Bhagavati-sutra (Viyaha-pannatti)

by K. C. Lalwani | 1973 | 185,989 words

The English translation of the Bhagavati-sutra which is the fifth Jaina Agama (canonical literature). It is a large encyclopedic work in the form of a dialogue where Mahavira replies to various question. The present form of the Sutra dates to the fifth century A.D. Abhayadeva Suri wrote a vritti (commentary) on the Bhagavati in A.D. 1071. In his J...

Part 2 - Jamāli the rebel

To the west of Brāhmaṇakuṇḍa, there was a city named Kṣatriyakuṇḍa. Description. In that city, there lived a kṣatriya youth named Jamāli. He was rich, powerful, till fearless. He lived in a fine mansion where mṛdaṅgas were played all the time, where there were many beautiful girls with gracious limbs who danced all the while to impart joy, where eulogies were shouted in his praise all the while, where there was joy everywhere, enjoying comforts provided by the six seasons, pre-rain, rain, autumn, winter, spring and summer, happily passing his time, and enjoying the most coveted of human joys in the form of sound, touch, taste, shape and smell.

One day, in all the parks, triangles, squares, highways, everywhere, there was the same uproar from crowds in the city of Kṣatriyakuṇḍa, description as in the Aupapātika Sūtra, till many a citizen spoke among themselves,

“Oh beloved of the gods! Bhagavān Mahāvīra, the organiser of the Order, all knowing and all seeing, has arrived and is camped in the Vahuśālaka park outside Brāhmaṇakuṇḍa. When the mention of such a worthy name and his line is capable of giving great merit,” [etc., as in the Aupapātika, till the flow of the entire populace was in the same direction which was, moving through the city of Kṣatriyakuṇḍa, to the Vahuśālaka park, etc., as in the Aupapātika, till worshipped him in three modes.]

When he heard from his mansion the noise and movement of a multitude of men, Jamāli said unto himself,

“What’s the matter today? Are they celebrating the Indra festival, or Skanda festival, Vasudeva festival, nāga festival, yakṣa festival, spirit festival, well festival, tank festival, river festival, canal festival, mountain festival, tree festival, caitya festival, mound festival or any other, so that people from the lines of Ugra, Bhoga, Rājanya, lkṣvāku, Jnātṛ, Kuru and all others, have, after taking their bath, come out en masse?”

Then he made enquiries from his attendant who ascertained the reason, till made sure of the arrival of Bhagavān Mahāvīra, came back, and gave the following report to his master:

“Oh beloved of the gods! Today there is no Indra festival, or any other, but Bhagavān Mahāvīra has arrived at the Vahuśālaka park and is duly encamped there. So the kṣatriyas from the lines of Ugra, etc., are all on their way thither to pay their homage and obeisance to the worthy soul.”

Having heard these words, Jamāli was highly delighted and pleased. He called forth his men and said unto them, “Oh beloved of the gods! Please arrange at once my horse-drawn chariot with four bells and bring it hither and report to me,” The men carried out the order and reported.

Jamāli went to his bath room and performed the necessary rites connected with bath, as described in the Aupapātika, till wore sandal paste on his body, which was diversely decorated. He came out of his house and took his seat on the chariots. With an umbrella bedecked with koraṇṭaka flowers, and surrounded by many worthy warriors, Jamāli passed through Kṣatriyakuṇḍa and arrived at Vahuśālaka park. Having stopped bis horses, he alighted from the chariot, removed the superfluous decorations and shoes and placed on his shoulder a wrapper with a single fold. Having thus sanctified himself, lie came into the presence of Bhagavān Mahāvīra with folded hands. He moved round him thrice and duly worshipped him. After Bhagavān Mahāvīra had addressed his noble and inspiring words to Jamali [Jamāli] and the vast assembly of men, people went back.

Having heard the sermon, Jamāli was highly delighted and pleased, till he stood up and moved round him thrice, till submitted as follows:

Bhante! I have respect for the tenets of the Nirgranthas. I have faith in these tenets, I have taste for them. I am ready to follow them. They are true, authoritative, true for all times. Oh beloved of the gods! Having taken the permission of my parents, I intend to give up my life as a householder and get tonsured and initiated at your hands in your order of monks.”

