn, leaf of lotus, a tortoise, a bird, a rhinoceros, and Bhāruṇḍa; I

An elephant, a bull, a lion, the king of the mountains, and the ocean unshaken--the moon, the sun, gold, the earth, well-kindled fire. II

There were no obstacles anywhere for the Venerable One. The obstacles have been declared to be of four kinds, viz. with regard to matter, space, time, affects. With regard to matter: in things animate, inanimate, and of a mixed state; with regard to space: in a village or a town or in a wood or in a field or a threshing-floor or a house[31] or a court-yard; with regard to time: in a Samaya[32] or an Āvalikā or in the time of a respiration or in a Stoka or in a Kṣaṇa or in a Lava or in a Muhūrta or in a day or in a fortnight or in a month or in a season or in a half year or in a year or in a long space of time; with regard to affects: in wrath or in pride or in deceit or in greed or in fear or in mirth or in love or in hate or in quarrelling or in calumny or in tale-bearing or in scandal or in pleasure or pain or in deceitful falsehood, &c. (all down to)[33] or in the evil of wrong belief. There was nothing of this kind in the Venerable One. (118)

The Venerable One lived, except in the rainy season, all the eight months of summer and winter, in villages only a single night, in towns only five nights; he was indifferent alike to the smell of ordure and of sandal, to straw and jewels, dirt and gold, pleasure and pain, attached neither to this world nor to that beyond, desiring neither life nor death, arrived at the other shore of the saṃsāra, and he exerted himself for the suppression of the defilement of Karman. (119) With supreme knowledge, with supreme intuition, with supreme conduct, in blameless lodgings, in blameless wandering, with supreme valour, with supreme uprightness, with supreme mildness, with supreme dexterity, with supreme patience, with supreme freedom from passions, with supreme control, with supreme contentment, with supreme understanding, on the supreme path to final liberation, which is the fruit of veracity, control, penance, and good conduct, the Venerable One meditated on himself for twelve years.

During the thirteenth year, in the second month of summer, in the fourth fortnight, the light (fortnight) of Vaiśākha, on its tenth day, when the shadow had turned towards the east and the first wake was over, on the day called Suvrata, in the Muhūrta called Vijaya, outside of the town Grimbhikagrāma on the bank of the river Rijupālika, not far from an old temple, in the field of the householder Sāmāga[34], under a Sal tree, when the moon was in conjunction with the asterism Uttaraphalgunī, (the Venerable One) in a squatting position with joined heels, exposing himself to the heat of the sun, after fasting two and a half days without drinking water, being engaged in deep meditation, reached the highest knowledge and intuition, called Kevala, which is infinite, supreme, unobstructed, unimpeded, complete, and full. (120)[35]

When the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra had become a Jina and Arhat, he was a Kevalin, omniscient and comprehending all objects; he knew and saw all conditions of the world, of gods, men, and demons: whence they come, whither they go, whether they are born as men or animals (cyavana) or become gods or hell-beings (upapāda), the ideas, the thoughts of their minds, the food, doings, desires, the open and secret deeds of all the living beings in the whole world; he the Arhat, for whom there is no secret, knew and saw all conditions of all living beings in the world, what they thought, spoke, or did at any moment. (121)[36]

In that period, in that age the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra stayed the first rainy season in Asthikagrāma[37], three rainy seasons in Campā and Pṛṣṭicampā, twelve in Vaiśālī and Vāṇijagrāma, fourteen in Rājagṛha and the suburb[38] of Nālandā, six in Mithilā, two in Bhadrikā, one in Ālabhikā, one in Paṇitabhūmi[39], one in Śrāvastī, one in the town of Pāpā[40] in king Hastipāla’s office of the writers: that was his very last rainy season. (122)

In the fourth month of that rainy season, in the seventh fortnight, in the dark (fortnight) of Kārttika, on its fifteenth day, in the last night, in the town of Pāpā in king Hastipāla’s office of the writers, the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra died, went off, quitted the world, cut asunder the ties of birth, old age, and death; became a Siddha, a Buddha, a Mukta, a maker of the end (to all misery), finally liberated, freed from all pains. (123)