On hearing these words, Bhagavān Mahāvīra said, “Oh beloved of the gods! Do as it may please you, but dealy not.”

Having obtained the permission, Jamāli was immensely delighted and pleased at heart. He moved thrice round Bhagavān Mahāvīra, paid him his homage and obeisance, till took his seat again on his horse-drawn vehicle fitted with four bells. He came out from the august presence of

Bhagavān Mahāvīra at the Vahuśālaka park, till with the umbrella decorated with koraṇṭaka flowers spread over his head and. surrounded by many warriors, and passing through the city of Kṣatriyakuṇḍa, he reached the chariot shed outside his house, stopped the horse and alighted from his vehicle.

Then he came to his parents, and having expressed due respect for them, he said,

“My dear parents! To-day I have heard the law (dharma) from no less a person than Bhagavān Mahāvīra. His words have impressed me profoundly, and they appear to me to be very wholesome.”

Parents replied,

“Dear son! You are lucky. You are fortunate. You are pious. You bear auspicious marks, so that you have heard the Law from no less a person than Bhagavān Mahāvira, and that his words have impressed you and appeared to you to be wholesome.”

Jamāli said to his parents thus:

“My dear parents, I am always haunted by the fear the world is, the fear of birth, old age and death. So, my dear parents, if you be so kind as to permit me, I wish to give up the life of a householder, get my head tonsured and be initiated at the hands of Bhagavān Mahāvīra to join his holy order of monks.”

On hearing these words which were harmful, unpalatable, unbearable, non-appealing, causing distress to the mind, and never heard before, and realising their implication, the mother sweated all over her body. She was completely shaken with grief, and the glow on her face suddenly disappeared. She looked pale and was beaten by a deep sorrow. Her body became sick and weak like a lotus garland molested between two palms. She lost her grace, lusture and beauty. The tight ornaments on her body became loose, her bangles slipped out of her arms and crushed on the ground. Her wrapper was in complete disorder. Her body became heavy as she fell down in a swoon. Her tender locks were dishevelled. Like a campak creeper cut with an axe, or like the uprooted pole of Indradvaja (a banner) after the celebration is at an end, she lost her balance, and with her limbs loosened she fell on the ground. The maid servants soon rushed in to sprinkle cool and pure water on her from golden jars which restored her senses, and fanned her with bamboo and palm-leaf fans, with water drops gently pouring on her which gave her rest and confidence.

With her senses restored, the mother lamented, wailed, cried and shouted as follows:

“My dear boy! You are dear to me, you are beloved, an object of affection, a pleasure for the mind, my sole support, my confidant, whom I value most, like a box of jewellery, like a costly stone, like festivity to the living, my joy, only son. Like the udumvara flower (which is not visible), I deem it to be a rare fortune to hear your name, what to speak of being able to fix my eyes on you. I cannot bear even for a moment the separation from you. Hence I suggest that so long as I am alive, you stay at home and serve the line, when I am dead and gone and you too are advanced in age, when the line is securely established, you may renounce the life of a householder and be a monk.”

Jamāli said,

“My dear parents! I appreciate the sentiment expressed by my mother; but think for a moment that this human life is tortured by birth, old age, death, physical ailment, mental pain and a thousand other troubles. This life is transcient, short and brief. Like the colours on the evening sky, like bubbles on water, like dew drops on. the kuśa tip; like a dream or the flash of lightning, human life is restless and fleeting. Its nature is to rot, to fall, to decay, to die. Sooner rather than later, it has, to go. Who can say, my dear parents, who from amongst us is go earlier and who later? So please be good enough to give me permission to join the order of Bhagavān Mahāvīra as a monk.”

Parents replied,

“Dear son! This your body is endowed with grace, with good signs and marks and is full of possibilities. It has the necessary power, strength and merit. It is rich in knowledge and in good luck. It is noble, healthy and able. It is far from debility, it is dignified and full of grace. It has vigorous organs of senses and is at the prime of youth. So long you have grace, luck, youth and possibility, it behoves thee to make use of these. When, later, we are no more, and you have also lived through your age, and enriched the family and the line with progeny, you are free to be initiated by Bhagavān Mahāvīra.”

Jamāli said,

“My dear parents! I appreciate all that you have spoken, but you know well that this human body is the abode of misery, the shelter of many a disease, made of bones which are like hard wood, covered with arteries and veins, like a pot made from clay, a storehouse of impurity. One is required to take care of such a thing all the while. But this body is destined to disentigrate [disintegrate?] someday, and who knows who is to go earlier and who is to be left behind? So please permit me.”

Parents replied,

“Dear boy! Here you have your eight wives, all born in noble families, who have attained their youth. They are alike in grace, alike in age, alike in beauty and grace, full of merit, very worthy of you. They have been brought here from similar families. They are proficient in arts and fit to be taken care of and kept in comfort all the while. They are tender, skilled and polite, sweet and delightful, measured in speech, graceful in laugh, sight, movement and in their daily life. They are endowed with good conduct and good connections, capable with their youth and vitality to enrich the family they have joined. They have love in their mind, affection in their heart, dear and bracing all the while devoted to you. With such loving wives, you should enjoy human life in all respects. So long as your body has grace, luck, youth and possibility, you make full use of it.”

Jamāli said,

“My dear parents! I appreciate all that you have said about my wives. They are really very worthy things. But you know well that these human desires and experiences so much extolled by you are always impure, apart from being transcient. Their base is impure, blood, saliva, semen. They are unpleasent, loathsome, full of foul odour. Through energy and respiration, they generate restlessness, but in themselves, they are unwholesome, transcient, light, impure like kalmala (an impure substance in human body), causing misery, and they are common to all human beings. The enjoyment of desires, as you know, causes severe mental and physical exhaustion. Such a thing may be coveted only by the fools, but wise men always avoid them. The enjoyment of desires only enlongens the process of the infinite world. It is pungent in its outcome, painful like the touch of a bundle of hay, extremely distressing and difficult to get rid of. The enjoyment of desires is a major hurdle on the road to salvation. Considering all these, my dear parents, please permit me.”

Parents replied,

“Dear son! Here in your home, you have a vast store of silver, gold, bell-metal, cloth, till things of value collected by your grand-father, great-grand-father and great great-grand-father. The treasure is so vast that even if it is distributed for seven generations with open palms, enjoyed or shared, it is not likely to come to an end. We request you to make the best use of this treasure and earn honour coveted by men. When you have done this, then you will have time to think of joining the holy order.”

Jamāli said,

“My dear parents! You have just now stated about silver, gold and other treasures, but you know, fire, thief, king and death are everywhere to deprive you of these. Even relatives may claim a portion and co-sharers demand a share. The treasure objects are transcient, short-lived and fleeting. Sooner rather than later, they are destined to go. So please be good to permit me.”

Having failed to change the mind of their son through persuasion, despite all their attractive speeches, arguments, inducements and allurements, Jamāli’s parents changed their method. They now talked of hardship and trouble generated by restraint.

Said they,

“Dear son! The words of the nirgranthas are indeed true. They are unrivalled and have none equal to them. They are just, complete, correct, cutters of the worldly knot. They know the road to perfection and liberation. They are free from falsehood, and capable to end all misery. But, dear son, like the fixed gaze of the snake, the sharp edge of a weapon, grains of corn made from iron, this religion of the nirgranthas is difficult to fulfil. It is as tasteless as a mouthful of sand. It is as difficult to practise as difficult it is to face the tremendous current of the mighty river Gaṅgā or to swim through an ocean with bare hands. It is as difficult to practise as difficult it is to walk on the edge of a naked sword. It is difficult like a rock, and its vows have the sharpness of a sword.

Besides, dear son, the following things are prohibited to a nirgrantha monk:

(1) food prepared or cooked with a monk in view,
(2) food prepared or cooked with a purpose,
(3) food prepared or cooked for self as well as the monk,
(4) increasing the quantity of food on receiving the information that a monk is out on a begging mission,
(5) food mixed with impure staff,
(6) anything bought for a monk,
(7) anything borrowed for a monk,
(8) anything snatched from a child or a servant and offered to a monk,
(9) anything offered without the knowledge of the owner,
(10) anything brought from another place,
(11) food prepared for beggars,
(12) food prepared to feed famine-stricken people,
(13) food prepared for a patient,
(14) food prepared for beggars on a rainy day,
(15) food prepared for guests,
(16) food from the house where the monk is lodged,
(17) food prepared for a monarch, etc.