This occurred in the year called Candra, the second (of the lustrum)[41]; in the month called Prītivardhana; in the fortnight Nandivardhana; on the day Suvratāgni[42], surnamed Upaśama; in the night called Devānandā, surnamed Nirṛti; in the Lava called Arcya; in the respiration called Mukta[43]; in the Stoka called Siddha; in the Karaṇa called Nāga; in the Muhūrta called Sarvārthasiddha; while the moon was in conjunction with the asterism Svāti he died, &c. (see above, all down to) freed from all pains. (124) That night in which the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvira died, &c. (all down to) freed from all pains, was lighted up by many descending and ascending gods. (125)

In that night in which the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra died, &c. (all down to) freed from all pains, a great confusion and noise was originated by many descending and ascending gods. (126)

In that night in which the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra died, &c. (all down to) freed from all pains, his oldest disciple, the monk Indrabhūti of the Gautama gotra, cut asunder the tie of friendship which he had for his master[44], and obtained the highest knowledge and intuition, called Kevala, which is infinite, supreme, &c., complete, and full. (127)

In that night in which the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra died, &c. (all down to) freed from all pains, the eighteen confederate kings of Kāśī and Kośala, the nine Mallakis and nine Licchavis[45], on the day of new moon, instituted an illumination[46] on the Poṣadha, which was a fasting day; for they said: ‘Since the light of intelligence is gone, let us make an illumination of material matter!’ (128)

In that night in which the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra died, &c. (all down to) freed from all pains, the great Graha[47] called Kṣudrātma, resembling a heap of ashes, which remains for two thousand years in one asterism, entered the natal asterism of the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra. (129) From the moment in which the great Graha, &c., entered the natal asterism of the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra, there will not be paid much respect and honour to the Śramaṇas, the Nirgrantha monks and nuns. (130) But when the great Graha, &c., leaves that natal asterism, there will be paid much respect and honour to the Śramaṇas, the Nirgrantha monks and nuns. (131)

In that night in which the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra died, &c. (all down to) freed from all pains, the animalcule called Anuddharī was originated: which when at rest and not moving, is not easily seen by Nirgrantha monks and nuns who have not yet reached the state of perfection, but which when moving and not at rest, is easily seen by Nirgrantha monks and nuns who have not yet reached the state of perfection. (132) On seeing this (animalcule) many Nirgrantha monks and nuns must refuse to accept the offered alms.

‘Master, why has this been said?’ ‘After this time the observance of control will be difficult.’ (133)

In that period, in that age the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra had an excellent community[48] of fourteen thousand Śramaṇas with Indrabhūti at their head; (134) thirty-six thousand nuns with Candanā at their head; (135) one hundred and fifty-nine thousand lay votaries with Śaṅkhaśataka at their head; (136) three hundred and eighteen thousand female lay votaries with Sulasā and Revatī at their head; (137) three hundred sages who knew the fourteen Pūrvas, who though no Jinas came very near them, who knew the combination of all letters, and like Jina preached according to the truth; (138) thirteen hundred sages who were possessed of the Avadhi-knowledge and superior a,, qualities; (139) seven hundred Kevalins who possessed the combined[49] best knowledge and intuition; (140) seven hundred who could transform themselves, and, though no gods, had obtained the powers (ṛddhi) of gods; (141) five hundred sages of mighty intellect[50] who know the mental conditions of all developed beings possessed of intellect and five senses in the two and a half continents and two oceans; (142) four hundred professors who were never vanquished in the disputes occurring in the assemblies of gods, men, and Asuras; (143) seven hundred male and fourteen hundred female disciples who reached perfection, &c. (all down to) freed from all pains; (144) eight hundred sages in their last birth who were happy as regards their station, happy as regards their existence[51], lucky as regards their future. (145) The Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra instituted two epochs in his capacity of a Maker of an end: the epoch relating to generations, and the epoch relating to psychical condition; in the third generation ended the former epoch, and in the fourth year of his Kevaliship the latter. (146)[52]