Besides, a nirgrantha monk is forbidden to take roots, trunk of a tree, fruits, seeds or green vegetables. Dear son! You are fit to enjoy the pleasures of life, and not to tread on the path of sorrow. You are not meant to bear hardships like heat, cold, hunger, thirst, thieves, animals, drones, mosquitoes, and sundry diseases, and pains generated by them. Besides, our dear child, we cannot bear separation from you even for a moment. So we request you to stay at home so long as we are alive, and when we are no more, you are free to join the holy order.”

Jamāli said,

“My dear parents! I fully agree with you about what you have said about the nirgrantha monks and the hardships borne. The practice of restraint is indeed difficult for the wretched, the miserable and the weak, for addicts to mundane life who know not the life ahead, and who are, therefore, immersed in the enjoyment of the so-called pleasures. But I am sure, it is not difficult for those who are steady, powerful, determined and daring. So please permit me.”

When the parents of Jamāli found that all their speeches, arguments, allurements and threat’s were of no use, they had no other alternative but to agree. They gave him permission to join the holy order of monks of Bhagavān Mahāvīra.

Thereafter, Jamāli’s father called his men and spoke unto them as follows:

“Oh beloved of the gods! Quickly sprinkle water inside and outside the city of Kṣatriyakuṇḍa, dean the ground with broomsticks, etc.,” [description as per the Aupapātika, till they came back and reported the due fulfilment of the order.]

Then Jamāli’s father spoke again unto them the following words,

“Oh beloved of the gods! Quickly do arrange for the farewell of our dear son prior to his exit to join the holy order in a very elaborate, grand, worthy and befitting manner.”

When this was done, Jamāli’s parents placed their son on a chair facing towards the east and completed the exit ritual with rich outpourings from 108 golden jars, till 108 earthen jars, with suitable utterances, as contained in the Rājapraśnīya Sūtra.

Having completed the rituals, they hailed him with shouts of vistory [victory?] and success and spoke unto him the following words:

“Dear son! What may we give to you? What may we do for you? What do you need from us?”

Thereon Jamāli said,

“Dear parents! Please get me my duster and the begging bowl from the kutrikā shop; also call in a barber from the same place.”

Jamāli’s father called his men and said,

“Quickly beget three lakh gold pieces from the safe, out of which pay two lakhs for the duster and the begging bowl, and one lakh is to be given to the barber who is to come here at once.”

The orders were duly carried out. When the barber received the invitation, he was immensely pleased. He finished his bath, put on his clothes and came to Jamāli’s father.

Having arrived, the barber shouted victory and success for Jamāli’s father and enquired what for he had been called, whereon said Jamāli’s father as follows:

“Oh beloved of the gods! Please cut the hairs of Jamālikumār [Jamālikumāra] leaving about four fingers’ length at the crest suitable for entry into the order of monks. Having been commissioned thus, the barber was highly delighted.

With folded hands expressing respect, he said, “My master! I shall do as per your order.”

Having accepted the assignment, he washed his hands and feet with scented water, covered his mouth with a clean eightfold cloth and performed the hair-cut, leaving them about four fingers’ length at the crest. The hairs were received by Jamāli’s mother on a piece of clothe white like a swan, washed them clean in scented water, worshipped them with the best of perfumes and garlands, wrapped them in the cloth and placed them in a casket inlaid with gems and precious stones, after which, lamenting the separation of her son, like a garland which had lost its loop, or water bursting into a downpour, or like a bunch of sinduvār flowers scattered or pearls from a broken necklace, profusely shedding tears, said she, “These hairs of my dear son will be like a last meeting or incessant meeting with him on particular days, on festive occasions, during ceremonials, worships and sacrifices meant for the benefit of the nāgas, and so on and so forth.”

Having said like that, she deposited the casket beneath her pillow.