In that period, in that age the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra lived thirty years as a householder, more than full twelve years in a state inferior to perfection, something less than thirty years as a Kevalin, forty-two years as a monk, and seventy-two years on the whole. When his Karman which produces Vedanīya (or what one has to experience in this world), Āyus (length of life), name, and family, had been exhausted, when in this Avasarpiṇī era the greater part of the Duḥshamasuṣamā period had elapsed and only three years and eight and a half months were left, when the moon was in conjunction with the asterism Svāti, at the time of early morning, in the town of Pāpā, and in king Hastipāla’s office of the writers, (Mahāvīra) single and alone, sitting in the Samparyaṅka posture, reciting the fifty-five lectures which detail the results of Karman, and the thirty-six[53] unasked questions, when he just explained the chief lecture (that of Marudeva) he died, &c. (see § 124, all down to) freed from all pains. (147) Since the time that the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvira died, &c. (all down to) freed from all pains, nine centuries have elapsed, and of the tenth century this is the eightieth year. Another redaction has ninety-third year (instead of eightieth)[54]. (148)


End of the Fifth Lecture.


End of the Life of Mahāvīra.

Footnotes and references:


Cf. Ācārāṅga Sūtra II, 15, § 7.


Cf. Ācārāṅga Sūtra II, 15, § 8.


According to the commentary this may also be translated: smeared (with cowdung) and whitewashed.


Dardara is sandal brought from Dardara. All who have travelled in India will have noticed on walls the impressions of the hand mentioned in the text.


Lasakā bhāṇḍa.


Ārakṣakās talārā, ākhyāyakā vā. The translation is conjectural.


Tālācaras are those who by clapping the hands beat the time during a performance of music.


The text has down to 'with his whole seraglio.' But as no such words occur in the passage in question, they seem to point to the description in § 115, which contains the latter part of this passage.


Murajas, Mṛdaṅgas, Dundubhis are different kinds of drums.




This is the translation of a varia lectio. The adopted text has: while courtezans and excellent actors performed.


Cf. Ācārāṅga Sūtra II, 15, § 11.


This is an addition of the commentator.


Cf. Ācārāṅga Sūtra II, 15, § 1 2.


See Ācārāṅga Sūtra II, 15, § 15.


Guru-mahattara is the original of the last words, which I have translated according to the explanation of the commentary.


Ābhogika. It is inferior to the Avadhi knowledge. In a quotation it is said that (the knowledge) of the Nairayikas, Devas, and Tīrthakaras does not reach the Avadhi; it is total with them, but with others only partial.


Niṣkramaṇa = pravrajyā.


Cf. Ācārāṅga Sūtra II, 15, § 17.


Yāma or time of three hours.


Samaṇugammamāṇa-magge. The commentator divides samanugammamāṇam agge, and explains the passage thus: him who was followed by, &c., and surrounded by, &c, (agre parivṛtam) they praised and hymned, and the authorities spoke thus to him.


Literally, by thousands of circles of eyes, &c. &c.


I.e. taking only one meal in three days. He fasted therefore two continuous days and the first part of the third.


Cf. Ācārāṅga Sūtra II, 15, § 22.


Cf. Ācārāṅga Sūtra II, 15, § 23.


Circumspect is samita, guarding gupta; the former relates to execution of good acts, the latter to the abstinence from bad ones.


This is the triad man as mind, vāc speech, kāya body.


Each of these birds has one body, two necks, and three legs.


The last three similes cannot be translated accurately, as they contain puns which must be lost in the translation. The moon is somalese, of soft light, but Mahāvīra has pure thoughts (leśyā, manaso bahirvikāra); the sun is dittateo of splendent light, Mahāvīra of splendent vigour; gold is jāyarūva, a synonym of kaṇaga gold, Mahāvīra always retains his own nature. It is worthy of remark that only two regular puns (for the second is but a common metaphor) occur in a passage in which a later writer would have strained his genius to the utmost to turn every simile into a pun. The difference of style is best seen on comparing this passage with e. g. the description of the nun Sarasvatī and of autumn in the Kālakācārya Kathānaka; see my edition, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenl. Gesellschaft, XXXIV, pp. 260, 263.


Ghare vā, omitted in my edition.