When this was done, Jamāli’s parents placed another chair in the north and offered him an anointment from pitchers made of gold and silver, and soaked him dry with a piece of red and fragrant towel. Then they rubbed on his body gośīrṣa sandal paste. Then they gave him a piece of fine silk cloth to wear which shivered even at the touch of respiration, pleasant to the eyes, bright in colour and soft in touch. The cloth was softer than the saliva from the horse’s mouth, embroidered with golden thread, and printed with the emblem of the swan. Then they placed on his neck a full necklace (with 18 strings), and a half necklace (with 9 strings), and decorated his body with various other ornaments, as described in the Rājapraśnīya Sūtra, till placed a turban studded with precious stones on his head. Needless to add more to the description beyond saying that fully decorated in all respects, he looked like a kalpa tree.

Now, Jamāli’s father called his men and said unto. them as follows

“Oh beloved of the gods! Arrange, at once a palanquin with hundreds of posts with dancing figures carved on them, etc., as per the Rājapraśnīya Sūtra, till to be carried by a thousand bearers, and report to me the execution of my order.”

The valets did accordingly and reported. Then Jamāli, with his fourfold decorations, viz, decoration of the hairs, decoration with cloth, decoration with wreaths and decoration with ornaments, rose from his seat. He boarded the palanquin from the sourh [south?] and sat on the finest cushion meant for him with his face turned towards the east.

Then the mother of Jamāli, having finished her bath, till decorated herself with ornaments and silk with the emblem of a swan and boarded the palanquin from the right and took her seat to the right of Jamāli. Then Jamāli’s caretaker maid, having taken her bath, till decorated herself with ornaments, with the duster and the begging bowl in her hand, boarded the palanquin from the right, and took her seat to the left of Jamāli. Then a lady with a delightful frame, beautiful dress, graceful movement, with her body full of beauty and youth, boarded the palanquin with a white, umbrella in her hand which was decorated with gold; and silver and with garlands made from sundry flowers like lotus, mogara and koraṇṭaka, and spread it on his head in a delightful posture. Then stood, to the left and to the right of Jamāli two beautiful dames with exquisite grace and beautiful robes fanning him with cāmaras The handles of these cāmaras were made from red (pure) gold of immense value studded with diamonds and stones and the hairs were spotlessly, white like the conch, aṅka, moon, mogara (a flower) streaks of water or bubbles over churned nectar. To the northeast of Jamāli stood a woman in delightful robes, as if freshly coming out of her dressing room with a jat which looked like the head of an infatuated elephant and which was white, made of silver, full of water. To the south-east, stood another woman in delightful robes, as if emerging afresh from the dressing room, with a fan in her hand which had its handle made from preciously decorated gold.

Then Jamāli’s father called his men and gave the following order:

“Assemble here a thousand youth of similar complexion, similar age, similar grace, budding with youth, with similar dress and decorations.”

The valets went out to execute the order.

Being thus commissioned, one thousand young men were delighted and happy. They took their bath, dressed and decorated themselves alike and reported to Jamāli’s father.

With folded hands, they paid their respect to him and said,

“Oh beloved of the gods! We are here to act according to your pleasure.”

Thereon spake thus Jamāli’s father,

“Oh beloved of the gods! You have to carry Jamālikumār [Jamālikumāra] in his palanquin.”

The young men did accordingly. Ahead of the palanquin started the following eight auspicious objects: svastika, śrīvatsa, nandyāvarta, vardhamānaka, bhadrāsana, a jar, a fish and a mirror, followed by a jar which was full, and sundry objects as described in the Aupapātika, till followed by a gigantic banner which touched the sky. People followed shouting victory unto the hero. The palanquin was flanked, preceded and followed by men bora in the line of Ugra, Bhoja, etc., and by many a prominent personality.

Jamāli’s father too completed his bath and fulfilled other rites, put on worthy clothes and ornaments befitting the occasion and took his seat on the back of an elephant. With an umbrella decorated with garlands of koraṇṭaka flowers spread over his head, fanned by a pair of white cāmaras, surrounded by horses, elephants, chariots and bards and, a four-fold army, he was at the rear of the procession. There were noble horses of good breed preceding Jamālikumār, noble elephants on both his sides and rows of chariots in the rear. Thus the procession started with the display of grandeur, till resounding with the sound of musical instruments. There were many men in his front carrying jars and plam [palm?] leaves. There followed in the rear many men with poles, javeliṇes, texts, till vīṇā. Next to them moved 108 elephants, 108 horses and 108 chariots. Next to them were many men on foot with poles, javelines and swords. Next to them walked princes, wealthy men, talavars, till rich merchants. Moving through the city of Kṣatriyakuṇḍa, the procession proceed towards Vahuśālaka park outside the city where was camped Bhagavān Mahāvīra with his monks.