Different names of divisions of time; a Stoka contains seven respirations, a Kṣaṇa many (bahutara) respirations (according to another commentary a Kṣaṇa contains six Nāḍikās, it is the sixth part of a Ghaṭī), a Lava contains seven Stokas, and a Muhūrta seventy Lavas. This system of dividing time differs from all other known; compare Colebrooke, Misc. Essays, II2, pp. 540, 542. Wilson, Viṣṇu Purāṇa, I2, p. 47, note 2.--Expunge pakkhevā in my edition.


The same passage occurs in the Aupapātika Sūtra (ed. Leumann, § 87), but without an indication that it is not complete.


Or Sāmāka.


Cf. Ācārāṅga Sūtra II, 15, § 25.


Cf. Ācārāṅga Sūtra II, 15, § 26.


According to the commentary it was formerly called Vardhamāna, but it has since been called Asthikagrāma, because a Yakṣa Śūlapāṇī had there collected an enormous heap of bones of the people whom he had killed. On that heap of bones the inhabitants had built a temple.


A place in Vajrabhūmi according to the commentaries.


Majjhimā Pāpā, the middle town Pāpā.


The yuga or lustrum contains five years; the third and fifth years are leap years, called abhivardhita, the rest are common years of 354 days and are called candra. The day has 1262 bhāgas.


Some MSS. and the commentary have aggivesa.


Or Supta.


Indrabhūti was on a mission to convert somebody when Mahāvīra died. Being aware that love had no place in one who is free from passion, he suppressed his friendship for his teacher and p. 266 became a Kevalin; he died twelve years after, having lived fifty years as a monk, and altogether ninety-two years.


They were tributary to Ceṭaka, king of Vaiśālī and maternal uncle of Mahāvīra. Instead of Licchavi, which form is used by the Buddhists, the Jainas have Lecchakī as the Sanskrit form of the Prākrit Lecchaī, which may be either.


Pārābhoyaṃ or vārābhoyaṃ. The meaning of this word is not clear, and the commentator also did not know anything certain about it. He therefore tries three different etymological explanations, which are all equally fanciful. I have adopted one which makes vārābhoya to stand for Sanskrit dvārābhoga, which is explained prādīpa, lamp; for this best suits the meaning of the whole passage. The Jainas celebrate the Nirvāṇa of Mahāvīra with an illumination on the night of new moon in the month Kārttika.


It is not clear what is intended by this Graha, the thirtieth in the list of Grahas. Stevenson supposes it to have been a comet appearing at that time. There was a comet at the time of the battle of Salamis, as Pliny tells us, Hist. Nat. II, 25, which would answer pretty well as regards chronology. But it had the form of a horn and not that of a heap of ashes. We must therefore dismiss the idea of identifying it with the Graha in question, and confess that we are at a loss to clear up the mystery of this Graha.


The original has: ukkosiyā samaṇasaṃpayā; ukkosiya is translated utkṛṣṭa; in the sequel I abridge the similar passages which are all constructed on the same model as § 134. It is to be noticed that these numbers though exaggerated are nevertheless rather moderate. Compare the note to the List of the Sthaviras, § 1.


Sambhinna. According to the commentary this word has been explained in two opposite ways. Siddhasena Divākara makes it out to denote that knowledge and intuition functionate at the same time, while Jinabhadragaṇi in the Siddhāntahṛdaya says that in our case knowledge and intuition do functionate alternately.


This is that knowledge which is called manaḥparyāya or the knowledge which divines the thoughts of all people.


Station (gati) is explained devagati, state of the gods, existence (sthiti), devasthiti, devāyūrūpa, existence of the gods, having the length of life of the gods.


The meaning of this rather dark passage is according to the commentary that after three generations of disciples (Vīra, Sudharman, Jambūsvāmin) nobody reached Nirvāṇa; and after the fourth year of Mahāvīra’s Kevaliship nobody entered the path which ends in final liberation, so that all persons who before that moment had not advanced in the way to final liberation, will not reach that state though they may obtain the Kevalam by their austerities and exemplary conduct.


To what facts the two dates in this paragraph relate, is not certain. The commentators confess that there was no fixed tradition, and bring forward the following four facts, which are applied at will to either date:

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