As the procession passed through the streets, triangles, squares, highways, in the city, many an indigent person flocked in the expectation of deceiving treasures and desired objects.

They hailed him and praised him and said,

“Oh giver of joy! Attain ye victory through the spiritual path. Attain ye victory through penance. We wish you well. Thou conquereth the uncontrollable sense organs with the purest knowledge, faith and conduct and proceedeth unhindered on the path of the Śramaṇas. Equipped with unshakable patience, thou conqureth all hindrances. Attaineth thou victory against the army of hard-ships by subduing thy sense organs. Attaineth thou victory through penances against the dirt of attachment and malice and wholly uprooteth thy enemy consisting of eightfold karma bondage through noble and white meditation. Oh embodiment of patience! Roameth thou over the world uninfatuated, with the banner of devotion unfurled. Attaineth thou the purest and the highest, the supreme knowledge, and entereth thou into liberation through the straight path of perfection, as suggested by the best of Jinas. May there be no obstruction on thy spiritual path!”

Like Koṇika (vide Aupapātika Sūtra), Jamālikumār, witnessed by thousands who had thronged the thoroughfares, came out of city and approached the park. No sooner were the supernaturals around the Tīrthaṅkara were visible, than he alighted from the palanquin borne by a thousand youth.

Then with Jamāli to their fore, his parents came near Bhagavān Mahāvīra, thrice moved round him and prayed as follows:

Bhante! We beg to present to you our only, dear and affectionate son, Jamālikumār. We deem it a rare fortune to hear his name, rarer still to be able to set our eyes on him. Like a lotus born in mud and brought up in water, still free from the touch of both, Jamālikumār born in desires and brought up ia pleasures is also free from both. He is equally detached towards his relatives, kins, friends and attendants. Bhante! This our son, Jamāli, has a sense of fear of this worldly life. He is alarmed of life and death. He desires to be tonsured and initiated by you into the order as a monk. For this reason, we make an offer of him unto you as a disciple. Be kind to accept him.”

Thereon Śramaṇa Bhagavān Mahāvīra spake unto the kṣatriya youth Jamālikumār:

“Oh beloved of the gods! Do as it may suit thee, but delay not.”

Being thus spoken to by Bhagavān Mahāvīra, Jamāli was highly delighted and pleased. He moved thrice round Bhagavān Mahāvīra, till paid his homage and obeisance. Then he preceded to the north-east where he took out his ornaments, garlands and jewellery. The mother received them on a piece of silk with the emblem of swan printed thereon.

Then shedding tears, like the pearls of a necklace scattered or drops of water, she addressed the following words to her dear son,

“Dear son! Exert ye in restraint, strive for restraint, be steadfast in restraint. Waver not in restraint.”

Then the parents paid their homage and obeisance to Bhagavān Mahāvīra and went back to the direction from which they came.

Thus Jamāli entered into the holy order of Bhagavān Mahāvīra, like brahmin Ṛṣabhadatta, by uprooting himself of hairs. He was accompanied by five hundred men who too courted monkhood. Monk Jamāli studied the Aṅga texts and practised many fasts, for a day, for two, three days, till a fortnight and a month. Thus he lived on enriching his soul.

One day, Monk Jamāli paid his homage and obeisance to Bhagavān Mahāvīra and submitted:

Bhante! If you are pleased to permit me, I intend to roam independently in separate regions in the company of (my) five hundred monks.”

Bhagavān Mahāvīra did neither accept, nor respond to his request but kept a mum. The request was repeated a second time, and then a third time, but Bhagavān Mahāvīra was still silent as before. Thereon Monk Jamāli paid his homage and obeisance to him and himself separated from him. He moved out of the park in the company of five hundred monks to roam independently in some other regions.

In that period, at that time, there was a city named Śrāvasti. Description. It had a park outside named Koṣṭhaka. Description, till forest-strip. In that period, at that time, there was another city named Campā. Description. It had a park outside named Pūrṇabhadra. Description, till there lay a slab of stone. Now it so chanced that Monk Jamāli, along with his band of five hundred monks, in the course of his wandering from village to village, arrived at the park named Koṣṭhaka outside Śrāvasti, and forming a mental vow about the fulfilment of certain condition worthy of a monk (as a precondition for his taking food), he camped in the said park. At the same time, Śramaṇa Bhagavān Mahāvīra too arrived at Campā and camped at the park named Pūrṇabhadra.

Now, because of his intake of food which was sometimes without taste or with bad taste, or which remained after the donor’s use, or which was not substantial or without butter, hence coarse, or because of untimely intake of food or because it was excessive or inadequate, and sometimes due to the intake of decomposed food, Jamāli fell severely ill. This caused him a severe burning which was intense, deep, intolerable, severe, painful, troublesome, unbearable and immensely painful. He ran a very high temperature and his body emitted heat like fire.

Being unable to bear the pain, he said to his monks, “Oh beloved of the gods! Please spread, my bed on which I intend to lie.”

The monks politely accepted the request and applied themselves to the task. But the pain was so severe that he was, unable to sit even for a moment.

So he enquired if the bed was ready, to which he got the following reply, “Oh beloved of the gods! It’s not yet ready, but it will be ready very soon.”

On hearing these words of his fellow monks, a thought flashed in Jamāli’s mind,

“Bhagavān Mahāvīra asserts, till establishes that ‘moving is moved, till exhausting is exhausted’. But this appears to be wrong. For, I find that when a bed is in the process of being spread out, it is not already spread. By the same logic, what is said to be moving has not yet completed the movement, but is still in the process, till what is exhausting is not yet fully exhausted, but is still extant.”

Having thought like that, he called his monks and repeated his thought. On hearing his words, some monks expressed regard, conviction and acceptance, while others rejected his line of reasoning and withdrew from his company. They came to the park named Pūrṇabhadra outside the city of Campā and re-entered Bhagavāna Mahāvīra’s group with his permission.

After some time, Monk Jamāli was cured of his ailment and moved out from the park named Koṣṭhaka, and wandering from village to village, he reached the park Pūrṇabhadra outside the city of Campā. About the same time, Bhagavān Mahāvīra too arrived at the same park and camped in another part of it.

(Having known about the arrival of Bhagavān Mahāvīra thither), one day Jamāli came to him and standing within his presence, neither near nor far, he spoke out the following words,

“Oh beloved of the gods! It happens with many a monk not to be sufficiently englightened, but to remain a chadmastha (novice) throughout their life. But take in for certain that I am not like anyone of them. I am already a victor, a Jina, an omniscient personality, with the acquisition of supreme (kevala) knowledge and faith, and you see, I wander on the surface of this earth as an omniscient personality.”

On hearing these words of Jamāli, Indrabhūti Gautama spoke unto him as follows:

“Monk Jamāli! The knowledge and faith of omniscient personality is neither overshadowed nor obstructed by a mountain, a pillar or a mound. If you have really become a victor, a jina, a kevalī, and live like that, will you care to meet a couple of questions I intend to put to you. they are: Is the universe (loka) eternal or transcient? Is the encased soul (jīva) eternal or transcient?”

On hearing these questions put to him by Indrabhūti Gautama, Jamāli was afraid, terror-stricken, till confused. He was unable to meet the questions and stood dumb.

Thereon Bhagavān Mahāvīra addressed him as follows:

“Jamāli! Many of my monks are, as you say, very ordinary persons, but they are able to meet these questions as much as I; but, unlike you, they never acclaim themselves to be victors, jinas or kevalis.”

Continued Bhagavān Mahāvīra,

“Jamāli! This universe is in one sense, eternal, and it is not that it never was, it has always been, it is and it will ever be. The universe is fixed, eternal, permanent, non-eroding, non-diminishing, ever-existent. In another sense, however, it is transcient, for, there is the down-phase of the time-cycle, followed by the up phase, and down-phase again, and so it goes on. Like-wise, the embodied soul is, in one sense, eternal, and it is not that it never was, it never is or it will never be, rather, it has always been, it is and it will ever be, till it is ever-existent. But in another sense, it is transcient, since it often passes through the hells, the world of animals, the world of men and the heavens.”

(But it had hardly any impact on Jamāli who continued to) make claims as aforesaid and declared himself to be an omniscient personality. He moved out from the presence of Bhagavān Mahāvīra and went on spreading false ideas, there-by planting himself, planting others, and planting both himself and others into falsehood and lived like that for many years as a monk. Then he reduced the weight of his body by fasts lasting for a fortnight missing thirty meals at a stretch and passed away without confession and atonement to be born as a inferior god (kilviṣika) in the heaven named Lāntaka with a life-span of thirteen sāgaras.

Having learnt that Jamāli had passed away Indrabhūti Gautama paid homage and obeisance to Bhagavān Mahāvīra and submitted as follows:

Q. 65. Bhante! I am inquisitive to learn where after death, your rebel disciple, has gone and where has he been born again?

Śramaṇa Bhagavān Mahāvīra replied to Bhagavān Gautama thus:

A. 65. Gautama! My rebel disciple, Jamāli, who had neither respect nor confidence in what I taught has, after death, been born among the kilviṣika gods.

Q. 66. Bhante! How many types of kilviṣika gods are there?

A. 66. Gautama! There are three types, viz., with a span of three palyas, with a span of three sāgaras and with a span of thirteen sāgaras.

Q. 67. Bhante! Where do those with a span of three palyas reside?

A. 67. Gautama! They reside above the Jyotiṣkas, but underneath Saudharma and Īśāna.

Q. 68. Bhante! Where do those with a span of three sāgaras reside?

A. 68. Gautama! They reside above Saudharma and Īśāna, but underneath Sanatkumāra and Māhendra.

Q. 69. Bhante! Where do those with a span of thirteen sāgaras reside?

A. 69. Gautama! They reside above the heaven Brahma, but underneath Lāntaka.

Q. 70. Bhante! What type of karma bondage takes one into this particular species?

A. 70. Gautama! Those who are hostile to the ācārya, the teacher, kula, gaṇa and the order, who speak ill of the ācārya and the teacher, cast aspersion on them, spread calumny about them, who teach false doctrines, who plant themselves, others, themselves and others, into wrong faith and misguide, though such ones live as monks, but die without confession and atonement, are born as kilviṣika gods, of which three types according to their lifespan has been stated before.

Q. 71. Bhante! When these kilviṣika gods exhaust their life-span, existence and stay in that particular species, where do they go, where are they reborn?

A. 71. Gautama! Some of them pass through four or five more lives in the hells, in the worlds of animals or of men, or in the heavens, after which they are perfected, enlightened and enter into liberation, while others continue to glide back and forth into one or the other of the four forms of existence in this vast wilderness that worldy life is, eternal, infinite and vast.

Q. 72. Bhante! Did Jamāli live on food without taste food with a bad taste, till insignificant food, with a tranquil life, a peaceful life and a pure and solitary life?

A. 72. Yes, Gautama, he lived on food without taste, till he lived a pure and solitary life.

Q. 73. Bhante! If he really lived an austere life taking food without taste, till lived a pure and solitary life, why has he been born as a kilviṣika god?

A. 73. Gautama! It is because he was hostile to his ācārya and to his teacher. He spoke ill of them, spread infamy about them, till he planted himself, others, and himself and others into wrong faith, and became misguided and confused and did the same to others. True, he led the life of a monk and emaciated his body through fasts as long as a fortnight missing thirty meals at a stretch, but while dying, lie did neither confess nor make amends for misdeeds and wrong beliefs. So he has been born in Lāntaka as an inferior god with a span of thirteen sāgaras.

Q. 74. Bhante! When he exhausts his life there and moves out, till where will he be reborn?

A. 74. Gautama! For four or five lives, he live in the worlds of animals, of men and of gods, after which he will be perfected, enlightened and liberated.

Bhante! It is so. What you say is right.

Chapter Thirty-three ends.

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